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1.
Prev Med Rep ; 29: 101889, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926843

ABSTRACT

We seek to quantify the relationship between health behaviors and work-related experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic by predicting health behaviors as a function of essential worker status, job loss, change in work hours, and COVID-19 experiences. We use multivariate models and survey data from 913 employed adults in a semi-rural mid-Atlantic US county, and test whether essential worker results vary by gender, parenthood, and/or university employment. Multivariate models indicate that essential workers used tobacco on more days (4.5; p <.01) and were less likely to sleep 8 h (odds ratio [OR] 0.6; p <.01) than non-essential workers. The risk of sleeping less than 8 h is concentrated among essential workers in the service industry (OR 0.5; p <.05) and non-parents (OR 0.5; p <.05). Feminine essential workers exercised on fewer days (-0.8; p <.05) than feminine non-essential workers. Workers with reduced work hours consumed more alcoholic drinks (0.3; p <.05), while workers with increased work hours consumed alcohol (0.3; p <.05) and exercised (0.6; p <.05) on more days. Essential worker status and changes in work hours are correlated with unhealthy behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 313-320, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (ESCrE) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are a global challenge, data on these organisms in low- and middle-income countries are limited. In this study, we sought to characterize colonization data critical for greater antibiotic resistance surveillance efforts. METHODS: This study was conducted in three hospitals and six clinics in Botswana. We conducted ongoing surveillance of adult patients in hospitals and clinics and adults and children in the community. All participants underwent rectal swab sampling to identify ESCrE and CRE. RESULTS: Enrollment occurred from January 15, 2020, to September 4, 2020, but paused from April 2, 2020, to May 21, 2020, because of a countrywide COVID-19 lockdown. Of 5088 individuals approached, 2469 (49%) participated. ESCrE colonization prevalence was 30.7% overall (43% for hospital participants, 31% for clinic participants, 24% for adult community participants, and 26% for child community participants) (P <0.001). A total of 42 (1.7%) participants were colonized with CRE. CRE colonization prevalence was 1.7% overall (6.8% for hospital participants, 0.7% for clinic participants, 0.2% for adult community participants, and 0.5% for child community participants) (P <0.001). ESCrE and CRE prevalence varied substantially across regions and was significantly higher prelockdown versus postlockdown. CONCLUSIONS: ESCrE colonization was high in all settings in Botswana. CRE prevalence in hospitals was also considerable. Colonization prevalence varied by region and clinical setting and decreased after a countrywide lockdown.

4.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-6, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868138

ABSTRACT

On college campuses, effective management of vaccine-preventable transmissible pathogens requires understanding student vaccination intentions. This is necessary for developing and tailoring health messaging to maximize uptake of health information and vaccines. The current study explored students' beliefs and attitudes about vaccines in general, and the new COVID-19 vaccines specifically. This study provides insights into effective health messaging needed to rapidly increase COVID-19 vaccination on college campuses-information that will continue to be informative in future academic years across a broad scope of pathogens. Data were collected from 696 undergraduate students ages 18-29 years old enrolled in a large public university in the Northeast during fall 2020. Data were collected via an online survey. Overall, we found COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in college students correlated strongly with some concerns about vaccines in general as well as with concerns specific to COVID-19 vaccines. Taken together, these results provide further insight for message development and delivery and can inform more effective interventions to advance critical public health outcomes on college campuses beyond the current pandemic.

