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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2206359, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231273

ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine candidate, SCB-2019, in adults in the SPECTRA phase 2/3 efficacy study. We extended the study to include 1278 healthy 12-17-year-old adolescents in Belgium, Colombia, and the Philippines who received either two doses of SCB-2019 or placebo 21 days apart, to assess immunogenicity as neutralizing antibodies against prototype SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern, and safety and reactogenicity as solicited and unsolicited adverse events with a comparator group of young adults (18-25 years). In participants with no evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection SCB-2019 immunogenicity in adolescents was non-inferior to that in young adults; respective geometric mean neutralizing titers (GMT) against prototype SARS-CoV-2 14 days after the second vaccination were 271 IU/mL (95% CI: 211-348) and 144 IU/mL (116-178). Most adolescents (1077, 84.3%) had serologic evidence of prior SAR-CoV-2 exposure at baseline; in these seropositive adolescents neutralizing GMTs increased from 173 IU/mL (135-122) to 982 IU/mL (881-1094) after the second dose. Neutralizing titers against Delta and Omicron BA SARS-CoV-2 variants were also increased, most notably in those with prior exposure. SCB-2019 vaccine was well tolerated with generally mild or moderate, transient solicited and unsolicited adverse events that were comparable in adolescent vaccine and placebo groups except for injection site pain - reported after 20% of SCB-2019 and 7.3% of placebo injections. SCB-2019 vaccine was highly immunogenic against SARS-CoV-2 prototype and variants in adolescents, especially in those with evidence of prior exposure, with comparable immunogenicity to young adults. Clinical trial registration: EudraCT 2020-004272-17; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04672395.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Young Adult , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(8): ofac418, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293676

ABSTRACT

Background: Ongoing outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are driven by waning immunity following primary immunizations and emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that escape vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. It has been suggested that heterologous boosters could enhance and potentially maintain population immunity. Methods: We assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of booster doses of different formulations of aluminium hydroxide-adjuvanted SCB-2019 vaccine (9 µg of SCB-2019, with or without CpG-1018 adjuvant, or 30 µg of SCB-2019 with CpG-1018) in Brazilian adults primed with ChAdOx1-S vector vaccine. S-protein antibodies and ACE2-binding inhibition were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on days 1, 15, and 29. Participants self-reported solicited adverse events and reactions. Results: All SCB-2019 formulations increased S-protein ELISA antibodies and ACE2 binding inhibition to a greater extent than ChAdOx1-S. After 30 µg of SCB-2019 + CpG + aluminium hydroxide, titers against wild-type S-protein were significantly higher than after ChAdOx1-S on days 15 and 29, as were titers of neutralizing antibodies against the wild-type strain and Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants. Boosting with SCB-2019 or ChAdOx1-S was well tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious or severe adverse events. Conclusions: Boosting ChAdOx1-S-primed adults with SCB-2019 induced higher levels of antibodies against a wild-type strain and SARS-CoV-2 variants than a homologous ChAdOx1-S booster, with the highest responses being with the 30-µg SCB-2019 + CpG + aluminium hydroxide formulation. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT05087368.

