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1.
Mol Divers ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075500

ABSTRACT

A new series of 3-acetyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoline hybrid molecules was designed and synthesized using a condensation between acyclonucleosides and substituted phenylhydrazone. All intermediates and final products were screened against Leishmania donovani, a Protozoan parasite and against three viruses SARS-CoV-2, HCMV and VZV. While no significant activity was observed against the viruses, the intermediate with 6-azatymine as thymine and 5-azathymine-3-acetyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoline hybrid exhibited a significant antileishmanial activity. The later compound was the most promising, exhibiting an IC50 value at 8.98 µM on L. donovani intramacrophage amastigotes and a moderate selectivity index value at 2.4.

2.
European journal of medicinal chemistry ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2072979

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines are greatly mitigating the worldwide pandemic diffusion of SARS-Cov-2, therapeutics should provide many distinct advantages as complementary approach to control the viral spreading. Here, we report the development of new tripeptide derivatives of AT1001 against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. By molecular modeling, a small compound library was rationally designed and filtered for enzymatic inhibition through FRET assay, leading to the identification of compound 4. X-ray crystallography studies provide insights into its binding mode and confirm the formation of a covalent bond with Mpro C145. In vitro antiviral tests indicate the improvement of biological activity of 4. In silico and X-ray crystallography analysis led to 58, showing a promising activity against three SARS-CoV-2 variants and a valuable safety in Vero cells and human embryonic lung fibroblasts. The drug tolerance was also confirmed by in vivo studies, along with pharmacokinetics evaluation. In summary, 58 could pave the way to develop a clinical candidate for intranasal administration. Graphical Image 1

3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113863, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433179

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic, starting from the latest 2019, and caused by SARS-CoV-2 pathogen, led to the hardest health-socio-economic disaster in the last century. Despite the tremendous scientific efforts, mainly focused on the development of vaccines, identification of potent and efficient anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics still represents an unmet need. Remdesivir, an anti-Ebola drug selected from a repurposing campaign, is the only drug approved, so far, for the treatment of the infection. Nevertheless, WHO in later 2020 has recommended against its use in COVID-19. In the present paper, we describe a step-by-step in silico design of a small library of compounds as main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. All the molecules were screened by an enzymatic assay on Mpro and, then, cellular activity was evaluated using Vero cells viral infection model. The cellular screening disclosed compounds 29 and 34 as in-vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication inhibitors at non-toxic concentrations (0.32 < EC50 < 5.98 µM). To rationalize these results, additional in-vitro assays were performed, focusing on papain like protease (PLpro) and spike protein (SP) as potential targets for the synthesized molecules. This pharmacological workflow allowed the identification of compound 29, as a dual acting SARS-CoV-2 proteases inhibitor featuring micromolar inhibitory potency versus Mpro (IC50 = 1.72 µM) and submicromolar potency versus PLpro (IC50 = 0.67 µM), and of compound 34 as a selective SP inhibitor (IC50 = 3.26 µM).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computer Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379977

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the pathogen responsible for the outbreak of a severe, rapidly developing pneumonia (Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). The virus enzyme, called 3CLpro or main protease (Mpro), is essential for viral replication, making it a most promising target for antiviral drug development. Recently, we adopted the drug repurposing as appropriate strategy to give fast response to global COVID-19 epidemic, by demonstrating that the zonulin octapeptide inhibitor AT1001 (Larazotide acetate) binds Mpro catalytic domain. Thus, in the present study we tried to investigate the antiviral activity of AT1001, along with five derivatives, by cell-based assays. Our results provide with the identification of AT1001 peptide molecular framework for lead optimization step to develop new generations of antiviral agents of SARS-CoV-2 with an improved biological activity, expanding the chance for success in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Cell Line , Cytomegalovirus/drug effects , Drug Repositioning , Herpesvirus 3, Human/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332900

