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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 158, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a disruptive increase in the number of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation and vascular leak in the lungs. Although there is no proven therapy to reduce pulmonary vascular leak in ARDS, recent studies demonstrated that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib reinforces the endothelial barrier and prevents vascular leak in inflammatory conditions, while leaving the immune response intact. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial of intravenous (IV) imatinib mesylate in 90 mechanically ventilated subjects with COVID-19-induced ARDS. Subjects are 18 years or older, admitted to the ICU for mechanical ventilation, meeting the Berlin criteria for moderate-severe ARDS with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV2. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either imatinib (as mesylate) 200 mg bis in die (b.i.d.) or placebo IV infusion for 7 days, or until ICU discharge or death. The primary study outcome is the change in Extravascular Lung Water Index (EVLWi) between day 1 and day 4. Secondary outcome parameters include changes in oxygenation and ventilation parameters, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, number of ventilator-free days during the 28-day study period, length of ICU stay, and mortality during 28 days after randomization. Additional secondary parameters include safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. DISCUSSION: The current study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of IV imatinib in mechanically ventilated subjects with COVID-19-related ARDS. We hypothesize that imatinib decreases pulmonary edema, as measured by extravascular lung water using a PiCCO catheter. The reduction in pulmonary edema may reverse hypoxemic respiratory failure and hasten recovery. As pulmonary edema is an important contributor to ARDS, we further hypothesize that imatinib reduces disease severity, reflected by a reduction in 28-day mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version and date: V3.1, 16 April 2021. Recruitment started on 09 March 2021. Estimated recruitment period of approximately 40 weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04794088 . Registered on 11 March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Multicenter Studies as Topic , RNA, Viral , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 10(12): 1497-1511, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449945

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine whether published pharmacokinetic (PK) models can adequately predict the PK profile of imatinib in a new indication, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Total (bound + unbound) and unbound imatinib plasma concentrations obtained from 134 patients with COVID-19 participating in the CounterCovid study and from an historical dataset of 20 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and 85 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were compared. Total imatinib area under the concentration time curve (AUC), maximum concentration (Cmax ) and trough concentration (Ctrough ) were 2.32-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-3.29), 2.31-fold (95% CI 1.33-3.29), and 2.32-fold (95% CI 1.11-3.53) lower, respectively, for patients with CML/GIST compared with patients with COVID-19, whereas unbound concentrations were comparable among groups. Inclusion of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) concentrations measured in patients with COVID-19 into a previously published model developed to predict free imatinib concentrations in patients with GIST using total imatinib and plasma AAG concentration measurements (AAG-PK-Model) gave an estimated mean (SD) prediction error (PE) of -20% (31%) for total and -7.0% (56%) for unbound concentrations. Further covariate modeling with this combined dataset showed that in addition to AAG; age, bodyweight, albumin, CRP, and intensive care unit admission were predictive of total imatinib oral clearance. In conclusion, high total and unaltered unbound concentrations of imatinib in COVID-19 compared to CML/GIST were a result of variability in acute phase proteins. This is a textbook example of how failure to take into account differences in plasma protein binding and the unbound fraction when interpreting PK of highly protein bound drugs, such as imatinib, could lead to selection of a dose with suboptimal efficacy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Imatinib Mesylate/blood , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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