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1.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(32): 3444-3453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viruses are known as the major causative agents for infectious diseases globally. The coronaviruses are one of the serious pathogens to cause serious diseases in humans. Recently identified SARSCoV- 2 from Wuhan City, China, has emerged as a serious threat to human health and caused a global pandemic. Bats have been confirmed as a primary source of infection. The vaccination of the human population and animals serving as a potential reservoir is a straightforward strategy to control the transmission of any pathogen to humans. Natural products from many herbal plants are well known to have novel antiviral properties and evaluated against various viral diseases. There are many alkaloids that have shown to be effective against coronaviruses. METHODS: Recently, the antiviral efficacy of natural alkaloids known as Homoharringtonine (HTT) and Emetine has been evaluated and provided promising results against coronaviruses, including SARS-CoVs. These alkaloids may be very useful and can be used as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 because they have already been reported to inhibit the replication of SASRS-CoV and other viruses in cell lines. CONCLUSION: This review specifically focuses on the recent findings of these alkaloids against coronaviruses and possible treatment options for SARS-CoV-2. It is expected that natural products as alkaloids from herbal plants could be considered as novel and valuable candidates for the new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Biological Products , COVID-19 , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/pharmacology , Emetine , Homoharringtonine , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256438

ABSTRACT

The unusual cases of pneumonia outbreak were reported from Wuhan city in late December 2019. Serological testing provides a powerful tool for the identification of prior infection and for epidemiological studies. Pseudotype virus neutralization assays are widely used for many viruses and applications in the fields of serology. The accuracy of pseudotype neutralizing assay allows for its use in low biosafety lab and provides a safe and effective alternative to the use of wild-type viruses. In this study, we evaluated the performance of this assay compared to the standard microneutralization assay as a reference. The lentiviral pseudotype particles were generated harboring the Spike gene of SARS-CoV-2. The generated pseudotype particles assay was used to evaluate the activity of neutralizing antibodies in 300 human serum samples from a COVID-19 sero-epidemiological study. Testing of these samples resulted in 55 positive samples and 245 negative samples by pseudotype viral particles assay while microneutralization assay resulted in 64 positive and 236 negative by MN assay. Compared to the MN, the pseudotyped viral particles assay showed a sensitivity of 85.94% and a specificity of 100%. Based on the data generated from this study, the pseudotype-based neutralization assay showed a reliable performance for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and can be used safely and efficiently as a diagnostic tool in a biosafety level 2 laboratory.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223965

ABSTRACT

A few months ago, the availability of a reliable and cost-effective testing capacity for COVID-19 was a concern for many countries. With the emergence and circulation of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, another layer of challenge can be added for COVID-19 testing at both molecular and serological levels. This is particularly important for the available tests principally designed to target the S gene/protein where multiple mutations have been reported. Herein, the SARS-CoV-2 NP recombinant protein was utilized to develop a simple and reliable COVID-19 NP human IgG ELISA. The optimized protocol was validated against a micro-neutralization (MN) assay, in-house S-based ELISA, and commercial chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The developed assay provides 100% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.9% agreement, and high overall accuracy with an area under curve equal to 0.9998 ± 0.0002 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.99 to 1.00. The optical density values of positive samples significantly correlated with their corresponding MN titers. The assay specifically detects IgG antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 NP protein and does not cross-detect IgG to the viral S protein. Moreover, it does not cross-react with antibodies related to other coronaviruses (e.g., the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus or human coronavirus HKU1). The availability of this reliable COVID-19 NP IgG ELISA protocol is highly valuable for its diagnostic and epidemiological applications.

4.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 33(3): 101366, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major health problem worldwide. The surveillance of seropositive individuals serves as an indicator to the extent of infection spread and provides an estimation of herd immunity status among population. Reports from different countries investigated this issue among healthcare workers (HCWs) who are "at risk" and "sources of risk" for COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 among HCWs in one of the COVID-19 referral centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using three different serological methods. METHODS: In-house developed enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), commercially available electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and microneutralization (MN) assay were utilized to determine the seroprevalence rate among the study population. 204 HCWs participated in the study. Both physicians and nurses working in the COVID-19 and non COVID-19 areas were included. Twelve out of 204 were confirmed cases of COVID-19 with variable disease severity. Samples from recovered HCWs were collected four weeks post diagnosis. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence rate was 6.3% (13 out of 204) using the in-house ELISA and MN assay and it was 5.8% (12 out of 204) using the commercial ECLIA. Among HCWs undiagnosed with COVID-19, the seroprevalence was 2% (4 out 192). Notably, neutralizing antibodies were not detected in 3 (25%) out 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, similar to the recent national multi-center study, showed a low seroprevalence of SARS-Cov-2 antibodies among HCWs. Concordance of results between the commercial electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), in-house ELISA and MN assay was observed. The in-house ELISA is a promising tool for the serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, seroprevalence studies may underestimate the extent of COVID-19 infection as some cases with mild disease did not have detectable antibody responses.

