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Australas J Dermatol ; 63(2): 228-234, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744140


BACKGROUND: Little is known about mucocutaneous involvement in critically ill patients with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The aim of our study was to describe the localisation and variety of rash and to investigate whether presenting with rash at admission alters the clinical course of MIS-C. METHODS: This prospective, observational cohort study was conducted amongst children under 18 years of age who were admitted to our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between May 2020 and May 2021 with a possible diagnosis of MIS-C. RESULTS: A total of 33 children with MIS-C, 21 boys (64%), with a median age of 9.4 years (3.4-11.5) were enrolled. Twenty-four children presented with mucocutaneous symptoms (72%). Age, male gender, PICU length of stay, presenting symptoms, inotrope requirement, the existence of myocarditis or respiratory failure were higher but not significantly different in patients with rash compared to those without rash (P > 0.05). The median duration of symptoms before admission and presence of cervical lymphadenopathy were significantly higher in patients than those without rash (P < 0.05). Children with a rash had a significantly higher neutrophil count, CRP, procalcitonin, troponin levels and lower lymphocyte counts and albumin levels than those without rash (P < 0.05). Twelve children with rash (50%) had symmetrical intertriginous distribution. Two children had erythematous lesions on the areola and the surroundings. In conclusion, intertriginous involvement, periareolar erythema and other mucocutaneous manifestations might be the first alarming symptoms of moderate to severe MIS-C. Therefore, close monitoring with a multidisciplinary approach should be considered for these patients to assess potential disease progression.

COVID-19 , Exanthema , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Disease Progression , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402692


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 may have neurological manifestations including meningitis, encephalitis, post-infectious brainstem encephalitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Neuroinflammation has been claimed as a possible cause. Here, we present a child with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) who developed pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) during the disease course. CASE: A 11-year-old girl presented with 5 days of fever, headache and developed disturbance of consciousness, respiratory distress, conjunctivitis and diffuse rash on her trunk. Immunoglobulin M and G antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were positive in her serum. She was diagnosed with MIS-C. On day 10, she developed headache and diplopia. Left abducens paralysis and bilateral grade 3 papilledema were observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed optic nerve head protrusion, globe flattening. She was diagnosed with secondary PTCS. Papilledema and abducens paralysis improved under acetazolamide and topiramate. Neurological examination became normal after 2 months. CONCLUSION: PTCS may emerge related to MIS-C.

COVID-19 , Pseudotumor Cerebri , Child , Female , Humans , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Pseudotumor Cerebri/drug therapy , Pseudotumor Cerebri/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e445-e450, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356730


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the predominant clinical presentation is a respiratory disease, neurologic manifestations are being recognized increasingly. CASE REPORT: We report 2 children 9 years of age who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease associated with SARS-CoV-2. Seizures and encephalopathy were the main central nervous system symptoms. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed within the first week of disease onset showed elevated protein in both children with normal cell count and no evidence of infection including negative SARS-CoV-2 by antibody and polymerase chain reaction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed T2A, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery cortical and subcortical hyperintensity without restricted diffusion consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease. They received methylprednisolone followed by therapeutic plasma exchange. One of them showed complete clinical improvement and resolution in magnetic resonance imaging findings. The other developed laminar necrosis in brain magnetic resonance imaging and showed significant clinical improvement after therapeutic plasma exchange. He was positive for positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody in cerebrospinal fluid on day 55 of admission. They were both positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum after 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Our two cases highlight the occurrence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease as a postinfectious/immune-mediated complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Electroencephalography , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/blood , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult