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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(24): 797-802, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903986

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, CDC was notified of a cluster of previously healthy children with hepatitis of unknown etiology evaluated at a single U.S. hospital (1). On April 21, 2022, following an investigation of this cluster and reports of similar cases in Europe (2,3), a health advisory* was issued requesting U.S. providers to report pediatric cases† of hepatitis of unknown etiology to public health authorities. In the United States and Europe, many of these patients have also received positive adenovirus test results (1,3). Typed specimens have indicated adenovirus type 41, which typically causes gastroenteritis (1,3). Although adenovirus hepatitis has been reported in immunocompromised persons, adenovirus is not a recognized cause of hepatitis in healthy children (4). Because neither acute hepatitis of unknown etiology nor adenovirus type 41 is reportable in the United States, it is unclear whether either has recently increased above historical levels. Data from four sources were analyzed to assess trends in hepatitis-associated emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations, liver transplants, and adenovirus stool testing results among children in the United States. Because of potential changes in health care-seeking behavior during 2020-2021, data from October 2021-March 2022 were compared with a pre-COVID-19 pandemic baseline. These data do not suggest an increase in pediatric hepatitis or adenovirus types 40/41 above baseline levels. Pediatric hepatitis is rare, and the relatively low weekly and monthly counts of associated outcomes limit the ability to interpret small changes in incidence. Ongoing assessment of trends, in addition to enhanced epidemiologic investigations, will help contextualize reported cases of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in U.S. children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Adenoviridae , Adenoviruses, Human , Child , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 313-318, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702098

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) in the United States remain a frontline resource for pediatric health care emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, patterns of health-seeking behavior have changed during the pandemic (1,2). CDC examined changes in U.S. ED visit trends to assess the continued impact of the pandemic on visits among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years (pediatric ED visits). Compared with 2019, pediatric ED visits declined by 51% during 2020, 22% during 2021, and 23% during January 2022. Although visits for non-COVID-19 respiratory illnesses mostly declined, the proportion of visits for some respiratory conditions increased during January 2022 compared with 2019. Weekly number and proportion of ED visits increased for certain types of injuries (e.g., drug poisonings, self-harm, and firearm injuries) and some chronic diseases, with variation by pandemic year and age group. Visits related to behavioral concerns increased across pandemic years, particularly among older children and adolescents. Health care providers and families should remain vigilant for potential indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including health conditions resulting from delayed care, and increasing emotional distress and behavioral health concerns among children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/classification , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , United States
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 319-324, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702097

ABSTRACT

In 2021, a national emergency* for children's mental health was declared by several pediatric health organizations, and the U.S. Surgeon General released an advisory† on mental health among youths. These actions resulted from ongoing concerns about children's mental health in the United States, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2). During March-October 2020, among all emergency department (ED) visits, the proportion of mental health-related visits increased by 24% among U.S. children aged 5-11 years and 31% among adolescents aged 12-17 years, compared with 2019 (2). CDC examined changes in U.S. pediatric ED visits for overall mental health conditions (MHCs) and ED visits associated with specific MHCs (depression; anxiety; disruptive behavioral and impulse-control disorders; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; trauma and stressor-related disorders; bipolar disorders; eating disorders; tic disorders; and obsessive-compulsive disorders [OCD]) during 2019 through January 2022 among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years, overall and by sex and age. After declines in weekly visits associated with MHCs among those aged 0-17 years during 2020, weekly numbers of ED visits for MHCs overall and for specific MHCs varied by age and sex during 2021 and January 2022, when compared with corresponding weeks in 2019. Among adolescent females aged 12-17 years, weekly visits increased for two of nine MHCs during 2020 (eating disorders and tic disorders), for four of nine MHCs during 2021 (depression, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and for five of nine MHCs during January 2022 (anxiety, trauma and stressor-related disorders, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and overall MHC visits during January 2022, compared with 2019. Early identification and expanded evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies are critical to improving children's and adolescents' mental health (1-3), especially among adolescent females, who might have increased need.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Disorders/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1249-1254, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436412

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 generally results in milder disease in children and adolescents than in adults, severe illness from COVID-19 can occur in children and adolescents and might require hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) support (1-3). It is not known whether the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant,* which has been the predominant variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) in the United States since late June 2021,† causes different clinical outcomes in children and adolescents compared with variants that circulated earlier. To assess trends among children and adolescents, CDC analyzed new COVID-19 cases, emergency department (ED) visits with a COVID-19 diagnosis code, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 among persons aged 0-17 years during August 1, 2020-August 27, 2021. Since July 2021, after Delta had become the predominant circulating variant, the rate of new COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-related ED visits increased for persons aged 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 increased for persons aged 0-17 years. Among persons aged 0-17 years during the most recent 2-week period (August 14-27, 2021), COVID-19-related ED visits and hospital admissions in the states with the lowest vaccination coverage were 3.4 and 3.7 times that in the states with the highest vaccination coverage, respectively. At selected hospitals, the proportion of COVID-19 patients aged 0-17 years who were admitted to an ICU ranged from 10% to 25% during August 2020-June 2021 and was 20% and 18% during July and August 2021, respectively. Broad, community-wide vaccination of all eligible persons is a critical component of mitigation strategies to protect pediatric populations from SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
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