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1.
BJOG ; 129(7): 1133-1139, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of cervical cancer and model the impact on workload over the next 3 years. DESIGN: A retrospective, control, cohort study. SETTING: Six cancer centres in the North of England representing a combined population of 11.5 million. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively for all diagnoses of cervical cancer during May-October 2019 (Pre-COVID cohort) and May-October 2020 (COVID cohort). Data were used to generate tools to forecast case numbers for the next 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Histology, stage, presentation, onset of symptoms, investigation and type of treatment. Patients with recurrent disease were excluded. RESULTS: 406 patients were registered across the study periods; 233 in 2019 and 173 in 2020, representing a 25.7% (n = 60) reduction in absolute numbers of diagnoses. This was accounted for by a reduction in the number of low stage cases (104 in 2019 to 77 in 2020). Adding these data to the additional cases associated with a temporary cessation in screening during the pandemic allowed development of forecasts, suggesting that over the next 3 years there would be 586, 228 and 105 extra cases of local, regional and distant disease, respectively, throughout England. Projection tools suggest that increasing surgical capacity by two or three cases per month per centre would eradicate this excess by 12 months and 7 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is likely to be a significant increase in cervical cancer cases presenting over the next 3 years. Increased surgical capacity could mitigate this with little increase in morbidity or mortality. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Covid will result in 919 extra cases of cervical cancer in England alone. Effects can be mitigated by increasing surgical capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology
2.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(3): 299-308, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined implementation of telehealth for contraceptive care among health departments (HDs) in 2 Southern US states with centralized/largely centralized governance structures during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustaining access to contraceptive care for underserved communities during public health emergencies is critical. Identifying facilitators and barriers to adaptive service provision helps inform state-level decision making and has implications for public health policy and practice, particularly in states with centralized HD governance. DESIGN: Mixed-methods study including a survey of HD clinic administrators and key informant interviews with clinic- and system-level staff in 2 states conducted in 2020. SETTING: Health department clinics in 2 Southern US states. PARTICIPANTS: Clinic administrators (survey) and clinic- and system-level respondents (key informant interviews). Participation in the research was voluntary and de-identified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Telehealth implementation for contraceptive care assessed by survey and measured by the percentage of clinics reporting telehealth service provision during the pandemic; and (2) facilitators and barriers to telehealth implementation for contraceptive care assessed by key informant interviews. For survey data, bivariate differences between the states in telehealth implementation for contraceptive care were assessed using χ2 and Fisher exact tests. Interview transcripts were coded, with emphasis on interrater reliability and consensus coding, and analyzed for emerging themes. RESULTS: A majority of HD clinics in both states (60% in state 1 and 81% in state 2) reported a decrease in contraceptive care patient volume during March-June 2020 compared with the average volume in 2019. More HD clinics in state 1 than in state 2 implemented telehealth for contraceptive services, including contraceptive counseling, initial and refill hormonal contraception, emergency contraception and sexually transmitted infection care, and reported facilitators of telehealth. Medicaid reimbursement was a predominant facilitator of telehealth, whereas lack of implementation policies and procedures and reduced staffing capacity were predominant barriers. Electronic infrastructure and technology also played a role. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of telehealth for contraceptive services varied between state HD agencies in the early phase of the pandemic. Medicaid reimbursement policy and directives from HD agency leadership are key to telehealth service provision among HDs in centralized states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contraceptive Agents , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Telemedicine/methods , United States/epidemiology
3.
Statistical Modelling: An International Journal ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1840718

ABSTRACT

We propose a model of retail demand for air travel and ticket price elasticity at the daily booking and individual flight level. Daily bookings are modelled as a non-homogeneous Poisson process with respect to the time to departure. The booking intensity is a function of booking and flight level covariates, including non-linear effects modelled semi-parametrically using penalized splines. Customer heterogeneity is incorporated using a finite mixture model, where the latent segments have covariate-dependent probabilities. We fit the model to a unique dataset of over one million daily counts of bookings for 9 602 scheduled flights on a short-haul route over two years. A control variate approach with a strong instrument corrects for a substantial level of price endogeneity. A rich latent segmentation is uncovered, along with strong covariate effects. The calibrated model can be used to quantify demand and price elasticity for different flights booked on different days prior to departure and is a step towards continuous pricing;something that is a major objective of airlines. As our model is interpretable, forecasts can be created under different scenarios. For instance, while our model is calibrated on data collected prior to COVID-19, many of the empirical insights are likely to remain valid as air travel recovers in the post-COVID-19 period. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Statistical Modelling: An International Journal is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
J Telemed Telecare ; 28(3): 213-223, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775070

