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1.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038178

ABSTRACT

Germicidal ultraviolet (UV) devices have been widely used for pathogen disinfection in water, air, and on food and surfaces. Emerging UV technologies, like the krypton chloride (KrCl*) excimer emitting at 222 nm, are rapidly gaining popularity due to their minimal adverse effects on skin and eyes compared with conventional UV lamps emitting at 254 nm, opening opportunities for UV disinfection in occupied public spaces. In this study, inactivation of seven bacteria and five viruses, including waterborne, foodborne and respiratory pathogens, was determined in a thin-film aqueous solution using a filtered KrCl* excimer emitting primarily at 222 nm. Our results show that the KrCl* excimer can effectively inactivate all tested bacteria and viruses, with most microorganisms achieving more than 4-log (99.99%) reduction with a UV dose of 10 mJ cm-2 . Compared with conventional UV lamps, the KrCl* excimer lamp exhibited better disinfection performance for viruses but was slightly less effective for bacteria. The relationships between UV sensitivities at 222 and 254 nm for bacteria and viruses were evaluated using regression analysis, resulting in factors that could be used to estimate the KrCl* excimer disinfection performance from well-documented UV kinetics using conventional 254 nm UV lamps. This study provides fundamental information for pathogen disinfection when employing KrCl* excimers.

2.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(16): e0119222, 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962071
3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(12): e0050422, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879112

ABSTRACT

Multiple pathways of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission have been examined, and the role of contaminated foods as a source of SARS-CoV-2 exposure has been suggested. As many cases of SARS-CoV-2 have been linked to meat processing plants, it may be that conditions in live animal markets and slaughterhouses or meat processing plant procedures transfer viral particles to meat, poultry, and seafood during animal slaughter, processing, storage, or transport. Because of the potential for contamination of foods such as beef, chicken, pork, or fish, the goal of this study was to evaluate the survival of a lipid enveloped RNA bacteriophage, phi 6, as well as two animal coronaviruses, murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), as SARS-CoV-2 surrogates for their survival under various meat and fish cold-storage conditions over 30 days. Viral surrogates differed in survival, depending on food product and temperature, but overall, viruses survived for extended periods of time at high concentrations at both refrigerated and frozen temperatures. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 viral surrogates like Phi 6 and animal coronaviruses to survive for varying extents on some meat and fish products when stored refrigerated or frozen is a significant and concerning finding. Continued efforts are needed to prevent contamination of foods and food processing surfaces, worker hands, and food processing utensils such as knives, and there is a need to better address the lack of or inadequate disinfection of these foods prior to meat packaging. IMPORTANCE The ability of SARS-CoV-2 viral surrogates like Phi 6 and animal coronaviruses to survive for long periods on meat and fish products at cold temperatures emphasizes the need for rigorous and sustained food sanitation and hygiene in the harvest, transport, processing, and distribution of these foods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Cattle , Fish Products , Meat , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Water Health ; 20(1): 126-138, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581540

ABSTRACT

This review considers evidence for infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presence and COVID-19 infection and illness resulting from exposure to environmental fecal wastes and waters. There is no documented evidence that (1) infectious, replication-capable SARS-CoV-2 is present in environmental fecal wastes, wastewater or water, and (2) well-documented epidemiological evidence of COVID-19 infection, illness or death has never been reported for these exposure media. COVID-19 is transmitted mainly by direct personal contact and respiratory secretions as airborne droplets and aerosols, and less so by respiratory-secreted fomites via contact (touch) exposures. While SARS-CoV-2 often infects the gastrointestinal tract of infected people, its presence as infectious, replication-capable virus in environmental fecal wastes and waters has never been documented. There is only rare and unquantified evidence of infectious, replication-capable SARS-CoV-2 in recently shed feces of COVID-19 hospital patients. The human infectivity dose-response relationship of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, thereby making it impossible to estimate evidence-based quantitative health effects assessments by quantitative microbial risk assessment methods requiring both known exposure assessment and health effects assessment data. The World Health Organization, Water Environment Federation, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and others do not consider environmental fecal wastes and waters as sources of exposure to infectious SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 infection and illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feces , Humans , United States , Waste Water , Water
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(22): e0153221, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494943

ABSTRACT

Effective disinfection technology to combat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can help reduce viral transmission during the ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic and in the future. UV devices emitting UVC irradiation (200 to 280 nm) have proven to be effective for virus disinfection, but limited information is available for SARS-CoV-2 due to the safety requirements of testing, which is limited to biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratories. In this study, inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in thin-film buffered aqueous solution (pH 7.4) was determined across UVC irradiation wavelengths of 222 to 282 nm from krypton chloride (KrCl*) excimers, a low-pressure mercury-vapor lamp, and two UVC light-emitting diodes. Our results show that all tested UVC devices can effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2, among which the KrCl* excimer had the best disinfection performance (i.e., highest inactivation rate). The inactivation rate constants of SARS-CoV-2 across wavelengths are similar to those for murine hepatitis virus (MHV) from our previous investigation, suggesting that MHV can serve as a reliable surrogate of SARS-CoV-2 with a lower BSL requirement (BSL2) during UV disinfection tests. This study provides fundamental information on UVC's action on SARS-CoV-2 and guidance for achieving reliable disinfection performance with UVC devices. IMPORTANCE UV light is an effective tool to help stem the spread of respiratory viruses and protect public health in commercial, public, transportation, and health care settings. For effective use of UV, there is a need to determine the efficiency of different UV wavelengths in killing pathogens, specifically SARS-CoV-2, to support efforts to control the ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic and future coronavirus-caused respiratory virus pandemics. We found that SARS-CoV-2 can be inactivated effectively using a broad range of UVC wavelengths, and 222 nm provided the best disinfection performance. Interestingly, 222-nm irradiation has been found to be safe for human exposure up to thresholds that are beyond those effective for inactivating viruses. Therefore, applying UV light from KrCl* excimers in public spaces can effectively help reduce viral aerosol or surface-based transmissions.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Animals , Bacteriophage phi 6/radiation effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Disinfection/instrumentation , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays
6.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; : acs.estlett.1c00178-acs.estlett.1c00178, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1156811
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145732, 2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071919

ABSTRACT

Current wastewater worker guidance from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aligns with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommendations and states that no additional specific protections against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 infections, are recommended for employees involved in wastewater management operations with residuals, sludge, and biosolids at water resource recovery facilities. The USEPA guidance references a document from 2002 that summarizes practices required for protection of workers handling class B biosolids to minimize exposure to pathogens including viruses. While there is no documented evidence that residuals or biosolids of any treatment level contain infectious SARS-CoV-2 or are a source of transmission of this current pandemic strain of coronavirus, this review summarizes and examines whether the provided federal guidance is sufficient to protect workers in view of currently available data on SARS-CoV-2 persistence and transmission. No currently available epidemiological data establishes a direct link between wastewater sludge or biosolids and risk of infection from the SARS-CoV-2. Despite shedding of the RNA of the virus in feces, there is no evidence supporting the presence or transmission of infectious SARS-CoV-2 through the wastewater system or in biosolids. In addition, this review presents previous epidemiologic data related to other non-enveloped viruses. Overall, the risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2, or any pathogen, decreases with increasing treatment measures. As a result, the highest risk of exposure is related to spreading and handling untreated feces or stool, followed by untreated municipal sludge, the class B biosolids, while lowest risk is associated with spreading or handling Class A biosolids. This review reinforces federal recommendations and the importance of vigilance in applying occupational risk mitigation measures to protect public and occupational health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Biosolids , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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