5.
Curr Pharm Des ; 26(41): 5286-5292, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are common viruses and known to be associated with respiratory diseases, including pneumonia. Currently, seven human coronaviruses have been identified and known to cause upper and lower respiratory infections as well as nosocomial viral infections in humans. The bats, palm civets, and camels are identified as the reservoir of human coronaviruses. In 2002-2003, the emergence of SARS-CoV resulted in an outbreak and led towards the more awareness and importance of scientific research and medical urgency. METHODS: The recently identified SARS-CoV-2 was identified from the seafood market of the city Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and caused a global pandemic. This virus has now spread to more than 213 countries. This is the third highly pathogenic human coronavirus after SARS and MERS-CoV. The coronaviruses have RNA as genetic material and are known to have frequent recombination and mutations in their genome, which lead to the emergence and re-emergence of new virus strains and isolates with novel properties and extended hosts. The genetic mutations and suitable environmental conditions result in the emergence and re-emergence of pathogenic coronaviruses and cause a serious issue to human health and the economy globally. Lectins are the ubiquitous group of proteins that bind to glycosylated molecules. CONCLUSION: The plant lectins are known to have significant antiviral activities against coronaviruses. Additionally, the plant lectins can be used as potential therapeutics against bacteria, fungus, yeast, and protozoa. In this review, we have discussed the current status of human pathogenic coronavirus emergence and the use of plant lectins as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Lectins , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(32): 3490-3500, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unusual pneumonia outbreak that originated in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019 was found to be caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19. METHODS: In this work, we have performed an in silico design and prediction of potential siRNAs based on genetic diversity and recombination patterns, targeting various genes of SARS-CoV-2 for antiviral therapeutics. We performed extensive sequence analysis to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships, and to identify the possible source of virus reservoirs and recombination patterns, and the evolution of the virus as well as we designed the siRNAs which can be used as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationships indicated high sequence identity and closed clusters with many types of coronavirus. In our analysis, the full-genome of SARS-CoV-2 showed the highest sequence (nucleotide) identity with SARS-bat-ZC45 (87.7%). The overall sequence identity ranged from 74.3% to 87.7% with selected SARS viruses. The recombination analysis indicated the bat SARS virus is a potential recombinant and serves as a major and minor parent. We have predicted 442 siRNAs and finally selected only 19 functional, and potential siRNAs. CONCLUSION: The siRNAs were predicted and selected based on their greater potency and specificity. The predicted siRNAs need to be validated experimentally for their effective binding and antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Phylogeny , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
7.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011456

ABSTRACT

In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Saudi Arabia have imposed timely restrictions to minimize the infection spread, lower the risk for vulnerable groups, and reduce the pressure on healthcare services. The effectiveness of these measures has not been assessed comprehensively and, thereby, remains uncertain. Besides monitoring the number of COVID-19 cases diagnosed by molecular assays, the seroprevalence can serve as an indicator for the incidence rate among the general population. This study aimed to evaluate seroprevalence status of all healthy blood donors who attended one of the main largest hospital located in the western region of Saudi Arabia from 1 January to 31 May 2020. The study period covered two months prior to reporting the first COVID-19 case in the country on 2 March 2020. Importantly, it covered the period when "lock-down type" measures have been enforced. Samples were subjected to in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and microneutralization (MN). The sero statuses of all samples were confirmed negative, demonstrating the lack of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among blood donors during COVID-19 lockdown period. This study supports the hypothesis that COVID-19 restrictions have potential for limiting the extent of the infection.