3.
Vaccine ; 41(13): 2253-2260, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the safety of SCB-2019, a protein subunit vaccine candidate containing a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) trimer fusion protein, combined with CpG-1018/alum adjuvants. METHODS: This ongoing phase 2/3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial is being conducted in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, the Philippines, and South Africa in participants ≥ 12 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 2 doses of SCB-2019 or placebo administered intramuscularly 21 days apart. Here, we present the safety results of SCB-2019 over the 6-month period following 2-dose primary vaccination series in all adult participants (≥18 years of age). RESULTS: A total of 30,137 adult participants received at least one dose of study vaccine (n = 15,070) or placebo (n = 15,067) between 24 March 2021 and 01 December 2021. Unsolicited adverse events, medically-attended adverse events, adverse events of special interest, and serious adverse events were reported in similar frequencies in both study arms over the 6-month follow-up period. Vaccine-related SAEs were reported by 4 of 15,070 SCB-2019 recipients (hypersensitivity reactions in two participants, Bell's palsy, and spontaneous abortion) and 2 of 15,067 placebo recipients (COVID-19, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome in one participant and spontaneous abortion in the other one). No signs of vaccine-associated enhanced disease were observed. CONCLUSIONS: SCB-2019 administered as a 2-dose series has an acceptable safety profile. No safety concerns were identified during the 6-month follow-up after the primary vaccination. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04672395; EudraCT: 2020-004272-17.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Protein Subunits , Abortion, Spontaneous/chemically induced , Follow-Up Studies , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/chemically induced
4.
Vaccine ; 41(11): 1875-1884, 2023 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated immunogenicity of SCB-2019, a subunit vaccine candidate containing a pre-fusion trimeric form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-protein adjuvanted with CpG-1018/alum. METHODS: The phase 2/3, double-blind, randomized SPECTRA trial was conducted in five countries in participants aged ≥ 18 years, either SARS-CoV-2-naïve or previously exposed. Participants were randomly assigned to receive two doses of SCB-2019 or placebo administered intramuscularly 21 days apart. In the phase 2 part of the study, on days 1, 22, and 36, neutralizing antibodies were measured by pseudovirus and wild-type virus neutralization assays to SARS-CoV-2 prototype and variants, and ACE2-receptor-binding antibodies and SCB-2019-binding antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cell-mediated immunity was measured by intracellular cytokine staining via flow cytometry. RESULTS: 1601 individuals were enrolled between 24 March and 13 September 2021 and received at least one vaccine dose. Immunogenicity analysis was conducted in a phase 2 subset of 691 participants, including 428 SARS-CoV-2-naïve (381 vaccine and 47 placebo recipients) and 263 SARS-CoV-2-exposed (235 vaccine and 28 placebo recipients). In SARS-CoV-2-naïve participants, GMTs of neutralizing antibodies against prototype virus increased 2 weeks post-second dose (day 36) compared to baseline (224 vs 12.7 IU/mL). Seroconversion rate was 82.5 %. In SARS-CoV-2-exposed participants, one SCB-2019 dose increased GMT of neutralizing antibodies by 48.3-fold (1276.1 IU/mL on day 22) compared to baseline. Seroconversion rate was 92.4 %. Increase was marginal post-second dose. SCB-2019 also showed cross-neutralization capability against nine variants, including Omicron, in SARS-CoV-2-exposed participants at day 36. SCB-2019 stimulated Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity to the S-protein in both naïve and exposed participants. The vaccine was well tolerated, no safety concerns were raised from the study. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of SCB-2019 was immunogenic in SARS-CoV-2-exposed individuals, whereas two doses were required to induce immune response in SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals. SCB-2019 elicited a cross-neutralizing response against emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants at antibody levels associated with clinical protection, underlining its potential as a booster. CLINICALTRIALS: gov: NCT04672395; EudraCT: 2020-004272-17.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Protein Subunits , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccines, Subunit , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998586

ABSTRACT

Background Ongoing outbreaks of COVID-19 are driven by waning immunity following primary immunizations and emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants which escape vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. It has been suggested that heterologous boosters could enhance and potentially maintain population immunity. Methods We assessed immunogenicity and reactogenicity of booster doses of different formulations of aluminium hydroxide-adjuvanted SCB-2019 vaccine (9 μg SCB-2019 with or without CpG-1018 adjuvant, or 30 μg SCB-2019 with CpG-1018) in Brazilian adults primed with ChAdOx1-S vector vaccine. S-protein antibodies and ACE2-binding inhibition were measured by ELISA on Days 1, 15 and 29. Participants self-reported solicited adverse events and reactions. Results All SCB-2019 formulations increased S-protein ELISA antibodies and ACE2 binding inhibition to a greater extent than ChAdOx1-S. After 30 μg SCB-2019 + CpG + aluminium hydroxide titers against wild-type S-protein were significantly higher than after ChAdOx1-S on Days 15 and 29, as were titers of neutralizing antibodies against wild-type strain and Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants. Boosting with SCB-2019 or ChAdOx1-S was well tolerated with no vaccine-related serious or severe adverse events. Conclusions Boosting ChAdOx1-S-primed adults with SCB-2019 induced higher levels of antibodies against a wild-type strain and SARS-CoV-2 variants than a homologous ChAdOx1-S booster, highest responses being with the 30 μg SCB-2019 + CpG + aluminium hydroxide formulation.

