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1.
Oxford Review of Economic Policy ; 38(4):742-770, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2190129

ABSTRACT

We review economic arguments for using public policy to accelerate vaccine supply during a pandemic. Rapidly vaccinating a large share of the global population helps avoid economic, mortality, and social losses, which in the case of Covid-19 mounted into trillions of dollars. However, pharmaceutical firms are unlikely to have private incentives to invest in vaccine capacity at the socially optimal scale and speed. The socially optimal level of public spending may cause some sticker shock but-as epitomized by the tagline 'spending billions to save trillions'-is eclipsed by the benefits and can be restrained with the help of careful policy design and advance preparations. Capacity is so valuable during a pandemic that fractional dosing and other measures to stretch available capacity should be explored.

2.
Navigating Precarity in Educational Contexts: Refection, Pedagogy, and Activism for Change ; : 155-171, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2144535

ABSTRACT

How does precarity manifest in the shift from embodied to spectral forms of transnational teaching and activism? What is lost and gained as educators, students, and activists adapt their practices to digital environments? This chapter traces the pedagogical adjustments from an on-site to an online course about Latin American feminist activism amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on auto-ethnographic observation, interviews with scholar-activists, and analysis of students’ reflections, we put our teaching experiences in conversation with artists, activists, and scholars, as we reflect on the possibilities for a transnational feminist pedagogy. While during the pandemic we learned that digital spaces can create opportunities for transnational collaborations, the expansion of neoliberal policies in higher education eroded the foundations necessary to construct and sustain solidarities throughout the Americas including resources for co-teaching, language translations, and paid labor of interlocutors from the Global South. In order to call into question the precarity in the transition from embodied to spectral transnationalism, we propose a transnational feminist pedagogy that emphasizes embodied knowledge, transnational solidarity and collaboration, and education for liberation. This pedagogy opens the classroom to the protests happening in the streets, allows for students’ creativity, and facilitates co-constructed knowledge with actors in the Global South. © 2023 selection and editorial matter, Karen Monkman, Ann Frkovich, and Amira Proweller;individual chapters, the contributors.

3.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003210

ABSTRACT

Background: The Zio® (Zio) XT Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, California) is a 14-day continuous ambulatory ECG monitor. During the Covid-19 Pandemic, Zios were shipped directly to patients for self-application. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of in-clinic (IC) to mail-home (MH) in our pediatric population. Methods: A single-center, IRB-approved study (1/1/18 - 6/1/21) of patients < 21 years of age with Zios were studied for wear and artifact time filtered out based on iRhythm's inherent algorithm. A control group of patients were age-matched from Zios placed IC and compared to MH Zios throughout the pandemic. Results: A total of 284 Zios were analyzed for total wear time and artifact filtered out. Of these, 149 were IC, and 135 were MH. Average percent of artifact of IC vs MH was 7.1% and 8.3% (p = 0.58). The average age of patients with Zios placed in clinic was older (12.84 years) than those placed at home (11.12 years, p<0.02). There was no significant difference in artifact when adjusted for age. Age was inversely associated with percent artifact with a 0.34% reduction in percent artifact for every additional year of age (p < 0.049). Location was not associated with percent artifact after controlling for age. By two proportion Z-test, there was no statistically significant difference between IC and MH Zios wasted (p = 0.66) or repeated (p = 0.96). Conclusion: In conclusion, IC and MH Zios did not demonstrate any significant difference in artifact time filtered out. This highlights the potential for home application during current pandemic and future telemedicine utilization.