ABSTRACT

Access to paediatric neurology care is complex, resulting in significant wait times and negative patient outcomes. The goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics National Coordinating Center for Epilepsy's project, Access Improvement and Management of Epilepsy with Telehealth (AIM-ET), was to identify access and management challenges in the deployment of telehealth technology. AIM-ET organised four paediatric neurology teams to partner with primary-care providers (PCP) and their multidisciplinary teams. Telehealth visits were conducted for paediatric epilepsy patients. A post-visit survey assessed access and satisfaction with the telehealth visit compared to an in-person visit. Pre/post surveys completed by PCPs and neurologists captured telehealth visit feasibility, functionality and provider satisfaction. A provider focus group assessed facilitators and barriers to telehealth. Sixty-one unique patients completed 75 telehealth visits. Paired t-test analysis demonstrated that telehealth enhanced access to epilepsy care. It reduced self-reported out-of-pocket costs (p<0.001), missed school hours (p<0.001) and missed work hours (p<0.001), with 94% equal parent/caregiver satisfaction. Focus groups indicated developing and maintaining partnerships, institutional infrastructure and education as facilitators and barriers to telehealth. Telehealth shortened travelling distance, reduced expenses and time missed from school and work. Further, it provides significant opportunity in an era when coronavirus disease 2019 limits in-person clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Neurology , Pediatrics , Telemedicine , Child , Epilepsy/therapy , Humans , Telemedicine/methods
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(13): 495-502, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771891

ABSTRACT

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥18 years receive a single COVID-19 vaccine booster dose ≥2 months after receipt of an Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) adenovirus vector-based primary series vaccine; a heterologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is preferred over a homologous (matching) Janssen vaccine for booster vaccination. This recommendation was made in light of the risks for rare but serious adverse events following receipt of a Janssen vaccine, including thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome† (1), and clinical trial data indicating similar or higher neutralizing antibody response following heterologous boosting compared with homologous boosting (2). Data on real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of different booster strategies following a primary Janssen vaccine dose are limited, particularly during the period of Omicron variant predominance. The VISION Network§ determined real-world VE of 1 Janssen vaccine dose and 2 alternative booster dose strategies: 1) a homologous booster (i.e., 2 Janssen doses) and 2) a heterologous mRNA booster (i.e., 1 Janssen dose/1 mRNA dose). In addition, VE of these booster strategies was compared with VE of a homologous booster following mRNA primary series vaccination (i.e., 3 mRNA doses). The study examined 80,287 emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits¶ and 25,244 hospitalizations across 10 states during December 16, 2021-March 7, 2022, when Omicron was the predominant circulating variant.** VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 24% after 1 Janssen dose, 54% after 2 Janssen doses, 79% after 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose, and 83% after 3 mRNA doses. VE for the same vaccination strategies against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations were 31%, 67%, 78%, and 90%, respectively. All booster strategies provided higher protection than a single Janssen dose against ED/UC visits and hospitalizations during Omicron variant predominance. Vaccination with 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose provided higher protection than did 2 Janssen doses against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and was comparable to protection provided by 3 mRNA doses during the first 120 days after a booster dose. However, 3 mRNA doses provided higher protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations than did other booster strategies during the same time interval since booster dose. All adults who have received mRNA vaccines for their COVID-19 primary series vaccination should receive an mRNA booster dose when eligible. Adults who received a primary Janssen vaccine dose should preferentially receive a heterologous mRNA vaccine booster dose ≥2 months later, or a homologous Janssen vaccine booster dose if mRNA vaccine is contraindicated or unavailable. Further investigation of the durability of protection afforded by different booster strategies is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Pediatrics ; 149(6)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, masking has been a widely used mitigation practice in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school districts to limit within-school transmission. Prior studies attempting to quantify the impact of masking have assessed total cases within schools; however, the metric that more optimally defines effectiveness of mitigation practices is within-school transmission, or secondary cases. We estimated the impact of various masking practices on secondary transmission in a cohort of K-12 schools. METHODS: We performed a multistate, prospective, observational, open cohort study from July 26, 2021 to December 13, 2021. Districts reported mitigation practices and weekly infection data. Districts that were able to perform contact tracing and adjudicate primary and secondary infections were eligible for inclusion. To estimate the impact of masking on secondary transmission, we used a quasi-Poisson regression model. RESULTS: A total of 1 112 899 students and 157 069 staff attended 61 K-12 districts across 9 states that met inclusion criteria. The districts reported 40 601 primary and 3085 secondary infections. Six districts had optional masking policies, 9 had partial masking policies, and 46 had universal masking. In unadjusted analysis, districts that optionally masked throughout the study period had 3.6 times the rate of secondary transmission as universally masked districts; and for every 100 community-acquired cases, universally masked districts had 7.3 predicted secondary infections, whereas optionally masked districts had 26.4. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary transmission across the cohort was modest (<10% of total infections) and universal masking was associated with reduced secondary transmission compared with optional masking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311978