6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(7): 990-1001, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously reported the efficacy of the adjuvanted-protein COVID-19 vaccine candidate S-Trimer (SCB-2019) in adults who showed no evidence of previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we aimed to investigate the extent of protection afforded by previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 on subsequent COVID-19 infection, as well as the efficacy, safety, and reactogenicity of SCB-2019 in participants who were enrolled in the Study evaluating Protective-Efficacy and safety of Clover's Trimeric Recombinant protein-based and Adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine (SPECTRA) trial who had already been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 before vaccination. METHODS: In a phase 2 and 3 multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (SPECTRA) done at 31 sites in five countries, participants were randomly assigned 1:1 using the Cenduit Interactive Response Technology system (IQVIA, Durham, NC, USA), with a block size of six, to receive two doses of either SCB-2019 or placebo 21 days apart. The primary outcomes of the SPECTRA trial were vaccine efficacy, measured by real-time PCR (rtPCR)-confirmed COVID-19 of any severity, with onset from 14 days after the second vaccine dose, as well as the safety and solicited local and systemic adverse events in the phase 2 subset. Here, we present secondary analyses to calculate the protective efficacy due to previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 against reinfection with COVID-19 according to severity in SPECTRA participants who had evidence of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 at baseline, including efficacy against identified viral variants, as well as efficacy of SCB-2019 vaccination in this population. FINDINGS: We enrolled 30 174 participants between March 24, 2021, and Aug 10, 2021. In the 14 670 participants who were randomly assigned to receive placebo, there were 418 (2·8%) confirmed cases of COVID-19; 65 (0·9%) of 7339 SARS-CoV-2-exposed participants, and 353 (4·8%) of 7331 SARS-CoV-2-naive participants (attack rates of 5·5 cases per 100 person-years for SARS-CoV-2-exposed participants and 32·4 cases per 100 person-years for SARS-CoV-2-naive participants). Protective efficacy due to previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 was 83·2% (95% CI 78·0-87·3) against any COVID-19, 92·5% (82·9-97·3) against moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and 100% (59·3-100) against severe COVID-19; no SARS-CoV-2-exposed participants had hospitalisation associated with COVID-19. Protective efficacy against variants were 100% for alpha (B.1.1.7) and lambda (C.37) variants, 88·6% (14·9-99·7) for B.1.623, 93·6% (80·1-98·7) for gamma (P.1), and 92·4% (81·2-97·6) for mu (B.1.621) variants, and lowest against beta (B.1.351; 72·2% [33·1-89·9]) and delta (B.1.617.2; 77·2% [61·3-87·2]) variants. In addition, one dose of SCB-2019 had 49·9% (1·5-75·6) efficacy against any symptomatic COVID-19, and two doses had 64·2% (26·5-83·8) efficacy. SCB-2019 was well tolerated in SARS-CoV-2-exposed participants, but was associated with higher rates of injection site pain (89 [33·8%] of 263 participants) than placebo (16 [6·7%] of 239 participants). Rates of solicited systemic adverse events, severe adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar between vaccine and placebo groups, and with rates in SARS-CoV-2-naive vaccine recipients. INTERPRETATION: Previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 decreased the risk and severity of subsequent COVID-19 infection, even against newly emerging variants. Protection is further enhanced by one or two doses of SCB-2019. FUNDING: Clover Biopharmaceuticals, The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Reinfection , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit
7.
