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1.
Gut ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs impair serological responses following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We sought to assess if a third dose of a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine substantially boosted anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and protective immunity in infliximab-treated patients with IBD. DESIGN: Third dose vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody responses, breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, reinfection and persistent oropharyngeal carriage in patients with IBD treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab from the impaCt of bioLogic therApy on saRs-cov-2 Infection and immuniTY (CLARITY) IBD study. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-S RBD antibody concentrations increased in both groups following a third dose of an mRNA-based vaccine. However, concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, irrespective of whether their first two primary vaccine doses were ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (1856 U/mL (5.2) vs 10 728 U/mL (3.1), p<0.0001) or BNT162b2 vaccines (2164 U/mL (4.1) vs 15 116 U/mL (3.4), p<0.0001). However, no differences in anti-S RBD antibody concentrations were seen following third and fourth doses of an mRNA-based vaccine, irrespective of the combination of primary vaccinations received. Post-third dose, anti-S RBD antibody half-life estimates were shorter in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (37.0 days (95% CI 35.6 to 38.6) vs 52.0 days (95% CI 49.0 to 55.4), p<0.0001).Compared with vedolizumab-treated, infliximab-treated patients were more likely to experience SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection (HR 2.23 (95% CI 1.46 to 3.38), p=0.00018) and reinfection (HR 2.10 (95% CI 1.31 to 3.35), p=0.0019), but this effect was uncoupled from third vaccine dose anti-S RBD antibody concentrations. Reinfection occurred predominantly during the Omicron wave and were predicted by SARS-CoV-2 antinucleocapsid concentrations after the initial infection. We did not observe persistent oropharyngeal carriage of SARS-CoV-2. Hospitalisations and deaths were uncommon in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Following a third dose of an mRNA-based vaccine, infliximab was associated with attenuated serological responses and more SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection and reinfection which were not predicted by the magnitude of anti-S RBD responses, indicative of vaccine escape by the Omicron variant. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.

2.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 13(3): 262-265, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779390
4.
J Crohns Colitis ; 16(3): 389-397, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infliximab attenuates serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whether this is a class effect, or if anti-tumour necrosis factor [anti-TNF] level influences serological responses, remains unknown. METHODS: Seroprevalence and the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody responses were measured in surplus serum from 11 422 (53.3% [6084] male; median age 36.8 years) patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, stored at six therapeutic drug monitoring laboratories between January 29 and September 30, 2020. Data were linked to nationally held SARS-CoV-2 PCR results to July 11, 2021. RESULTS: Rates of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar across treatment groups. Seroprevalence rates were lower in infliximab- and adalimumab- than vedolizumab-treated patients (infliximab: 3.0% [178/5893], adalimumab: 3.0% [152/5074], vedolizumab: 6.7% [25/375], p = 0.003). The magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was similar in infliximab- vs adalimumab-treated patients (median 4.30 cut-off index [COI] [1.94-9.96] vs 5.02 [2.18-18.70], p = 0.164), but higher in vedolizumab-treated patients (median 21.60 COI [4.39-68.10, p < 0.004). Compared to patients with detectable infliximab and adalimumab drug levels, patients with undetectable drug levels [<0.8 mg/L] were more likely to be seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. One-third of patients who had PCR testing prior to antibody testing failed to seroconvert, all were treated with anti-TNF. Subsequent positive PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 was seen in 7.9% [12/152] of patients after a median time of 183.5 days [129.8-235.3], without differences between drugs. CONCLUSION: Anti-TNF treatment is associated with lower SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid seroprevalence and antibody reactivity when compared to vedolizumab-treated patients. Higher seropositivity rates in patients with undetectable anti-TNF levels support a causal relationship, although confounding factors, such as combination therapy with a immunomodulator, may have influenced the results.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adalimumab , Adult , Antibody Formation , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
5.
Gut ; 70(5): 865-875, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections. DESIGN: Antibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020. RESULTS: Rates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2-5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2-76.1), p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Serologic Tests , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Gut ; 70(10): 1884-1893, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Delayed second dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination trades maximal effectiveness for a lower level of immunity across more of the population. We investigated whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with infliximab have attenuated serological responses to a single dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. DESIGN: Antibody responses and seroconversion rates in infliximab-treated patients (n=865) were compared with a cohort treated with vedolizumab (n=428), a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody. Our primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody concentrations, measured using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody assay 3-10 weeks after vaccination, in patients without evidence of prior infection. Secondary outcomes were seroconversion rates (defined by a cut-off of 15 U/mL), and antibody responses following past infection or a second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following BNT162b2 (6.0 U/mL (5.9) vs 28.8 U/mL (5.4) p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (4.7 U/mL (4.9)) vs 13.8 U/mL (5.9) p<0.0001) vaccines. In our multivariable models, antibody concentrations were lower in infliximab-treated compared with vedolizumab-treated patients who received the BNT162b2 (fold change (FC) 0.29 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.40), p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (FC 0.39 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.51), p<0.0001) vaccines. In both models, age ≥60 years, immunomodulator use, Crohn's disease and smoking were associated with lower, while non-white ethnicity was associated with higher, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations. Seroconversion rates after a single dose of either vaccine were higher in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. CONCLUSION: Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to a single dose of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 infection, or a second dose of vaccine, led to seroconversion in most patients. Delayed second dosing should be avoided in patients treated with infliximab. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
7.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(3): 218-224, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195586