4.
Working Paper Series National Bureau of Economic Research ; 90, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1789339

ABSTRACT

Vaccines exert a positive externality, reducing spread of disease from the consumer to others, providing a rationale for subsidies. We study how optimal subsidies vary with disease characteristics by integrating a standard epidemiological model into a vaccine market with rational economic agents. In the steady-state equilibrium for an endemic disease, across market structures ranging from competition to monopoly, the marginal externality and optimal subsidy are non-monotonic in disease infectiousness, peaking for diseases that spread quickly but not so quickly as to drive all consumers to become vaccinated. Motivated by the Covid-19 pandemic, we adapt the analysis to study a vaccine campaign introduced at a point in time against an emerging epidemic. While the nonmonotonic pattern of the optimal subsidy persists, new findings emerge. Universal vaccination with a perfectly effective vaccine becomes a viable firm strategy: the marginal consumer is still willing to pay since those infected before vaccine rollout remain a source of transmission. We derive a simple condition under which vaccination exhibits increasing social returns, providing an argument for concentrating a capacity-constrained campaign in few regions. We discuss a variety of extensions and calibrations of the results to vaccines and other mitigation measures targeting existing diseases.

5.
Working Paper Series National Bureau of Economic Research ; 67, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1745151

ABSTRACT

We argue that alternative COVID-19 vaccine dosing regimens could potentially dramatically accelerate global COVID-19 vaccination and reduce mortality, and that the costs of testing these regimens are dwarfed by their potential benefits. We first use the high correlation between neutralizing antibody response and efficacy against disease (Khoury et. al. 2021) to show that half or even quarter doses of some vaccines generate immune responses associated with high vaccine efficacy. We then use an SEIR model to estimate that under these efficacy levels, doubling or quadrupling the rate of vaccination by using fractional doses would dramatically reduce infections and mortality. Since the correlation between immune response and efficacy may not be fully predictive of efficacy with fractional doses, we then use the SEIR model to show that fractional dosing would substantially reduce infections and mortality over a wide range of plausible efficacy levels. Further immunogenicity studies for a range of vaccine and dose combinations could deliver outcomes in weeks and could be conducted with a few hundred healthy volunteers. National regulatory authorities could also decide to test efficacy of fractional dosing in the context of vaccination campaigns based on existing immune response data, as some did for delayed second doses. If efficacy turned out to be high, the approach could be implemented broadly, while if it turned out to be low, downside risk could be limited by administering full doses to those who had received fractional doses. The SEIR model also suggests that delaying second vaccine doses will likely have substantial mortality benefits for multiple, but not all, vaccine-variant combinations, underscoring the importance of ongoing surveillance. Finally, we find that for countries choosing between approved but lower efficacy vaccines available immediately and waiting for mRNA vaccines, using immediately available vaccines typically reduces mortality.

6.
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice ; 21(11):143-154, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1547992

ABSTRACT

With the sudden shift to emergency remote instruction during the COVID-19 global pandemic in the spring of 2020, teacher education programs were confronted with the dual responsibility of teaching pre-service teachers how to teach and how to teach in synchronous P-12 classroom settings utilizing educational technologies. Building a community of practice (CoP) and attending to P-12 students’ socio-emotional health and learning were the backdrop to a Masters of Arts and Teaching (MAT) program as it prepared its teacher candidates for full-year teaching residencies. In this retrospective, researchers reflect on practices for building community in an online setting and strategies for supporting teacher candidates’ and P-12 students’ socio-emotional learning. © 2021, North American Business Press. All rights reserved.

7.
Working Paper Series National Bureau of Economic Research ; 61(30), 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1408101

ABSTRACT

Advance market commitments (AMCs) provide a mechanism to stimulate investment by suppliers of products to low-income countries. In an AMC, donors commit to a fund from which a specified subsidy is paid per unit purchased by low-income countries until the fund is exhausted, strengthening suppliers' incentives to invest in research, development, and capacity. Last decade saw the launch of a $1.5 billion pilot AMC to distribute pneumococcal vaccine to the developing world;in the current pandemic, variations on AMCs are being used to fund Covid-19 vaccines. This paper undertakes the first formal analysis of AMCs. We construct a model in which an altruistic donor negotiates on behalf of a low-income country with a vaccine supplier after the supplier has sunk investments. We use this model to explain the logic of an AMC-as a solution to a hold-up problem-and to analyze alternative design features under various economic conditions (cost uncertainty, supplier competition). A key finding is that optimal AMC design differs markedly depending on where the product is in its development cycle.

8.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 224(2):S516-S516, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1141025
9.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 224(2):S512-S512, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1141024
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