ABSTRACT

A novel series of N-substituted cis- and trans-3-aryl-4-(diethoxyphosphoryl)azetidin-2-ones were synthesized by the Kinugasa reaction of N-methyl- or N-benzyl-(diethyoxyphosphoryl)nitrone and selected aryl alkynes. Stereochemistry of diastereoisomeric adducts was established based on vicinal H3-H4 coupling constants in azetidin-2-one ring. All the obtained azetidin-2-ones were evaluated for the antiviral activity against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. Azetidin-2-one trans-11f showed moderate inhibitory activity against human coronavirus (229E) with EC50 = 45 µM. The other isomer cis-11f was active against influenza A virus H1N1 subtype (EC50 = 12 µM by visual CPE score; EC50 = 8.3 µM by TMS score; MCC > 100 µM, CC50 = 39.9 µM). Several azetidin-2-ones 10 and 11 were tested for their cytostatic activity toward nine cancerous cell lines and several of them appeared slightly active for Capan-1, Hap1 and HCT-116 cells values of IC50 in the range 14.5-97.9 µM. Compound trans-11f was identified as adjuvant of oxacillin with significant ability to enhance the efficacy of this antibiotic toward the highly resistant S. aureus strain HEMSA 5. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations showed that enantiomer (3R,4S)-11f can be responsible for the promising activity due to the potency in displacing oxacillin at ß-lactamase, thus protecting the antibiotic from undesirable biotransformation.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/pharmacology , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Cytostatic Agents/chemistry , Cytostatic Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Oxacillin/chemistry , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Stereoisomerism , beta-Lactamases/chemistry
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 220: 113467, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184952

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging viruses periodically cause outbreaks and epidemics all over the world, eventually leading to global events such as the current pandemic of the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection COVID-19. Therefore, an urgent need for novel antivirals is crystal clear. Here we present the synthesis and evaluation of an antiviral activity of phenoxazine-based nucleoside analogs divided into three groups: (1) 8-alkoxy-substituted, (2) acyclic, and (3) carbocyclic. The antiviral activity was assessed against a structurally and phylogenetically diverse panel of RNA and DNA viruses from 25 species. Four compounds (11a-c, 12c) inhibited 4 DNA/RNA viruses with EC50 ≤ 20 µM. Toxicity of the compounds for the cell lines used for virus cultivation was negligible in most cases. In addition, previously reported and newly synthesized phenoxazine derivatives were evaluated against SARS-CoV-2, and some of them showed promising inhibition of reproduction with EC50 values in low micromolar range, although accompanied by commensurate cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , DNA Viruses/drug effects , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Oxazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , Nucleosides/toxicity , Oxazines/chemical synthesis , Oxazines/toxicity , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 12(1): 88-92, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997790

ABSTRACT

In addition to its therapeutic value as a chemotherapy drug, gemcitabine is of ongoing interest to the scientific community for its broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Herein the synthesis of 4'-methoxy- and 4'-fluoro-substituted gemcitabine analogues along with their phosphoramidate prodrugs is described. Among these derivatives, 4'-fluorogemcitabine proved to be active against varicella zoster virus (VZV, TK+ strain) with an EC50 of 0.042 µM and produced significant cytotoxicity (CC50 = 0.11 µM). Upon derivatization of this trifluoro nucleoside as its prodrug, decreased anti-VZV activity was observed, but with a concomitantly improved selectivity index (SI = 36). When this prodrug was tested against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), its antiviral activity (EC50 = 0.73 µM) was comparable to or slightly lower than its cytotoxic concentration in measurements of cell growth and cell morphology, respectively.

8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 209: 112884, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800277

ABSTRACT

A novel methodology to access alkynyl nucleoside analogues is elaborated. Highly fluorescent 5-alkynylfuropyrimidines were synthesized (97-46%) and their antiviral properties investigated in vitro. Regiochemistry of the functionalization was achieved with the aid of 5-endo-dig electrophilic halocyclization of acetyl 5-p-tolyl- or 5-p-pentylphenyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Structure of one of the resulting nucleosides, 6-p-tolyl-5-iodo-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one, was confirmed by X-ray crystallography, and its conformation was compared to related nucleosides. Diverse alkynyl substituents were introduced at the heterobicyclic base C-5 position via Sonogashira coupling of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ones. The resulting compounds had fluorescence emissions of 452-481 nm. High quantum yields of 0.53-0.60 were observed for 9-ethynyl-9-fluorenol and propargyl alcohol/methyl ether-modified furopyrimidines. These modified nucleosides, designed in the form of ribose acetyl esters, are potential tools for fluorescent tagging, studying nucleoside metabolism, 2'-deoxyribonucleoside kinase activity, and antiviral activity. Antiviral assays against a broad spectrum of DNA and RNA viruses showed that in human embryonic lung (HEL) cell cultures some of the compounds posess antiviral activity (EC50 1.3-13.2 µM) against varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The alkynyl furopyrimidine with two p-pentylphenyl substituents emerged as the best compound with reasonable and selective anti-VZV activity, confirming p-pentylphenyl potency as a pharmacophore.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/chemistry , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Cell Line , Fluorescence , Halogenation , Herpesvirus 3, Human/drug effects , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/drug therapy , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/virology
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