ABSTRACT

Objectives. Written benefit finding is known to improve psychological and physical health in a range of patient groups. Here, we tested the efficacy of written benefit finding, delivered online during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown, on mood and physical symptoms. We also investigated perseverative thinking as a moderator of these effects. Design. A quantitative longitudinal design was employed. Main Outcome Measures. Participants (n = 91) completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, stress and physical symptoms at baseline, and two weeks after being randomised to complete three consecutive days of writing about the positive thoughts and feelings they experienced during the pandemic (written benefit finding) or to unemotively describe the events of the previous day (control). State anxiety was measured immediately before and after writing. Perseverative thinking was measured at baseline. Results. Anxiety and depression symptoms decreased between baseline and the two week follow-up, but did not differ significantly between the two conditions. Perseverative thinking was negatively associated with changes in symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, but did not moderate any writing effects. There was a significant reduction in state anxiety in the written benefit finding condition. Conclusions. Written benefit finding may be a useful intervention for short-term improvements in wellbeing.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309178

ABSTRACT

Objective: To review the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the presentation of Cervical cancer. Design/ Setting: Retrospective study involving the Regional Cancer Centres in the M62 Group. Methods: Data was collected for two equal time periods. All cervical cancers were included and FIGO 2018 staging was used for the data collection. P values were calculated using binomial hypothesis test for the difference in staging. Time from symptoms to diagnosis was assessed using a normal distribution test. All other calculations were performed using chi-squared test. Statistical significance was considered if p values were <0.05. Main outcome measures: Histology, stage at diagnosis, date of onset of symptoms, investigation and type of treatment. Results: A total of 406 cases of cervical cancer were reviewed;233 from May – October 2019 (pre-COVID) and 173 between May – October 2020 (post COVID);representing a significant reduction in new cervical cancer diagnoses of 25% post COVID (p<0.001) There was a 42% increase in the delay from start of symptoms to diagnosis Post COVID. Pre COVID, 27% of patients presented with Stage 3 or 4 disease, whilst during COVID this was 38%;statistically significant (p <0.001). When we evaluated the treatments received between the two time periods, this was also statistically significant (chi-squared, p=0.0005). Conclusions: This study has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the stage of cervical cancer at diagnosis and a change in treatment for cervical cancer following the onset of COVID-19. The implications of this are discussed.

9.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of distancing practices on secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the degree of sports-associated secondary transmission across a large diverse cohort of schools during spring 2021. METHODS: Participating districts in North Carolina and Wisconsin and North Carolina charter schools offering in-person instruction between March 15, 2021 and June 25, 2021 reported on distancing policies, community- and school-acquired infections, quarantines, and infections associated with school-sponsored sports. We calculated the ratio of school-acquired to community-acquired infection, secondary attack rates, and the proportion of secondary transmission events associated with sports. To estimate the effect of distancing and bus practices on student secondary transmission, we used a quasi-Poisson regression model with the number of primary student cases as the denominator. RESULTS: During the study period, 1 102 039 students and staff attended in-person instruction in 100 North Carolina school districts, 13 Wisconsin school districts, and 14 North Carolina charter schools. Students and staff had 7865 primary infections, 386 secondary infections, and 48 313 quarantines. For every 20 community-acquired infections, there was 1 within-school transmission event. Secondary transmissions associated with school sports composed 46% of secondary transmission events in middle and high schools. Relaxed distancing practices (<3 ft, 3 ft) and increased children per bus seat were not associated with increased relative risk of secondary transmission. CONCLUSIONS: With universal masking, in-person education was associated with low rates of secondary transmission, even with less stringent distancing and bus practices. Given the rates of sports-associated secondary transmission, additional mitigation may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Schools , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , North Carolina/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sports , Wisconsin/epidemiology
10.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674084

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related quarantines, which are required after close contact with infected individuals, have substantially disrupted in-person education for kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) students. In recent recommendations, shortened durations of quarantine are allowed if a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result is obtained at 5 to 7 days postexposure, but access to testing remains limited. We hypothesized that providing access to in-school SARS-CoV-2 testing postexposure would increase testing and reduce missed school days. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in one large public K-12 school district in North Carolina and included 2 periods: preimplementation (March 15, 2021, to April 21, 2021) and postimplementation (April 22, 2021, to June 4, 2021), defined around initiation of an in-school SARS-CoV-2 testing program in which on-site access to testing is provided. Number of quarantined students and staff, testing uptake, test results, and number of missed school days were analyzed and compared between the preimplementation and postimplementation periods. RESULTS: Twenty-four schools, including 12 251 in-person learners, participated in the study. During preimplementation, 446 close contacts were quarantined for school-related exposures; 708 close contacts were quarantined postimplementation. Testing uptake after school-related exposures increased from 6% to 40% (95% confidence interval: 23% to 45%) after implementation, and 89% of tests were conducted in-school. After in-school testing implementation, close contacts missed ∼1.5 fewer days of school (95% confidence interval: -2 to -1). CONCLUSIONS: Providing access to in-school testing may be a worthwhile mechanism to increase testing uptake after in-school exposures and minimize missed days of in-person learning, thereby mitigating the pandemic's ongoing impact on children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine , School Health Services/organization & administration , Adolescent , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , North Carolina
11.
JAMA ; 327(4): 331-340, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. Objective: To describe reports of myocarditis and the reporting rates after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive study of reports of myocarditis to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) that occurred after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine administration between December 2020 and August 2021 in 192 405 448 individuals older than 12 years of age in the US; data were processed by VAERS as of September 30, 2021. Exposures: Vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Main Outcomes and Measures: Reports of myocarditis to VAERS were adjudicated and summarized for all age groups. Crude reporting rates were calculated across age and sex strata. Expected rates of myocarditis by age and sex were calculated using 2017-2019 claims data. For persons younger than 30 years of age, medical record reviews and clinician interviews were conducted to describe clinical presentation, diagnostic test results, treatment, and early outcomes. Results: Among 192 405 448 persons receiving a total of 354 100 845 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines during the study period, there were 1991 reports of myocarditis to VAERS and 1626 of these reports met the case definition of myocarditis. Of those with myocarditis, the median age was 21 years (IQR, 16-31 years) and the median time to symptom onset was 2 days (IQR, 1-3 days). Males comprised 82% of the myocarditis cases for whom sex was reported. The crude reporting rates for cases of myocarditis within 7 days after COVID-19 vaccination exceeded the expected rates of myocarditis across multiple age and sex strata. The rates of myocarditis were highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males aged 12 to 15 years (70.7 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), in adolescent males aged 16 to 17 years (105.9 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), and in young men aged 18 to 24 years (52.4 and 56.3 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and the mRNA-1273 vaccine, respectively). There were 826 cases of myocarditis among those younger than 30 years of age who had detailed clinical information available; of these cases, 792 of 809 (98%) had elevated troponin levels, 569 of 794 (72%) had abnormal electrocardiogram results, and 223 of 312 (72%) had abnormal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results. Approximately 96% of persons (784/813) were hospitalized and 87% (577/661) of these had resolution of presenting symptoms by hospital discharge. The most common treatment was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (589/676; 87%). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on passive surveillance reporting in the US, the risk of myocarditis after receiving mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines was increased across multiple age and sex strata and was highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males and young men. This risk should be considered in the context of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634069