5.
J Rural Health ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861470

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With surging opioid-involved overdoses, maintaining access to opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment is critical during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined changes in transmucosal buprenorphine prescribing for OUD treatment in Kentucky after the national COVID-19 emergency declaration, with a focus on rural-urban differences. METHODS: Using 2019-2020 prescription monitoring data, we performed segmented regression analysis for an interrupted time series design to evaluate changes in weekly rates (per 100,000 residents) of dispensed prescriptions, unique individuals with dispensed prescriptions, and average days' supply for dispensed prescriptions of transmucosal buprenorphine. FINDINGS: The weekly rates of dispensed prescriptions and unique individuals with dispensed prescriptions were higher for rural residents than urban residents. After the national COVID-19 emergency declaration, rural and urban residents experienced similar immediate drops in the rate of dispensed prescriptions (rural -33.4; urban -24.3) and unique patients with dispensed prescriptions (rural -25.0; urban -17.1), followed by similar sustained increases. Both measures surpassed the prepandemic levels in mid-June 2020. Patients residing in urban areas received averagely longer prescriptions at baseline (urban: 11.0 days; rural: 10.5 days). The average weekly days' supply increased in the week after the national emergency declaration, but the estimated increase was higher (P = .004) for urban (0.8 days) versus rural (0.5 days) residents. CONCLUSIONS: Transmucosal buprenorphine utilization increased during the COVID-19 pandemic after experiencing interruption during the initial weeks of the pandemic. Future studies should evaluate the contribution of the relaxed telemedicine buprenorphine prescribing regulations during the COVID-19 national emergency on initiation and maintenance of buprenorphine treatment.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 798349, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775745

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the established cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2. However, it is unclear whether ACE1 inhibitors (e.g., lisinopril) or angiotensin receptor blockers (e.g., losartan) alter tissue ACE2 expression. This study sought to determine whether lisinopril or losartan, as monotherapies or in combination, changes tissue levels of ACE2 in healthy male and female mice. Mice received lisinopril (10 mg/kg/day), losartan (10 mg/kg/day), or both for 21 days via drinking water. A control group received water without drug. The ACE2 protein index (ACE2 protein/total protein) was determined on the small intestine, lung, kidney, and brain. Oral lisinopril increased the ACE2 protein index across all tissues (p < 0.0001 vs. control). In contrast, the combination of lisinopril plus losartan did not increase ACE2 levels in any tissue (p = 0.89 vs. control) and even decreased tissue expression of the Ace2 gene (p < 0.001 vs. control). Tissue ACE2 remained elevated in the mice 21 days after cessation of lisinopril (p = 0.02). Plasma ACE2 did not correlate with the ACE2 protein index in any tissue. A sex difference was observed: kidney ACE2 levels were higher in male than in female mice (p < 0.0001). Oral lisinopril increases ACE2, the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in tissues that are relevant to the transmission and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Remarkably, the addition of losartan prevented lisinopril-induced increases in ACE2 across tissues. These results suggest that ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers interact to determine tissue levels of ACE2.

7.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e398-e403, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients has been associated with low risk of concomitant bacterial infection. However, in children with severe disease, it occurs in 22% to 50% of patients. As viral testing becomes routine, bacterial codetections are increasingly identified in patients with non-RSV viruses. We hypothesized, among patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to suspected infection, there are similar rates of codetection between RSV and non-RSV viral detections. METHODS: This retrospective chart review, conducted over a 5-year period, included all patients younger than 2 years who required intubation secondary to respiratory failure from an infectious etiology in a single pediatric emergency department. Patients intubated for noninfectious causes were excluded. RESULTS: We reviewed 274 patients, of which 181 had positive viral testing. Of these, 48% were RSV-positive and 52% were positive for viruses other than RSV. Codetection of bacteria was found in 76% (n = 65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 66%, 84%) of RSV-positive patients and 66% (n = 63, 95% CI: 57%, 76%) of patients positive with non-RSV viruses. Among patients with negative viral testing, 33% had bacterial growth on lower respiratory culture. Male sex was the only patient-related factor associated with increased odds of codetection (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.08-4.38). The odds of codetection between RSV-positive patients and non-RSV viruses were not significantly different (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.62-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial codetection is common and not associated with anticipated patient-related factors or with a specific virus. These results suggest consideration of empiric antibiotics in infants with respiratory illness requiring intubation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bacteria , Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330740

