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1.
J Infect ; 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) are useful biomarkers to differentiate bacterial from viral or fungal infections, although the association between them and co-infection or mortality in COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: The study represents a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia to 84 ICUs from ten countries between (March 2020-January 2021). Primary outcome was to determine whether PCT or CRP at admission could predict community-acquired bacterial respiratory co-infection (BC) and its added clinical value by determining the best discriminating cut-off values. Secondary outcome was to investigate its association with mortality. To evaluate the main outcome, a binary logistic regression was performed. The area under the curve evaluated diagnostic performance for BC prediction. RESULTS: 4635 patients were included, 7.6% fulfilled BC diagnosis. PCT (0.25[IQR 0.1-0.7] versus 0.20[IQR 0.1-0.5]ng/mL, p<0.001) and CRP (14.8[IQR 8.2-23.8] versus 13.3 [7-21.7]mg/dL, p=0.01) were higher in BC group. Neither PCT nor CRP were independently associated with BC and both had a poor ability to predict BC (AUC for PCT 0.56, for CRP 0.54). Baseline values of PCT<0.3ng/mL, could be helpful to rule out BC (negative predictive value 91.1%) and PCT≥0.50ng/mL was associated with ICU mortality (OR 1.5,p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These biomarkers at ICU admission led to a poor ability to predict BC among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Baseline values of PCT<0.3ng/mL may be useful to rule out BC, providing clinicians a valuable tool to guide antibiotic stewardship and allowing the unjustified overuse of antibiotics observed during the pandemic, additionally PCT≥0.50ng/mL might predict worsening outcomes.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337888

ABSTRACT

Background: Optimal time to intubate patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is controversial. Whereas some authors recommend trying noninvasive respiratory support before intubate, others argue that delaying intubation can cause patient-self-induced lung injury and worsen the prognosis. We hypothesized that delayed intubation would increase the risk mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This preplanned retrospective observational study used prospectively collected data from adult patients with COVID-19 and respiratory failure admitted to 73 intensive care units between February 2020 and March 2021. Patients with limitations on life support and those with missing data were excluded. We collected demographic, laboratory, clinical variables and outcomes. Intubation was classified as 1) Very early: before or at ICU admission;2) Early: < 24 hours after ICU admission;or 3) Late: ≥24 hours after ICU admission. We compared the early group versus those intubated late, using chi-square tests for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney U for continuous variables. To assess the relationship between early versus late intubation and mortality, we used multivariable binary logistic regression. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: We included 4198 patients [median age, 63 (54‒71) years;70.8% male;median SOFA score, 4 (3‒7);median APACHE score, 13 (10‒18)], and median PaO 2 /FiO 2 , 131 (100‒190)];intubation was very early in 2024 (48.2%) patients, early in 928 (22.1%), and late in 441 (10.5%). ICU mortality was 30.2% and median ICU stay was 14 (7‒28) days. Although patients in the late group were younger [62 vs. 64, respectively, p<0.05] and had less severe disease [APACHE II (13 vs. 14, respectively, p<0.05) and SOFA (3 vs. 4, respectively, p<0.05) scores], and higher PaO2/FiO 2 at admission (116 vs. 100, respectively, p<0.05), mortality was higher in the late group than in the early group (36.9% vs. 31.6%, p<0.05). Late intubation was independently associated with mortality (OR1.83;95%CI 1.35‒2.47). Conclusions: Delaying intubation beyond the first 24 hours of admission in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia increases the risk of mortality. Trial registration clinical-Trial.gov (NCT 04948242)

