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1.
Journal of Clinical and Basic Research ; 6(1):11-27, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory disease with a high prevalence. According to the research and statistical data, in January 2021, there have been 92,262,621 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and more than two million deaths. Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the main cause of this disease. In addition to the respiratory system, the disease affects the gastrointestinal tract, central-peripheral nervous system, circulatory system, and kidneys. Therefore, any therapeutic action to reduce COVID-19-related symptoms and complications is essential. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature and preprints on the efficacy of erythropoietin (EPO) and recombinant human EPO as a safe stimulant and tissue protector in the treatment of COVID-19. We also briefly described the structure of coronavirus, its pathogenesis, and the structure of EPO and recombinant human EPO. All relevant articles published in the Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were searched. According to the results, EPO is a cytoprotective cytokine induced by hypoxia. The pleiotropic effects of EPO are associated with its erythrocyte-forming, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory activities. It also exerts protective effects on the heart, lungs, kidneys, arteries, and central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been demonstrated that EPO can increase hemoglobin levels, thereby increasing oxygen delivery to the tissues. Therefore, recombinant human EPO therapy can be used for counteracting the adverse effects of COVID-19 including hypoxic myocarditis, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, and brain-spinal cord ischemic injury. Overall, the use of EPO and recombinant human EPO therapy increases blood coagulation, tumor growth, thromboembolism, and purification of red blood cells, which must be accompanied by anticoagulants such as heparin.

2.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 60(6):338-344, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033505

ABSTRACT

Dyspnea and decreased O2 saturation are the most common causes of hospitalization in noncritical COVID-19 patients. Breathing exercises and chest physiotherapy are used for managing the patients. These treatments are, however, not well supported by scientific evidence. In a randomized controlled trial, 80 patients were randomly assigned to planned breathing exercises (n=40) and control groups (n=40). The participants in the intervention group were instructed to blow into a balloon five times a day while lying down. Other therapies were similar in both groups. The severity of dyspnea at rest/after activity and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) with/without O2 therapy were compared between the two groups on the first, second, and third days. The study findings showed no statistically significant difference in SpO2 with/without O2 therapy on the first, second, and third days between the two groups. Although the severity of dyspnea showed no significant difference between the two groups, the mean score of dyspnea at rest (2.72±2.25 vs. 1.6±1.21, P=0.007) and after activity (4.53±2.04 vs. 3.52±1.66, P=0.017) improved in the intervention group on the third day. Balloon-blowing exercise improves dyspnea in noncritical Covid-19 patients, but it does not significantly improve oxygenation.

3.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Anesthesia ; 7(2):78-83, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1897269

ABSTRACT

Background: The etiological agent of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Conventional molecular methods are used to detect viruses in COVID-19 infected patients. This study aimed to investigate escape mutations from molecular detection on SARS-CoV-2 targeted genes, which indicates the importance of mutations in false-negative PCR test results in the detection of virus in clinical specimens of patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: The 20 nasopharyngeal swabs samples collected from COVID-19 confirmed patients. The SARS-CoV-2 E, nsp12, and N genetic regions are amplified by RT-PCR assay. PCR products were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing method and Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) to assess the polymorphism and mutations performed using MEGA X software and the Maximum likelihood method for the phylogenetic evaluation. Results: Among all COVID-19 cases, 60% and 40% were male and female, respectively. The MSA showed high conservation between all evaluated samples and VOCs in all N, E, and nsp12 genes. Also, the phylogenetic evaluation by the Maximum likelihood method reported high similarity between all SARS-CoV-2 sequenced samples, VOCs, and Wuhan reference sequences in the evaluated region. Conclusion: Our study results approved the relatively conserved suitability of the E, N, and RdRp-gene regions with no diversity, therefore, making them perfect candidates for first-line screening.

4.
Journal of Islamic Marketing ; : 25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1816420

ABSTRACT

Purpose This paper aims to examine whether medical tourism can be a frontrunner in terms of post-pandemic recovery for the industry Design/methodology/approach A mixed-method analysis of 17 interviews and 210 questionnaires involving medical tourists to Iran was applied. Findings Medical tourists perceived the risks posed by COVID-19 as a temporal one, and attitudes toward post pandemic visitation intentions remained strong. In addition, these tourists can mostly be classified into responsive individuals, who demonstrate not only high risk but also high efficacy levels to negotiate the threats posed by the pandemic. No gender differences were located between male and female medical tourists in terms of post-COVID-19 travel intentions to Iran. Originality/value This research extends the application of the risk perception attitude framework to a medical tourism context. Furthermore, medical tourists are uncovered as another segment of crisis-resistant tourists.