8.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(32): 3444-3453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viruses are known as the major causative agents for infectious diseases globally. The coronaviruses are one of the serious pathogens to cause serious diseases in humans. Recently identified SARSCoV- 2 from Wuhan City, China, has emerged as a serious threat to human health and caused a global pandemic. Bats have been confirmed as a primary source of infection. The vaccination of the human population and animals serving as a potential reservoir is a straightforward strategy to control the transmission of any pathogen to humans. Natural products from many herbal plants are well known to have novel antiviral properties and evaluated against various viral diseases. There are many alkaloids that have shown to be effective against coronaviruses. METHODS: Recently, the antiviral efficacy of natural alkaloids known as Homoharringtonine (HTT) and Emetine has been evaluated and provided promising results against coronaviruses, including SARS-CoVs. These alkaloids may be very useful and can be used as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 because they have already been reported to inhibit the replication of SASRS-CoV and other viruses in cell lines. CONCLUSION: This review specifically focuses on the recent findings of these alkaloids against coronaviruses and possible treatment options for SARS-CoV-2. It is expected that natural products as alkaloids from herbal plants could be considered as novel and valuable candidates for the new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Biological Products , COVID-19 , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/pharmacology , Emetine , Homoharringtonine , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Pathogens ; 9(10)2020 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904941

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses a threat to human health. Despite this, many affected countries are now in the process of gradual lifting of COVID-19 restrictions that were initially implemented in response to the pandemic. The success of the so-called "exit strategy" requires continued surveillance of virus circulation in the community and evaluation of the prevalence of protective immunity among population. Serology tests are valuable tools for these purposes. Herein, SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike (S) recombinant protein was utilized to develop and optimize an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) that enables a reliable detection of virus-specific IgG antibody in human sera. Importantly, the performance of this assay was evaluated utilizing micro-neutralization (MN) assay as a reference test. Our developed ELISA offers 100% sensitivity, 98.4% specificity, 98.8% agreement, and high overall accuracy. Moreover, the optical density (OD) values of positive samples significantly correlated with their MN titers. The assay specifically detects human IgG antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2, but not those to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) or human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1). The availability of this in-house ELISA protocol would be valuable for various diagnostic and epidemiological applications.

10.
Pathogens ; 9(10):803, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-798869

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses a threat to human health. Despite this, many affected countries are now in the process of gradual lifting of COVID-19 restrictions that were initially implemented in response to the pandemic. The success of the so-called "exit strategy"requires continued surveillance of virus circulation in the community and evaluation of the prevalence of protective immunity among population. Serology tests are valuable tools for these purposes. Herein, SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike (S) recombinant protein was utilized to develop and optimize an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) that enables a reliable detection of virus-specific IgG antibody in human sera. Importantly, the performance of this assay was evaluated utilizing micro-neutralization (MN) assay as a reference test. Our developed ELISA offers 100% sensitivity, 98.4% specificity, 98.8% agreement, and high overall accuracy. Moreover, the optical density (OD) values of positive samples significantly correlated with their MN titers. The assay specifically detects human IgG antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2, but not those to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) or human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1). The availability of this in-house ELISA protocol would be valuable for various diagnostic and epidemiological applications.

11.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(5): 709-717, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-783325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was primarily detected in 2012 and still causing disease in human and camel. Camel and bats have been identified as a potential source of virus for disease spread to human. Although, significant information related to MERS-CoV disease, spread, infection, epidemiology, clinical features have been published, A little information is available on the sequence diversity of Spike protein gene. The Spike protein gene plays a significant role in virus attachment to host cells. Recently, the information about recombinant MERS-CoV has been published. So, this work was designed to identify the emergence of any another recombinant virus in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In this study samples were collected from both human and camels and the Spike protein gene was amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of MERS-CoV Spike protein gene were used to analyze the recombination, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship with selected sequences from Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: The nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 65.7% to 99.8% among all the samples collected from human and camels from various locations in the Kingdom. The lowest similarity (65.7%) was observed in samples from Madinah and Dammam. The phylogenetic relationship formed different clusters with multiple isolates from various locations. The sample collected from human in Jeddah hospital formed a closed cluster with human samples collected from Buraydah, while camel sample formed a closed cluster with Hufuf isolates. The phylogenetic tree by using Aminoacid sequences formed closed cluster with Dammam, Makkah and Duba isolates. The amino acid sequences variations were observed in 28/35 samples and two unique amino acid sequences variations were observed in all samples analyzed while total 19 nucleotides sequences variations were observed in the Spike protein gene. The minor recombination events were identified in eight different sequences at various hotspots in both human and camel samples using recombination detection programme. CONCLUSION: The generated information from this study is very valuable and it will be used to design and develop therapeutic compounds and vaccine to control the MERS-CoV disease spread in not only in the Kingdom but also globally.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Genetic Variation , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genes, Viral , Humans , Phylogeny , Saudi Arabia
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