3.
Archivos de bronconeumologia ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1801724

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic created tremendous challenges for health-care systems. Intensive care units (ICU) were hit with a large volume of patients requiring ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and other organ support with very high mortality. The Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), a network of Spanish researchers to investigate in respiratory disease, commissioned the current proposal in response to the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) call. Methods CIBERESUCICOVID is a multicenter, observational, prospective/retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Spanish ICUs. Several work packages were created, including study population and ICU data collection, follow-up, biomarkers and miRNAs, data management and quality. Results This study included 6102 consecutive patients admitted to 55 ICUs homogeneously distributed throughout Spain and the collection of blood samples from more than 1000 patients. We enrolled a large population of COVID-19 ICU-admitted patients including baseline characteristics, ICU and MV data, treatments complications, and outcomes. The in-hospital mortality was 31%, and 76% of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation. A 3-6 month and 1 year follow-up was performed. Few deaths after 1 year discharge were registered. Low anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels predict mortality in critical COVID-19. These antibodies contribute to prevent systemic dissemination of SARS-CoV-2. The severity of COVID-19 impacts the circulating miRNA profile. Plasma miRNA profiling emerges as a useful tool for risk-based patient stratification in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Conclusions We present the methodology used in a large multicenter study sponsored by ISCIII to determine the short- and long-term outcomes in patients with COVID-19 admitted to more than 50 Spanish ICUs.

4.
J Crit Care ; 69: 154014, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexamethasone is the only drug that has consistently reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, especially in patients needing oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation. However, there is a growing concern about the relation of dexamethasone with the unprecedented rates of ICU-acquired respiratory tract infections (ICU-RTI) observed in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study; conducted in ten countries in Latin America and Europe. We included patients older than 18 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 requiring ICU admission. A multivariate logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was conducted to determine the relation between dexamethasone treatment and ICU-RTI. RESULTS: A total of 3777 patients were included. 2065 (54.7%) were treated with dexamethasone within the first 24 h of admission. After performing the PSM, patients treated with dexamethasone showed significantly higher proportions of VAP (282/1652 [17.1%] Vs. 218/1652 [13.2%], p = 0.014). Also, dexamethasone treatment was identified as an adjusted risk factor of ICU-RTI in the multivariate logistic regression model (OR 1.64; 95%CI: 1.37-1.97; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients treated with dexamethasone for severe COVID-19 had a higher risk of developing ICU-acquired respiratory tract infections after adjusting for days of invasive mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay, suggesting a cautious use of this treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316534

ABSTRACT

Background: . Some patients who had previously presented with COVID-19 have been reported to develop persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Whilst this information has been adequately recognised and extensively published with respect to non-critically ill patients, less is known about the prevalence and risk factors and characteristics of persistent COVID_19 . On other hand these patients have very often intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP). A second infectious hit after COVID increases the length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation and could have an influence in the poor health post-Covid 19 syndrome in ICU discharged patients Methods: This prospective, multicentre and observational study was done across 40 selected ICUs in Spain. Consecutive patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission were recruited and evaluated three months after hospital discharge. Results: A total of 1,255 ICU patients were scheduled to be followed up at 3 months;however, the final cohort comprised 991 (78.9%) patients. A total of 315 patients developed ICUAP (97% of them had ventilated ICUAP) Patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation had persistent, post-COVID-19 symptoms than those who did not require mechanical ventilation. Female sex, duration of ICU stay, and development of ICUAP were independent risk factors for persistent poor health post-COVID-19. Conclusions: : Persistent, post-COVID-19 symptoms occurred in more than two-thirds of patients. Female sex, duration of ICU stay and the onset of ICUAP comprised all independent risk factors for persistent poor health post-COVID-19. Prevention of ICUAP could have beneficial effects in poor health post-Covid 19

7.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some patients previously presenting with COVID-19 have been reported to develop persistent COVID-19 symptoms. While this information has been adequately recognised and extensively published with respect to non-critically ill patients, less is known about the incidence and factors associated with the characteristics of persistent COVID-19. On the other hand, these patients very often have intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP). A second infectious hit after COVID increases the length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation and could have an influence on poor health post-COVID 19 syndrome in ICU-discharged patients. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, and observational study was carrid out across 40 selected ICUs in Spain. Consecutive patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission were recruited and evaluated three months after hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 1255 ICU patients were scheduled to be followed up at 3 months; however, the final cohort comprised 991 (78.9%) patients. A total of 315 patients developed ICUAP (97% of them had ventilated ICUAP). Patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation had more persistent post-COVID-19 symptoms than those who did not require mechanical ventilation. Female sex, duration of ICU stay, development of ICUAP, and ARDS were independent factors for persistent poor health post-COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent post-COVID-19 symptoms occurred in more than two-thirds of patients. Female sex, duration of ICU stay, development of ICUAP, and ARDS all comprised independent factors for persistent poor health post-COVID-19. Prevention of ICUAP could have beneficial effects in poor health post-COVID-19.