Lancet ; 399(10323): 461-472, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A range of safe and effective vaccines against SARS CoV 2 are needed to address the COVID 19 pandemic. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine SCB-2019. METHODS: This ongoing phase 2 and 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done in adults aged 18 years and older who were in good health or with a stable chronic health condition, at 31 sites in five countries (Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Philippines, and South Africa). The participants were randomly assigned 1:1 using a centralised internet randomisation system to receive two 0·5 mL intramuscular doses of SCB-2019 (30 µg, adjuvanted with 1·50 mg CpG-1018 and 0·75 mg alum) or placebo (0·9% sodium chloride for injection supplied in 10 mL ampoules) 21 days apart. All study staff and participants were masked, but vaccine administrators were not. Primary endpoints were vaccine efficacy, measured by RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 of any severity with onset from 14 days after the second dose in baseline SARS-CoV-2 seronegative participants (the per-protocol population), and the safety and solicited local and systemic adverse events in the phase 2 subset. This study is registered on EudraCT (2020-004272-17) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04672395). FINDINGS: 30 174 participants were enrolled from March 24, 2021, until the cutoff date of Aug 10, 2021, of whom 30 128 received their first assigned vaccine (n=15 064) or a placebo injection (n=15 064). The per-protocol population consisted of 12 355 baseline SARS-CoV-2-naive participants (6251 vaccinees and 6104 placebo recipients). Most exclusions (13 389 [44·4%]) were because of seropositivity at baseline. There were 207 confirmed per-protocol cases of COVID-19 at 14 days after the second dose, 52 vaccinees versus 155 placebo recipients, and an overall vaccine efficacy against any severity COVID-19 of 67·2% (95·72% CI 54·3-76·8), 83·7% (97·86% CI 55·9-95·4) against moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and 100% (97·86% CI 25·3-100·0) against severe COVID-19. All COVID-19 cases were due to virus variants; vaccine efficacy against any severity COVID-19 due to the three predominant variants was 78·7% (95% CI 57·3-90·4) for delta, 91·8% (44·9-99·8) for gamma, and 58·6% (13·3-81·5) for mu. No safety issues emerged in the follow-up period for the efficacy analysis (median of 82 days [IQR 63-103]). The vaccine elicited higher rates of mainly mild-to-moderate injection site pain than the placebo after the first (35·7% [287 of 803] vs 10·3% [81 of 786]) and second (26·9% [189 of 702] vs 7·4% [52 of 699]) doses, but the rates of other solicited local and systemic adverse events were similar between the groups. INTERPRETATION: Two doses of SCB-2019 vaccine plus CpG and alum provides notable protection against the entire severity spectrum of COVID-19 caused by circulating SAR-CoV-2 viruses, including the predominating delta variant. FUNDING: Clover Biopharmaceuticals and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alum Compounds/therapeutic use , Belgium , Brazil , Colombia , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/therapeutic use , Philippines , Protein Multimerization , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Vaccine Efficacy , Young Adult
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(10): 1699-1706, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported the safety and immunogenicity 4 weeks after 2 doses of the Clover coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine candidate, SCB-2019, a stabilized prefusion form of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein (S-trimer). We now report persistence of antibodies up to 6 months after vaccination, and cross-neutralization titers against 3 variants of concern (VoCs). METHODS: In a phase 1 study, adult (18-54 years of age) and elderly (55-75 years of age) volunteers received 2 vaccinations 21 days apart with placebo or 3-, 9-, or 30-µg. We measured immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SCB-2019, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) competitive binding antibodies, and neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-Hu-1) at days 101 and 184, and neutralizing antibodies against 3 VoCs, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Gamma (P.1), in day 36 sera. RESULTS: Titers waned from their peak at days 36-50, but SCB-2019 IgG antibodies, ACE2 competitive binding antibodies, and neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 persisted at 25%-35% of their observed peak levels at day 184. Day 36 sera also demonstrated dose-dependent increases in neutralizing titers against the 3 VoCs. CONCLUSIONS: SCB-2019 dose-dependently induced immune responses against wild-type SARS-CoV-2, which persisted up to day 184. Neutralizing antibodies were cross-reactive against 3 of the most prevalent VoCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Infant, Newborn , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Subunit
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(5): 1248-1261, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897094