ABSTRACT

In February 2021, Peru launched a vaccination campaign among healthcare personnel using BBIBP-CorV inactivated whole virus (BBIBP-CorV) COVID-19 vaccine. Two doses of BBIBP-CorV vaccine are recommended, 21 days apart. Data on BBIBP-CorV vaccine effectiveness will inform the use and acceptance of vaccination with BBIBP-CorV vaccine. We evaluated BBIBP-CorV vaccine effectiveness among an existing multi-year influenza cohort at two hospitals in Lima. We analyzed data on 290 participants followed between February and May 2021. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and provided weekly self-collected anterior nasal swabs tested for SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR for sixteen weeks. We performed multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for pre-selected characteristics (age, sex, exposure to COVID-19 patients, work in intensive care unit or emergency department, BMI, and exposure time in days). BBIBP-CorV vaccine effectiveness was calculated after the two-week post-vaccination period as (1-Odds Ratio for testing SARS-CoV-2 positive)x100%. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by rRT-PCR among 25 (9%) participants during follow-up (February-May 2021). Follow-up period ranged 1-11 weeks (median: 2 weeks). Among cohort participants who were fully vaccinated the adjusted vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated as 95% (95% CI: 70%, 99%) and 100% (95% CI: 88%, 100%) for those partially vaccinated. During the study period, vaccination of healthcare personnel with BBIBP-CorV vaccine was effective at reducing SARS-CoV-2 infections in the weeks immediately following vaccination. This information can be used to support vaccination efforts in the region, especially among those who could be concerned about their effectiveness.

9.
Health Commun ; : 1-10, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751971

ABSTRACT

By fall 2020, students returning to U.S. university campuses were mandated to engage in COVID-19 mitigation behaviors, including masking, which was a relatively novel prevention behavior in the U.S. Masking became a target of university mandates and campaigns, and it became politicized. Critical questions are whether the influences of injunctive norms and response efficacy on one behavior (i.e. masking) spill over to other mitigation behaviors (e.g. hand-washing), and how patterns of mitigation behaviors are associated with clinical outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of college students who returned to campus (N = 837) to explore these questions, and conducted COVID-19 antibody testing on a subset of participants to identify correlations between behaviors and disease burden. The results showed that college students were more likely to intend to wear face masks as they experienced more positive injunctive norms, liberal political views, stronger response efficacy for masks, and less pessimism. Latent class analysis revealed four mitigation classes: Adherents who intended to wear face masks and engage in the other COVID-19 mitigation behaviors; Hygiene Stewards and Masked Symptom Managers who intended to wear masks but only some other behaviors, and Refusers who intended to engage in no mitigation behaviors. Importantly, the Hygiene Stewards and Refusers had the highest likelihood of positive antibodies; these two classes differed in their masking intentions, but shared very low likelihoods of physical distancing from others and avoiding crowds or mass gatherings. The implications for theories of normative influences on novel behaviors, spillover effects, and future messaging are discussed.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321789

ABSTRACT

As the United States continues to be ravaged by COVID-19, it becomes increasingly important to implement effective public health campaigns to improve personal behaviors that help control the spread of the virus. To design effective campaigns, research is needed to understand the current mitigation intentions of the general public, diversity in those intentions, and theoretical predictors of them. COVID-19 campaigns will be particularly challenging because mitigation involves myriad, diverse behaviors. This study takes a person-centered approach to investigate data from a survey (N = 976) of Pennsylvania adults. Latent class analysis revealed five classes of mitigation: one marked by complete adherence with health recommendations (34% of the sample), one by complete refusal (9% of the sample), and three by a mixture of adherence and refusal. Statistically significant covariates of class membership included relatively negative injunctive norms, risk due to essential workers in the household, personal knowledge of someone who became infected with COVID-19, and belief that COVID-19 was a leaked biological weapon. Additionally, trait reactance was associated with non-adherence while health mavenism was associated with adherence. These findings may be used to good effect by local healthcare providers and institutions, and also inform broader policy-making decisions regarding public health campaigns to mitigate COVID-19.