ABSTRACT

Evaluations of vaccine effectiveness (VE) are important to monitor as COVID-19 vaccines are introduced in the general population. Research staff enrolled symptomatic participants seeking outpatient medical care for COVID-19-like illness or SARS-CoV-2 testing from a multisite network. VE was evaluated using the test-negative design. Among 236 SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test-positive and 576 test-negative participants aged ≥16 years, VE of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 was 91% (95% CI: 83-95) for full vaccination and 75% (95% CI: 55-87) for partial vaccination. Vaccination was associated with prevention of most COVID-19 cases among people seeking outpatient medical care.

13.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(3): 585-593, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the impact of changes in estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infection among frontline workers at high risk for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective frontline worker cohort to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 by month as well as the association of COVID-19 vaccination, occupation, demographics, physical distancing, and mask use with infection risk. Participants completed baseline and quarterly surveys, and each week self-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs and reported symptoms. RESULTS: Among 1018 unvaccinated and 3531 fully vaccinated workers, the monthly incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in January 2021 was 13.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.4-17.4), declining to 0.5 (95% CI -0.4-1.4) per 1000 person-weeks in June. By September 2021, when the Delta variant predominated, incidence had once again risen to 13.6 (95% CI 7.8-19.4) per 1000 person-weeks. In contrast, there was no reportable incidence among fully vaccinated participants at the end of January 2021, and incidence remained low until September 2021 when it rose modestly to 4.1 (95% CI 1.9-3.8) per 1000. Below average facemask use was associated with a higher risk of infection for unvaccinated participants during exposure to persons who may have COVID-19 and vaccinated participants during hours in the community. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination was significantly associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection despite Delta variant predominance. Our data demonstrate the added protective benefit of facemask use among both unvaccinated and vaccinated frontline workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Responders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
14.
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews ; 2021(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602521

ABSTRACT

Objectives This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: Primary Objective To evaluate the effects of renin‐angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors in the treatment of adult patients with COVID‐19 on total serious adverse events (TSAEs) at any stage of the illness. Secondary Objectives To evaluate the effects of RAS inhibitors in the treatment of adult patients with COVID‐19 on hospitalization duration and invasive mechanical ventilation duration.

15.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597705

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Poor sleep is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), associated with worse overall disease course and predominantly attributable to insomnia. While cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the recommended first-line treatment for chronic insomnia, it is untested in IBD. It is unclear if CBT-I will be as effective in this group given the extent of night-time symptoms people with IBD experience. Thus, we evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of CBT-I in IBD. DESIGN: We comprehensively assessed sleep in people with mild-to-moderately active IBD using questionnaires, daily diaries and actigraphy. People with significant insomnia symptoms were allocated to a single-arm, uncontrolled pilot feasibility study of gold-standard CBT-I treatment. They were then reassessed post-treatment. RESULTS: 20 participants with IBD completed a baseline assessment. 10 were experiencing insomnia and were allocated to CBT-I. All participants who were offered CBT-I elected to complete it, and all completed 5/5 sessions. Participants rated treatment acceptability highly and daily diary and actigraphy completion rates were >95%. At baseline, participants with insomnia evidenced significantly worse sleep than participants without insomnia. Following CBT-I, participants reported significant improvements in diary and actigraphy measures of sleep continuity, dysfunctional sleep-related beliefs and IBD disease activity. CONCLUSION: CBT-I was feasible and acceptable and demonstrated a signal for efficacy in the treatment of insomnia in IBD. Importantly, the improvements in sleep continuity were consistent with the extant literature. Future fully powered randomised controlled studies should evaluate whether treatment of insomnia can improve other aspects of IBD, including pain and inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04132024.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Chronic Disease , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Treatment Outcome
16.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(Supplement_1):S655-S656, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1570058
19.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S653-S653, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564988