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global health crisis and mass vaccination programmes provide the best opportunity for controlling transmission and protecting populations. Despite the impressive clinical trial results of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines, important unanswered questions remain, especially in patients with pre-existing conditions. In this position statement endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) section and IBD Clinical Research Group, we consider SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy in patients with IBD. The risks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are anticipated to be very low, and we strongly support SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IBD. Based on data from previous studies with other vaccines, there are conceptual concerns that protective immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be diminished in some patients with IBD, such as those taking anti-TNF drugs. However, the benefits of vaccination, even in patients treated with anti-TNF drugs, are likely to outweigh these theoretical concerns. Key areas for further research are discussed, including vaccine hesitancy and its effect in the IBD community, the effect of immunosuppression on vaccine efficacy, and the search for predictive biomarkers of vaccine success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Gastroenterology/methods , Gastroenterology/trends , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United Kingdom , Vaccination/methods
8.
Gut ; 70(5): 865-875, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections. DESIGN: Antibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020. RESULTS: Rates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2-5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2-76.1), p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Serologic Tests , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Gut ; 70(4):803-804, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1119329

ABSTRACT

Kurilshikov et al report the largest genome-wide meta-analysis of associations between host genetic variants and gut microbiota. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence data from 18 340 participants within 24 cohorts were analysed. Variation in microbiome richness, diversity and composition was influenced by multiple factors including DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene profiling methodology, ancestry, age and body mass index. The authors recorded similar findings in colon cancer-injected mice when administered antibody therapy against CD4+ and CD8+ tumour T cells (known to control colon cancer growth). The authors used flow cytometry to analyse the hepatic immune cells of RNA vaccine-injected mice: liver and tumour CD4+ T cell frequency increased in chow-fed but was reduced in MCD-fed steatohepatitis mice.

10.
Gut ; 69(12):2256-2257, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-913791

ABSTRACT

Distinctive patterns of alterations in metabolites derived from gut microbial activity were found to characterise different IBS subtypes, with reduced short-chain fatty acids observed in those with IBS and constipation, while an increase in both tryptamine and primary bile acids was identified in those with diarrhoea-variant IBS. In this paper, Lyu et al investigate the relationship among diacylglycerols, activation and translocation to plasma membrane (PM) of Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCϵ), which phosphorylates the hepatic insulin receptor kinase causing lipid-induced HIR. In liver-specific PKCϵ-KD rats (using a modified model 2’-methoxyethyl-antisense oligonucleotide with N-Acetyl Galactosamine to improve hepatocytes delivery) at day 4 of high fat diet, hyperinsulinaemic-hyperglycaemic clamp tests induced a raise in glycogen hepatic content, reduction of insulin receptor kinase-T1160 levels and reduction in plasma glucose and insulin following oral glucose tolerance test. For a 3-month delay in the diagnosis of oesophageal, gastric, liver and colorectal cancers the authors predict a 10%–20% reduction in overall 10-year survival. [...]because they are typically less aggressive and more readily treated, a disproportionate increase in lives and life-years lost will be seen with progressive delays in the diagnosis of colorectal tumours than upper gastrointestinal or liver cancers.