11.
Int J Surg ; 98: 106210, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-technical skills are critical to surgical safety. We examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on non-technical skills of operating room (OR) teams in Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observers rated live operations using the Oxford NOTECHS system. Pre- and post-COVID observations were captured from November 2019 to January 2020 and from January 2021 to February 2021, respectively. Scores were compared using Schuirmann's Two One-Sided Test procedure. Multivariable linear regression was used to adjust for case mix. A 10% margin of equivalence was set a priori. RESULTS: Observers rated 159 cases: 75 pre-COVID and 84 post-COVID. There were significant differences between groups in surgical department and surgeon-reported case complexity (both P < 0.001). Total NOTECHS scores increased post-COVID on raw analysis (36.1 vs 38.0, P < 0.001) but remained within the margin of equivalence (90% CI 1.3 to 2.6, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated a similar increase within the margin of equivalence (2.0, 90% CI 1.3 to 2.7). Teamwork and cooperation scores increased by 1.0 post-COVID (90% CI 0.8 to 1.3); all other subcomponent scores were equivalent. CONCLUSION: Non-technical skills before and after the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic were equivalent but not equal. A small but statistically significant improvement post-COVID was driven by an increase in teamwork and cooperation skills. These findings may reflect an improvement in team cohesion, which has been observed in teams under duress in other settings such as the military. Future work should explore the effect of the pandemic on OR culture, team cohesion, and resilience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S464-S465, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564479

ABSTRACT

Background Although CRE are a global threat, data in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. Colonization data are vital for informing antibiotic resistance strategies. We characterized the colonization prevalence of CRE in various settings in Botswana. Methods This study was conducted in 3 districts in Botswana (1 hospital and 2 clinics per district). Adult inpatients and clinic patients were randomly selected for enrollment. Community subjects were enrolled by inviting each enrolled clinic subject to refer up to 3 adults. Each adult clinic or community subject was also asked to refer their children. All subjects had rectal swabs obtained and inoculated on selective chromogenic media for preliminary identification of CRE. Final identification and susceptibility testing were performed using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK-2, respectively. CRE underwent genotyping for carbapenemase genes. Results Subjects were enrolled from 1/15/20-9/4/20 with a pause from 4/2/20-5/21/20 due to a countrywide COVID lockdown. Of 5,088 subjects approached, 2,469 (49%) participated. Enrollment by subject type was: hospital – 469 (19%);clinic – 959 (39%);community adult – 477 (19%);and community child – 564 (23%). Of 2,469 subjects, the median (interquartile range) age was 32 years (19-44) and 1,783 (72%) were female. 42 (1.7%) subjects were colonized with at least one CRE;10 subjects were colonized with multiple strains. E. coli (n=17), K. pneumoniae (n=20), and E. cloacae complex (n=11) were most common. CRE colonization prevalence was 6.8% for hospital subjects, 0.7% for clinic subjects, 0.2% for adult community subjects, and 0.5% for child community subjects (p< 0.001)). CRE prevalence varied across regions (Figure 1) and was significantly higher pre- vs post-lockdown (Figure 2). VIM and NDM were the most common carbapenemase genes (Figure 3). Figure 1. CRE Colonization - Study Sites Figure 2. CRE Colonization - Temporal Trends FIgure 3. CRE Genotypic Analyses Conclusion CRE colonization was significantly higher in hospital vs community settings in Botswana. CRE prevalence varied by region and decreased significantly following a countrywide lockdown. With CRE prevalence still modest, elucidating risk factors for CRE colonization holds promise in developing strategies to curb further emergence of CRE. Additional investigation of the CRE isolates without identified resistance genes is warranted. Disclosures Robert Gross, MD, MSCE, Pfizer (Other Financial or Material Support, Serve on DSMB for drug unrelated to HIV) Ebbing Lautenbach, MD, MPH, MSCE, Merck (Other Financial or Material Support, Member of Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB))

14.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S289-S290, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564997