ABSTRACT

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections that can be severe and sometimes fatal. The risk for severe RSV infection is highest in infants and older adults. A safe and effective RSV vaccine for older adults represents a serious unmet medical need due to higher morbidity and mortality in this age group. In this randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 dose-escalation study, we evaluated the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of an investigational messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine encoding the RSV fusion protein (F) stabilized in the prefusion conformation. The study was conducted in healthy younger adults (ages ≥18 and ≤49 years) and healthy older adults (ages ≥60 and ≤79 years). Participants received mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo as a single intramuscular dose. For each dose level, three sentinel participants were administered open-label mRNA-1777 (V171). Seventy-two younger adults were randomized and administered 25, 100, or 200 µg mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo, and 107 older adults were randomized and administered 25, 100, 200 or 300 µg mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability and secondary objectives included humoral and cell-mediated immunogenicity. All dose levels of mRNA-1777 (V171) were generally well tolerated and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine were reported. Immunization with mRNA-1777 (V171) elicited a humoral immune response as measured by increases in RSV neutralizing antibody titers, serum antibody titers to RSV prefusion F protein, D25 competing antibody titers to RSV prefusion F protein, and cell-mediated immune responses to RSV-F peptides.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Viral Fusion Proteins
10.
Lancet ; 397(10275): 682-694, 2021 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As part of the accelerated development of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we report a dose-finding and adjuvant justification study of SCB-2019, a protein subunit vaccine candidate containing a stabilised trimeric form of the spike (S)-protein (S-Trimer) combined with two different adjuvants. METHODS: Our study is a phase 1, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial at a specialised clinical trials centre in Australia. We enrolled healthy adult volunteers in two age groups: younger adults (aged 18-54 years) and older adults (aged 55-75 years). Participants were randomly allocated either vaccine or placebo using a list prepared by the study funder. Participants were to receive two doses of SCB-2019 (either 3 µg, 9 µg, or 30 µg) or a placebo (0·9% NaCl) 21 days apart. SCB-2019 either had no adjuvant (S-Trimer protein alone) or was adjuvanted with AS03 or CpG/Alum. The assigned treatment was administered in opaque syringes to maintain masking of assignments. Reactogenicity was assessed for 7 days after each vaccination. Humoral responses were measured as SCB-2019 binding IgG antibodies and ACE2-competitive blocking IgG antibodies by ELISA and as neutralising antibodies by wild-type SARS-CoV-2 microneutralisation assay. Cellular responses to pooled S-protein peptides were measured by flow-cytometric intracellular cytokine staining. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04405908; this is an interim analysis and the study is continuing. FINDINGS: Between June 19 and Sept 23, 2020, 151 volunteers were enrolled; three people withdrew, two for personal reasons and one with an unrelated serious adverse event (pituitary adenoma). 148 participants had at least 4 weeks of follow-up after dose two and were included in this analysis (database lock, Oct 23, 2020). Vaccination was well tolerated, with two grade 3 solicited adverse events (pain in 9 µg AS03-adjuvanted and 9 µg CpG/Alum-adjuvanted groups). Most local adverse events were mild injection-site pain, and local events were more frequent with SCB-2019 formulations containing AS03 adjuvant (44-69%) than with those containing CpG/Alum adjuvant (6-44%) or no adjuvant (3-13%). Systemic adverse events were more frequent in younger adults (38%) than in older adults (17%) after the first dose but increased to similar levels in both age groups after the second dose (30% in older and 34% in younger adults). SCB-2019 with no adjuvant elicited minimal immune responses (three seroconversions by day 50), but SCB-2019 with fixed doses of either AS03 or CpG/Alum adjuvants induced high titres and seroconversion rates of binding and neutralising antibodies in both younger and older adults (anti-SCB-2019 IgG antibody geometric mean titres at day 36 were 1567-4452 with AS03 and 174-2440 with CpG/Alum). Titres in all AS03 dose groups and the CpG/Alum 30 µg group were higher than were those recorded in a panel of convalescent serum samples from patients with COVID-19. Both adjuvanted SCB-2019 formulations elicited T-helper-1-biased CD4+ T-cell responses. INTERPRETATION: The SCB-2019 vaccine, comprising S-Trimer protein formulated with either AS03 or CpG/Alum adjuvants, elicited robust humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, with high viral neutralising activity. Both adjuvanted vaccine formulations were well tolerated and are suitable for further clinical development. FUNDING: Clover Biopharmaceuticals and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Australia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Subunits , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
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