12.
Gut ; 69(6):1139, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-831583

ABSTRACT

Ascl2 target genes were found to include interleukin receptor 11 gene, IL11ra1, recognised as a regulator in stem cell renewal. Enteric Nervous System-Derived IL-18 Orchestrates Mucosal Barrier Immunity Cell 2020;180(1): 50-63.e12 The interactions between the nervous and immune systems have been shown to maintain the intestinal mucosal barrier function and shape its responses to environmental triggers. Protection from aldehyde-related damage is achieved through their clearance by aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes and repair of damaged DNA. Gastroenterology 2020;158 (4): 862–874.e8 Benefits of colorectal screening programmes with reductions in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality are well established in screening programmes for flexible sigmoidoscopy, faecal occult blood testing and adenomas removed at baseline colonoscopy.

13.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 11(5): 343-350, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705790

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the challenges in diagnosis, monitoring, support provision in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and explore the adaptations of IBD services. METHODS: Internet-based survey by invitation of IBD services across the UK from 8 to 14 April 2020. RESULTS: Respondents from 125 IBD services completed the survey. The number of whole-time equivalent gastroenterologists and IBD nurses providing elective outpatient care decreased significantly between baseline (median 4, IQR 4-7.5 and median 3, IQR 2-4) to the point of survey (median 2, IQR 1-4.8 and median 2, IQR 1-3) in the 6-week period following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.001 for both comparisons). Almost all (94%; 112/119) services reported an increase in IBD helpline activity. Face-to-face clinics were substituted for telephone consultation by 86% and video consultation by 11% of services. A variation in the provision of laboratory faecal calprotectin testing was noted with 27% of services reporting no access to faecal calprotectin, and a further 32% reduced access. There was also significant curtailment of IBD-specific endoscopy and elective surgery. CONCLUSIONS: IBD services in the UK have implemented several adaptive strategies in order to continue to provide safe and high-quality care for patients. National Health Service organisations will need to consider the impact of these changes in current service delivery models and staffing levels when planning exit strategies for post-pandemic IBD care. Careful planning to manage the increased workload and to maintain IBD services is essential to ensure patient safety.

14.
Gut ; 69(10): 1769-1777, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Management of acute severe UC (ASUC) during the novel COVID-19 pandemic presents significant dilemmas. We aimed to provide COVID-19-specific guidance using current British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidelines as a reference point. DESIGN: We convened a RAND appropriateness panel comprising 14 gastroenterologists and an IBD nurse consultant supplemented by surgical and COVID-19 experts. Panellists rated the appropriateness of interventions for ASUC in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Median scores and disagreement index (DI) were calculated. Results were discussed at a moderated meeting prior to a second survey. RESULTS: Panellists recommended that patients with ASUC should be isolated throughout their hospital stay and should have a SARS-CoV-2 swab performed on admission. Patients with a positive swab should be discussed with COVID-19 specialists. As per BSG guidance, intravenous hydrocortisone was considered appropriate as initial management; only in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia was its use deemed uncertain. In patients requiring rescue therapy, infliximab with continuing steroids was recommended. Delaying colectomy because of COVID-19 was deemed inappropriate. Steroid tapering as per BSG guidance was deemed appropriate for all patients apart from those with COVID-19 pneumonia in whom a 4-6 week taper was preferred. Post-ASUC maintenance therapy was dependent on SARS-CoV-2 status but, in general, biologics were more likely to be deemed appropriate than azathioprine or tofacitinib. Panellists deemed prophylactic anticoagulation postdischarge to be appropriate in patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 swab. CONCLUSION: We have suggested COVID-19-specific adaptations to the BSG ASUC guideline using a RAND panel.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Disease , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Gastroenterology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United Kingdom
15.
Gut ; 69(6): 984-990, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72238

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is putting unprecedented pressures on healthcare systems globally. Early insights have been made possible by rapid sharing of data from China and Italy. In the UK, we have rapidly mobilised inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) centres in order that preparations can be made to protect our patients and the clinical services they rely on. This is a novel coronavirus; much is unknown as to how it will affect people with IBD. We also lack information about the impact of different immunosuppressive medications. To address this uncertainty, the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) COVID-19 IBD Working Group has used the best available data and expert opinion to generate a risk grid that groups patients into highest, moderate and lowest risk categories. This grid allows patients to be instructed to follow the UK government's advice for shielding, stringent and standard advice regarding social distancing, respectively. Further considerations are given to service provision, medical and surgical therapy, endoscopy, imaging and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
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