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting mitigation strategies have impacted rates of outpatient infections and delivery of care to pediatric patients. Virtual healthcare was rapidly implemented but much is unknown about the quality of care provided in telehealth visits. We sought to describe changes in visits throughout the pandemic and evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing. Methods We utilized EHR data from a large health care system that provides primary care via pediatric, family medicine, and urgent care clinics. We included outpatient visits from 1/1/19 - 4/30/21 for children < 20 years. The COVID-19 era was defined as after March 2020. Visits were labeled as virtual according to coded encounter or visit type variables. The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was assigned using a previously published ICD-10 classification scheme that defines each prescription as appropriate, potentially appropriate, or inappropriate (Chua, et al. BMJ, 2019). Results There were 805,130 outpatient visits during the study period. The mean rate of antibiotic prescriptions in the pre-pandemic period was 23% (range 17-26% per month) and 11% (range 9-15%) in the COVID-19 era. Mean rates of inappropriate prescribing were 17% (range 14-20% per month) and 20% (range 19-22%), respectively (Figure 1). Coded virtual visits during the COVID-19 era were uncommon (1-2%) with the exception of April and May 2020 (11% and 5%, respectively). During the COVID-19 era, approximately 9% of telehealth visits resulted in antibiotics, compared to 11% of in-person visits (Table 1). Virtual visits had lower rates of inappropriate and appropriate prescribing, but higher rates of potentially appropriate prescribing (Table 1). Visits and associated antibiotic prescribing in the pre-pandemic and COVID-19 era Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in the COVID-19 era, by visit type Conclusion Rates and volume of antibiotic prescribing in outpatient pediatric visits have declined in the COVID-19 era, while rates of inappropriate prescribing have increased slightly. Our study suggests use of telehealth for pediatric visits was minimal and led to higher prescribing rates for “potentially appropriate” indications. This could be explained by a lack of clinical certainty in conditions such as otitis media and pharyngitis in virtual visits. Disclosures Bethany A. Wattles, PharmD, MHA, Merck (Grant/Research Support, Research Grant or Support) Yana Feygin, Master of Science, Merck (Grant/Research Support, Research Grant or Support) Michelle D. Stevenson, MD, MS, Merck (Grant/Research Support) Michael J. Smith, MD, M.S.C.E, Merck (Grant/Research Support)Pfizer (Grant/Research Support)

20.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):307-307, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564914

ABSTRACT

Background Despite schools reopening across the United States in communities with low and high Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevalence, data remain scarce about the effect of classroom size on the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) within schools. This study estimates the effect of classroom size on the risk of COVID-19 infection in a closed classroom cohort for varying age groups locally in Durham, North Carolina. Total number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections over a 28-day follow-up period for varying classroom reproduction number (R0) and varying classroom cohort sizes of 15 students, 30 students and 100 students in Durham County, North Carolina. Methods Using publicly available population and COVID-19 case count data from Durham County, we calculated a weekly average number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per week between May 3, 2020 and August 22, 2020 according to age categories: < 5 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years. We collated average classroom cohort sizes and enrollment data for each age group by grade level of education for the first month of the 2019-2020 academic school year. Then, using a SEIR compartmental model, we calculated the number of susceptible (S), exposed (E), infectious (I) and recovered (R) students in a cohort size of 15, 30 and 100 students, modelling for classroom reproduction number (R0) of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 within a closed classroom cohort over a 14-day and 28-day follow-up period using age group-specific COVID-19 prevalence rates. Results The SEIR model estimated that the increase in cohort size resulted in up to 5 new COVID-19 infections per 10,000 students whereas the classroom R0 had a stronger effect, with up to 88 new infections per 10,000 students in a closed classroom cohort over time. When comparing different follow-up periods in a closed cohort with R0 of 0.5, we estimated 12 more infected students per 10,000 students over 28 days as compared to 14 days irrespective of cohort size. With a R0 of 2.5, there were 49 more infected students per 10,000 students over 28 days as compared to 14 days. Conclusion Classroom R0 had a stronger impact in reducing school-based COVID-19 transmission events as compared to cohort size. Additionally, earlier isolation of newly infected students in a closed cohort resulted in fewer new COVID-19 infections within that group. Mitigation strategies should target promoting safe practices within the school setting including early quarantine of newly identified contacts and minimizing COVID-19 community prevalence. Disclosures Michael J. Smith, MD, M.S.C.E, Merck (Grant/Research Support)Pfizer (Grant/Research Support)

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