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1.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 12(1): e2020046, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate, retrospectively, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, laboratory results, radiologic findings, and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with transfusion-dependent ß thalassemia major (TM), ß-thalassemia intermedia (TI) and sickle cell disease (SCD). DESIGN: A total of 17 Centers, from 10 countries, following 9,499 patients with hemoglobinopathies, participated in the survey. MAIN OUTCOME DATA: Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 were collected from medical records and summarized. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients, 7 with TM, 3 with TI, and 3 with SCD, with confirmed COVID-19, were identified in 6 Centers from different countries. The overall mean age of patients was 33.7±12.3 years (range:13-66); 9/13 (69.2%) patients were females. Six patients had pneumonia, and 4 needed oxygen therapy. Increased C-reactive protein (6/10), high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 6/10), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; 6/10) were the most common laboratory findings. 6/10 patients had an exacerbation of anemia (2 with SCD). In the majority of patients, the course of COVID-19 was moderate (6/10) and severe in 3/10 patients. A 30-year-old female with TM, developed a critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by death in an Intensive Care Unit. In one Center (Oman), the majority of suspected cases were observed in patients with SCD between the age of 21 and 40 years. A rapid clinical improvement of tachypnea/dyspnea and oxygen saturation was observed, after red blood cell exchange transfusion, in a young girl with SCD and worsening of anemia (Hb level from 9.2 g/dl to 6.1g/dl). CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this survey permit an early assessment of the clinical characteristics of COVID 19 in different countries. 70% of symptomatic patients with COVID- 19 required hospitalization. The presence of associated co-morbidities can aggravate the severity of COVID- 19, leading to a poorer prognosis irrespective of age.