ABSTRACT

Background Peru has one of the highest per capita SARS-CoV-2 death rates in Latin America. Healthcare workers (HCW) are a critical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic but are themselves often at increased risk of infection. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 attack rate and risk factors among frontline HCWs. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of HCW serving two acute care hospitals in Lima, Peru from Aug 2020 to Mar 2021. Participants had baseline SARS-CoV-2 serology using the CDC ELISA, active symptom monitoring, and weekly respiratory specimen collection with COVID-19 exposure/risk assessment for 16-weeks regardless of symptoms. Respiratory specimens were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR). Results Of 783 eligible, 667 (85%) HCW were enrolled (33% nurse assistants, 29% non-clinical staff, 26% nurses, 7% physicians, and 6% other). At baseline and prior to COVID-19 vaccine introduction, 214 (32.1%;214/667) were reactive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In total, 72 (10.8%;72/667) HCWs were found to be rRT-PCR positive during weekly follow-up. Of the rRT-PCR positive HCWs, 37.5% (27/72) did not report symptoms within 1-week of specimen collection. During follow up, HCW without detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline were significantly more likely to be rRT-PCR positive (65/453, 14.3%) compared to those with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline (4/214, 1.9%) (p-value: < 0.001). Three HCW were both serologically reactive and rRT-PCR positive at baseline. Looking only at HCW without SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, nurse assistants (rRT-PCR positive: 18.6%;27/141) and non-clinical healthcare workers (16.5%;21/127) were at greater risk of infection compared to nurses (8.5%;10/118), physicians (7.9%;3/38), and other staff (10.3%;4/29) (RR 1.95;95%CI 1.2,3.3;p-value: 0.01). Conclusion Baseline SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and 16-week cumulative incidence were substantial in this pre-vaccination Peruvian HCW cohort. Almost 40% of new infections occurred in HCW without complaint of symptoms illustrating a limitation of symptom-based HCW screening for COVID-19 prevention. Nurse assistants and non-clinical healthcare workers were at greater risk of infection indicating a role for focused infection prevention and risk reduction strategies for some groups of HCW. Disclosures Fernanda C. Lessa, MD, MPH, Nothing to disclose

15.
Health Commun ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561723

ABSTRACT

Efforts by universities to reduce the spread of COVID-19 include health campaigns intended to encourage students to wear masks. While well-intended, these efforts may produce counter-persuasion (e.g., decrease masking) if they are seen as threatening individuals' freedom to choose. In a rolling cross-sectional study of one university campaign (n = 681), we found that the presence of the campaign did instigate a form of resistance known as reactance and that reactance was negatively associated with masking behavior. Masking was also diminished by the frequency with which respondents observed others not wearing a mask (anti-masking descriptive norm) and the frequency with which respondents observed others expressing disdain for masking (anti-masking injunctive norm). Most of these findings were magnified among students who identified as politically conservative. There was no evidence that the frequency of seeing others speak in favor of masks (pro-masking injunctive norm) produced an increase in masking. The results provide valuable theoretical insights into the causes of reactance and empirical evidence of the risks associated with student-oriented COVID safety campaigns.