9.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 11: 100243, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the changes in critical care throughout the pandemic have improved the outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in adults with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to 73 ICUs from Spain, Andorra and Ireland between February 2020 and March 2021. The first wave corresponded with the period from February 2020 to June 2020, whereas the second/third waves occurred from July 2020 to March 2021. The primary outcome was ICU mortality between study periods. Mortality predictors and differences in mortality between COVID-19 waves were identified using logistic regression. FINDINGS: As of March 2021, the participating ICUs had included 3795 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, 2479 (65·3%) and 1316 (34·7%) belonging to the first and second/third waves, respectively. Illness severity scores predicting mortality were lower in the second/third waves compared with the first wave according with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system (median APACHE II score 12 [IQR 9-16] vs 14 [IQR 10-19]) and the organ failure assessment score (median SOFA 4 [3-6] vs 5 [3-7], p<0·001). The need of invasive mechanical ventilation was high (76·1%) during the whole study period. However, a significant increase in the use of high flow nasal cannula (48·7% vs 18·2%, p<0·001) was found in the second/third waves compared with the first surge. Significant changes on treatments prescribed were also observed, highlighting the remarkable increase on the use of corticosteroids to up to 95.9% in the second/third waves. A significant reduction on the use of tocilizumab was found during the study (first wave 28·9% vs second/third waves 6·2%, p<0·001), and a negligible administration of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon during the second/third waves compared with the first wave. Overall ICU mortality was 30·7% (n = 1166), without significant differences between study periods (first wave 31·7% vs second/third waves 28·8%, p = 0·06). No significant differences were found in ICU mortality between waves according to age subsets except for the subgroup of 61-75 years of age, in whom a reduced unadjusted ICU mortality was observed in the second/third waves (first 38·7% vs second/third 34·0%, p = 0·048). Non-survivors were older, with higher severity of the disease, had more comorbidities, and developed more complications. After adjusting for confounding factors through a multivariable analysis, no significant association was found between the COVID-19 waves and mortality (OR 0·81, 95% CI 0·64-1·03; p = 0·09). Ventilator-associated pneumonia rate increased significantly during the second/third waves and it was independently associated with ICU mortality (OR 1·48, 95% CI 1·19-1·85, p<0·001). Nevertheless, a significant reduction both in the ICU and hospital length of stay in survivors was observed during the second/third waves. INTERPRETATION: Despite substantial changes on supportive care and management, we did not find significant improvement on case-fatality rates among critical COVID-19 pneumonia patients. FUNDING: Ricardo Barri Casanovas Foundation (RBCF2020) and SEMICYUC.

10.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670174

ABSTRACT

There is limited information available describing the clinical and epidemiological features of Spanish patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this observational study, we aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of severe (non-ICU) and critically patients (ICU) with COVID-19 at triage, prior to hospitalization. Forty-eight patients (27 non-ICU and 21 ICU) with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were analyzed (mean age, 66 years, [range, 33-88 years]; 67% males). There were no differences in age or sex among groups. Initial symptoms included fever (100%), coughing (85%), dyspnea (76%), diarrhea (42%) and asthenia (21%). ICU patients had a higher prevalence of dyspnea compared to non-ICU patients (95% vs. 61%, p = 0.022). ICU-patients had lymphopenia as well as hypoalbuminemia. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin were significantly higher in ICU patients compared to non-ICU (p < 0.001). Lower albumin levels were associated with poor prognosis measured as longer hospital length (r = -0.472, p < 0.001) and mortality (r = -0.424, p = 0.003). As of 28 April 2020, 10 patients (8 ICU and 2 non-ICU) have died (21% mortality), and while 100% of the non-ICU patients have been discharged, 33% of the ICU patients still remained hospitalized (5 in ICU and 2 had been transferred to ward). Critically ill patients with COVID-19 present lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and high levels of inflammation.

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