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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(2): 154-162.e5, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708092

ABSTRACT

Characterizing SARS-CoV-2 evolution in specific geographies may help predict properties of the variants that come from these regions. We mapped neutralization of a SARS-CoV-2 strain that evolved over 6 months from ancestral virus in a person with advanced HIV disease in South Africa; this person was infected prior to emergence of the Beta and Delta variants. We longitudinally tracked the evolved virus and tested it against self-plasma and convalescent plasma from ancestral, Beta, and Delta infections. Early virus was similar to ancestral, but it evolved a multitude of mutations found in Omicron and other variants. It showed substantial but incomplete Pfizer BNT162b2 escape, weak neutralization by self-plasma, and despite pre-dating Delta, it also showed extensive escape of Delta infection-elicited neutralization. This example is consistent with the notion that SARS-CoV-2 evolving in individual immune-compromised hosts, including those with advanced HIV disease, may gain immune escape of vaccines and enhanced escape of Delta immunity, and this has implications for vaccine breakthrough and reinfections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , HIV Infections/pathology , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , South Africa , Vaccination , Vero Cells
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in African populations with a high burden of infectious disease comorbidities such as HIV. The kinetics, magnitude and duration of virus-specific antibodies and the underlying B cell responses in people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa have not been fully characterized. METHODS: We longitudinally followed SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and characterized SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies weekly for a month, and then at 3 months post diagnosis. 7/30 (41.7%) were PLWH, 83% (25/30) of which were on ART and with full HIV suppression. Potency of convalescent plasma neutralization was determined using a live virus neutralization assay and antibody secreting cell population frequencies were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Similar seroconversion rates, time to peak antibody titer, peak magnitude and durability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG, IgA, were observed in HIV uninfected and PLWH with complete HIV suppression on ART. In addition, similar neutralization potency against an isolate of SARS-CoV-2, circulating at the time of sampling in the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections in South Africa was observed in both groups. Loss of IgA was significantly associated with age (p=0.023) and a previous diagnosis of TB (p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Similar antibody response kinetics and neutralization potency in HIV negative and PLWH on stable ART in an African setting suggests that COVID-19 natural infections may confer comparable antibody immunity in these groups. This provides hope that COVID-19 vaccines will be effective in PLWH on stable ART.

3.
AIDS ; 35(14): 2391-2393, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494132
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in African populations with a high burden of infectious disease comorbidities such as HIV. The kinetics, magnitude and duration of virus-specific antibodies and the underlying B cell responses in people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa have not been fully characterized. METHODS: We longitudinally followed SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and characterized SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies weekly for a month, and then at 3 months post diagnosis. 7/30 (41.7%) were PLWH, 83% (25/30) of which were on ART and with full HIV suppression. Potency of convalescent plasma neutralization was determined using a live virus neutralization assay and antibody secreting cell population frequencies were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Similar seroconversion rates, time to peak antibody titer, peak magnitude and durability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG, IgA, were observed in HIV uninfected and PLWH with complete HIV suppression on ART. In addition, similar neutralization potency against an isolate of SARS-CoV-2, circulating at the time of sampling in the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections in South Africa was observed in both groups. Loss of IgA was significantly associated with age (p=0.023) and a previous diagnosis of TB (p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Similar antibody response kinetics and neutralization potency in HIV negative and PLWH on stable ART in an African setting suggests that COVID-19 natural infections may confer comparable antibody immunity in these groups. This provides hope that COVID-19 vaccines will be effective in PLWH on stable ART.

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