2.
Acta Biomed ; 92(6): e2021543, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649966

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization (WHO) is encouraging reporting of children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection for better understanding and management of the disease. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study included the first 15 pediatrics patient with a confirmed diagnosis of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the state of Qatar. We studied and analyzed their demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: A total of 15 children were studied (mean age 3.5 ± 2.7year). Recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was identified in all of them (100%). The majority of these patients had 4 or more systems involvement. Nine of the 15 presented with Kawasaki disease - picture and all had gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea). Five required Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission. Lab investigations revealed high D-Dimer, hyponatremia, and hypoalbuminemia in all. Low hemoglobin (Hb) , thrombocytopenia, and sterile pyuria occurred in 86.6%, 60% and 75% of them, respectively. Treatment with combined anti-inflammatory medications (intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids) was used in along with immunomodulatory agents (Anakinra) in a selected group of refractory patients. No mortality happened. CONCLUSION: Our young children who presented with MIS-C related to SARS-CoV-2 infection had significantly higher Kawasaki-disease picture compared to other reports. One third of them required PICU admission but no mortality occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020172, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plain chest radiograph (CXR), although less sensitive than chest CT, is usually the first-line imaging modality used for patients with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The relation between radiological changes in CXR and clinical severity of the disease in symptomatic patients with COVID 19 has not been fully studied and there is no scoring system for the severity of the lung involvement, using the plain CXR. AIM OF THE STUDY: Current COVID-19 radiological literature is dominated by CT and a detailed description CXR appearances in relation to the disease time course is lacking. We propose an easy scoring system (CO X-RADS) to describe the severity of chest involvement in symptomatic COVID 19 patients using CXR and to correlate the radiological changes with the clinical severity of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical manifestations and CXR findings were recorded in 500 symptomatic COVID-19 positive patients who were admitted to Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) COVID-19 designated facility Center from January to June 2020. The severity and outcome of the disease included: intensive care unit admission, need for oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation. and mortality rate. RESULTS: Most of our symptomatic patients (86.8%) had mild and moderate clinical manifestations. The remaining 13.2% had severe manifestations, including: fever, persistent dry cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea, abdominal and generalized body pains. Based on our radiological scoring system (0 to 10) patients were distributed according to their CXR findings into different categories and according to our suggested (CO X-RADS) severity system into five categories (0 to IV). Patients with mild clinical manifestations showed low scoring in CXR (score 0 up to 4) and they represented 72% of our patients. Patients with moderately severe clinical manifestations showed mainly GGO (scoring 5 and 6) and represented about 14.8% of patients. Patients presented with severe clinical manifestations had obvious lung consolidations at the time of presentation with CXR scoring system ≥ 7 and represented about 13.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: We proposed a simple CXR reporting scoring system (CO X-RADS) to categorize COVID-19 patients according to their radiological severity. This radiological score was correlated well with the clinical severity score of patients. We encourage other centers to test this scoring system in correlation with the clinical status of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies
4.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020010, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data regarding the effect of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated comorbidities on the clinical presentation and outcome of symptomatic patients with -COVID-19 infection in comparison with non-diabetic patients. AIM OF THE STUDY: We described and compared the clinical presentation and radiological and hematological data of a cohort of symptomatic COVID19 positive T2DM diabetic patients (n = 59) versus another cohort of non-diabetic symptomatic COVID19 positive patients (n =244) diagnosed at the same time from January 2020 to May 2020. Associated comorbidities were -assessed, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. The outcomes including duration of hospitalization, duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of O2 -supplementation were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of T2DM in symptomatic COVID19 positive patients was 59/303 (=19.5%).  Diabetic patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiac dysfunction [coronary heart disease (CHD)], and congestive heart failure (CHF). Charlson Comorbidity score was significantly higher in the T2DM patients (2.4± 1.6) versus the non-diabetic -patients (0.28 ± 0.8; p: < 0.001). Clinically and radiologically, T2DM patients had significantly higher percentage of pneumonia, severe pneumonia and ARDS versus the non-diabetic patients. Hematologically, diabetic patients had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and lower counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils compared to non-diabetic patients. They had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, longer duration of hospitalization, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. CRP was correlated significantly with the duration of stay in the ICU and the duration for oxygen supplementation (r = 0.37 and 0.42 respectively; p: <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM patients showed higher inflammatory response to COVID 19 with higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and CRP with lower lymphocytic and eosinophilic counts. Diabetic patients had more comorbidities and more aggressive course of the disease with higher rate of ICU admission and longer need for hospitalization and oxygen use.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prevalence , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761242

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is rare in infants and toddlers and is usually associated with a relatively high mortality when complicated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In infants, the classical symptoms of DKA are atypical and therefore many infants with DKA are mistreated for infections. We report a case of DKA precipitated by COVID-19 in an 8-month-old infant with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. This case is reported in view of its rarity and originality. The relation between T1DM and COVID19 infection is discussed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/blood , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infant , Insulin Detemir/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020026, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761241

ABSTRACT

A review of the literature on COVID-19 pandemic in patients with thalassemias is presented. Globally, the prevalence of COVID-19 among  ß-thalassemia patients seems to be lower than in general population; associated co-morbidities aggravated the severity of  COVID- 19, leading to a poorer prognosis, irrespective of age. A multicenter registry will enhance the understanding of COVID-19 in these patients and will lead to more evidence-based management recommendations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Thalassemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 184-194, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-313789

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is defined as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, fatigue, cough, breathing difficulty that may lead to respiratory distress; a small population of patients may have diarrhea, nausea or vomiting. The highest infection rate occurs in adults; however, neonates, children, and adolescents can also be infected. As the outbreak continues to spread worldwide, attention has switched toward determinants of clinical manifes- tations and disease severity. The situation surrounding the outbreak is rapidly evolving and the information and recommendations are changing as new information becomes available. This paper summarises the cur- rent findings (April 3,2020) from a systematic literature review on the current knowledge of COVID-19 in adolescents (10-19 years according to the WHO definition) and reports the preliminary epidemiological data stated by the Italian National Institute of Health.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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