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J King Saud Univ Sci ; 34(4): 101965, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739961


Objectives: The COVID-19 was identified for the first time from the sea food market, Wuhan city, China in 2019 and the pathogenic organism was identified as SARS-CoV-2. Currently, this virus has spread to 223 countries and territories and known as a serious issue for the global human community. Many vaccines have been developed and used for immunization. Methods: We have reported the insilico prediction, designing, secondary structure prediction, molecular docking analysis, and in vitro assessment of siRNAs against SARS-CoV-2. The online bioinformatic approach was used for siRNAs selection and designing. The selected siRNAs were evaluated for antiviral efficacy by using Lipofectamine 2000 as delivery agent to HEK-293 cells. The MTT assay was used for cytotoxicity determination. The antiviral efficacy of potential siRNAs was determined based on the Ct value of q-RT-PCR and the data analysis was done by Prism-GraphPad software. Results: The analyzed data resulted in the selection of only three siRNAs out of twenty-six siRNAs generated by online software. The secondary structure prediction and molecular docking analysis of siRNAs revealed the efficient binding to the target. There was no cellular toxicity observed in the HEK-293 cells at any tested concentrations of siRNAs. The purification of RNA was completed from inoculated cells and subjected to q-RT-PCR. The highest Ct value was observed in siRNA 3 than the others. The results offered valuable evidence and invigorated us to assess the potency of siRNAs by using alone or in combination in other human cells. Conclusion: The data generated from this study indicates the significance of in silico prediction and narrow down the potential siRNA' against SARS-CoV-2, and molecular docking investigation offered the effective siRNAs binding with the target. Finally, it is concluded that the online bioinformatics approach provided the prediction and selection of siRNAs with better antiviral efficacy. The siRNA-3 was observed to be the best for reduction of viral RNA in cells.

Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902683


The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified in 2012 and causes severe and often fatal acute respiratory illness in humans. No approved prophylactic and therapeutic interventions are currently available. In this study, we have developed egg yolk antibodies (immunoglobulin Y (IgY)) specific for MERS-CoV spike protein (S1) in order to evaluate their neutralizing efficiency against MERS-CoV infection. S1-specific immunoglobulins were produced by injecting chickens with purified recombinant S1 protein of MERS-CoV at a high titer (5.7 mg/mL egg yolk) at week 7 post immunization. Western blotting and immune-dot blot assays demonstrated that the IgY antibody specifically bound to the MERS-CoV S1 protein. Anti-S1 antibodies were also able to recognize MERS-COV inside cells, as demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay. Plaque reduction and microneutralization assays showed the neutralization of MERS-COV in Vero cells by anti-S1 IgY antibodies and non-significantly reduced virus titers in the lungs of MERS-CoV-infected mice during early infection, with a nonsignificant decrease in weight loss. However, a statistically significant (p = 0.0196) quantitative reduction in viral antigen expression and marked reduction in inflammation were observed in lung tissue. Collectively, our data suggest that the anti-MERS-CoV S1 IgY could serve as a potential candidate for the passive treatment of MERS-CoV infection.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res ; 9(2): 164-168, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736868


A novel coronavirus was emerged in December 2019 from Wuhan city, China and has now become a global threat to human health. Currently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to more than 34 countries with 2,445 deaths and 78,811 confirmed cases. Currently, there is no vaccine available against COVID-19. The traditional vaccines development requires more time and high cost and due to this, the disease outbreaks becomes more challenging. Now a days, plants have become more attractive platform for edible vaccine production than the other system. The development of an edible vaccine in a selected plant system has many significant advantages such as; easy and efficient oral delivery, low cost with higher scale production, avoidance of any trained medical personnel for delivery, lack of any pathogenic infection, multicomponent expression in a single plant, and so forth. In this manuscript, the concept, development, and importance of an edible vaccine have been discussed. By using this plant-based platform, an edible vaccines can be produced in many crops like banana, cucumber, carrot, lettuce, and tomato against various diseases. Due to increasing cases globally with COVID-19, there is an urgent requirement to develop an ideal vaccine and antiviral therapy against this virus to control the disease worldwide.