16.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 3045-3058, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. METHODS: From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) national focal points completed a questionnaire, including Likert scales and open-ended questions. Data were descriptively analysed, income/regional differences were assessed and free-text questions were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Seventy-three countries across income levels participated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 67% reported limited ability to work with AMR partnerships; decreases in funding were frequently reported by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; P < 0.01). Reduced availability of nursing, medical and public health staff for AMR was reported by 71%, 69% and 64%, respectively, whereas 67% reported stable cleaning staff availability. The majority (58%) reported reduced reagents/consumables, particularly LMICs (P < 0.01). Decreased numbers of cultures, elective procedures, chronically ill admissions and outpatients and increased ICU admissions reported could bias AMR data. Reported overall infection prevention and control (IPC) improvement could decrease AMR rates, whereas increases in selected inappropriate IPC practices and antimicrobial prescribing could increase rates. Most did not yet have complete data on changing AMR rates due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first survey to explore the global impact of COVID-19 on AMR among GLASS countries. Responses highlight important actions to help ensure that AMR remains a global health priority, including engaging with GLASS to facilitate reliable AMR surveillance data, seizing the opportunity to develop more sustainable IPC programmes, promoting integrated antibiotic stewardship guidance, leveraging increased laboratory capabilities and other system-strengthening efforts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 233(5):e102-e103, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1461288
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 3045-3058, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. METHODS: From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) national focal points completed a questionnaire, including Likert scales and open-ended questions. Data were descriptively analysed, income/regional differences were assessed and free-text questions were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Seventy-three countries across income levels participated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 67% reported limited ability to work with AMR partnerships; decreases in funding were frequently reported by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; P < 0.01). Reduced availability of nursing, medical and public health staff for AMR was reported by 71%, 69% and 64%, respectively, whereas 67% reported stable cleaning staff availability. The majority (58%) reported reduced reagents/consumables, particularly LMICs (P < 0.01). Decreased numbers of cultures, elective procedures, chronically ill admissions and outpatients and increased ICU admissions reported could bias AMR data. Reported overall infection prevention and control (IPC) improvement could decrease AMR rates, whereas increases in selected inappropriate IPC practices and antimicrobial prescribing could increase rates. Most did not yet have complete data on changing AMR rates due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first survey to explore the global impact of COVID-19 on AMR among GLASS countries. Responses highlight important actions to help ensure that AMR remains a global health priority, including engaging with GLASS to facilitate reliable AMR surveillance data, seizing the opportunity to develop more sustainable IPC programmes, promoting integrated antibiotic stewardship guidance, leveraging increased laboratory capabilities and other system-strengthening efforts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Surg Educ ; 79(1): 51-55, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced a creative transition to virtual platforms due to physical distancing and travel restrictions. We designed and tested a highly scalable virtual training curriculum for novice raters using the Oxford NOTECHS non-technical skills rating system. DESIGN: A three-day training course comprising virtual didactics, virtually facilitated simulations, and independent live observations was implemented. NOTECHS scores were submitted for eleven standardized video simulations and four live operations. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for total NOTECHS scores and subcomponent scores. Raters previously trained in-person with the same standardized videos served as a comparator group for equivalence testing. SETTING: All study activities were conducted in a large academic tertiary referral center in Singapore as part of an ongoing surgical safety initiative. PARTICIPANTS: Seven staff members underwent training (three virtually and four in-person).  None had prior surgical experience or non-technical skills assessment training. RESULTS: ICCs for total NOTECHS scores were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-0.98) for virtually trained raters and 0.83 for those trained in-person (95% CI, 0.68-0.99).  Scores were equivalent between groups within a 10% margin. CONCLUSIONS: Non-technical skills assessment can be reliably taught in a highly scalable virtual format. Virtual NOTECHS training is a valuable tool for educational and quality improvement initiatives during the COVID-19 pandemic and for centers that lack ready access to onsite non-technical skills training expertise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1276-1281, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371750

ABSTRACT

The clinical learning environment (CLE) encompasses the learner's personal characteristics and experiences, social relationships, organizational culture, and the institution's physical and virtual infrastructure. During the COVID-19 pandemic, all 4 of these parts of the CLE have undergone a massive and rapid disruption. Personal and social communications have been limited to virtual interactions or shifted to unfamiliar clinical spaces because of redeployment. Rapid changes to the organizational culture required prompt adaptations from learners and educators in their complex organizational systems yet caused increased confusion and anxiety among them. A traditional reliance on a physical infrastructure for classical educational practices in the CLE was challenged when all institutions had to undergo a major transition to a virtual learning environment. However, disruptions spurred exciting innovations in the CLE. An entire cohort of physicians and learners underwent swift adjustments in their personal and professional development and identity as they rose to meet the clinical and educational challenges they faced due to COVID-19. Social networks and collaborations were expanded beyond traditional institutional walls and previously held international boundaries within multiple specialties. Specific aspects of the organizational and educational culture, including epidemiology, public health, and medical ethics, were brought to the forefront in health professions education, while the physical learning environment underwent a rapid transition to a virtual learning space. As health professions education continues in the era of COVID-19 and into a new era, educators must take advantage of these dynamic systems to identify additional gaps and implement meaningful change. In this article, health professions educators and learners from multiple institutions and specialties discuss the gaps and weaknesses exposed, opportunities revealed, and strategies developed for optimizing the CLE in the post-COVID-19 world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Learning , Physical Distancing , Students, Medical/psychology , Cooperative Behavior , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Humans , Interdisciplinary Placement , Organizational Culture , Social Environment , Social Networking , United States
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