5.
Journal of Biostatistics and Epidemiology ; 7(4):321-343, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695323

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the start of a pandemic from Wuhan, China in 2019, there is tremendous attention on the COVID-19 manifestation. One of the most important COVID-19 clinical presentations is gastrointestinal symptoms. The current systematic review study aims to focus on the implication of the gastrointestinal tract in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: We searched literature in MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase to find related article by using the following keywords "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2 infection", "Gastrointestinal Tract", "digestive system". The heterogeneity of included studies was quantified with the I2 statistic. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and a meta-regression method was utilized to investigate the factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. Results: Of 3028 retrieved documents, 111 studies with 21126 COVID-19 cases were included. The prevalence of any Gastrointestinal symptoms was 17.22% (14.48 to 20.13). The prevalence of diarrhea was 13.75% (12.07 to 15.44), anorexia 27.41% (21.53 to 33.29) and Nausea/vomiting 8.11% (6.87 to 9.35). Furthermore, the prevalence of other symptoms in current study was fever 76.70% (73.42 to 79.83), cough 58.07% (54.59 to 61.52) and dyspnea/shortness of breath 24.63% (20.06 to 29.48). According to meta-regression results, age (p: 0.027) and fever (p<0.001) had significant effect on prevalence of any Gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion: The anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are the most common Gastrointestinal presentations. Copyright © 2021 Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

6.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S203-S204, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677129

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a complex field where all disciplines intersect. Currently, it is not only a question of taking into account the physical health of the worker, but also of including the psychological health and social aspects of the worker. Over the past decades, OSH has seen a lot of advancement, especially in recent years. In addition, this analysis is important in view of the economic costs that work-related accidents cause to the global economy. Method: Through a meta-analysis, a focus on existing research in OHS was made, with the objective of identifying gaps and mapping future research for academics in human resources management (HRM). Results: The review of the literature showed, identified and classified the articles into five distinct themes: antecedents and work-related factors influencing OHS;industrial policy and regulations surrounding OHS;OHS management practices;OHS management approaches and models and OHS management results. OHS research is poorly integrated into HRM research. The importance of the latter was accentuated during the Covid-19 pandemic, by revealing the gaps to be filled in OHS. Thus, the benefits of OHS management in organizations have a huge impact on increasing productivity, performance and decreasing absenteeism rate. Conclusion: There are many opportunities for HRM researchers to add value to the field, but also for organizations. To respond to the problem, the transfer of knowledge remains an essential element for the advancement of OHS practices.

7.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S185, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677089

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sickness absenteeism among caregivers is of particular importance during this COVID-19 pandemic period, as health care workers are front-line personnel;however, this implies that they are highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 as well as to psychosocial risks Materials and Methods: Our study is a retrospective descriptive survey of all absences due to illness declared to the occupational health service by the nursing staff of the CHUIR, over a period from 31 August to 1 November 2020. Our objective is to determine the reasons for absence as well as the characteristics of these cases of work stoppage Results: Our study included 120 cases of absences. The Female sex represented 76.6% of the cases. The average age was 33.61 years;the age range was 23 to 60 years. Average professional tenure was 8.07 years;the seniority range was 3 months to 40 years. Absent staff were nurses in 62.5% of cases. The average length of absence was 16.92 days. The most affected services were medical services in 44.16%, followed by hematology-oncology services in 20% and intensive care departments in 15%. Psychiatric and psycho-social affections represented 30% of cases, including 18% for depression, 10% for burnout and 2% for chronic psychosis;COVID-19 accounted for 20% of cases and pathological pregnancies 16.66% Conclusion: The identification of the reasons for sickness absenteeism among caregivers is essential during this COVID-19 pandemic, in order to orientate preventive measures towards this front-line personnel and allow a more efficient impact of the occupational physician in his action of prevention of professional risks

8.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ; 48(SUPPL 1):S448-S448, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1609697
9.
Reviews in Medical Microbiology ; 33(1):E161-E179, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1583946

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan province, China. SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has an essential role as a receptor in the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells. It has been declared, ACE2 expresses in the lungs, heart, kidneys, placenta, and liver. This study reviews the liver's markers' characteristics in patients with COVID-19 to achieve novel insights in improving clinical treatment. Liver disease and chronic kidney disease patients are susceptible to COVID-19. There is limited information about the effects of SARS-COV-2 on patients with preexisting liver associated disorders, including chronic hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, primary biliary cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and more are yet to be understood. By considering conducted studies in this manner since ACE2 receptors, which are the primary receptors for SRAS-CoV-2, exist on the liver and lungs, heart, kidneys, and placenta, SRAS-CoV-2 can infect liver cells too. Consequently, this infection will have resulted in liver function tests' escalated levels and total bilirubin as biochemical biomarkers. Further investigations need to be done to point out the hepatic manifestations of COVID-19's infected patients with chronic liver disease and improve clinical management and more stringent preventive measures for this type of infected patients. Copyright (C) 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

10.
Frontiers in Emergency Medicine ; 5(4), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1404170

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To date, little is known about the clinical features of pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Objective: Herein, we aimed to describe the differences in demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, clinical presentations, and outcomes of Iranian pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU versus those in non-ICU settings. Methods: This multicenter investigation involved 15 general and pediatrics hospitals and included cases with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection based on positive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) admitted to these centers between March and May 2020, during the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. Results: Overall, 166 patients were included, 61 (36.7%) of whom required ICU admission. The highest number of admitted cases to ICU were in the age group of 1–5 years old. Malignancy and heart diseases were the most frequent underlying conditions. Dyspnea was the major symptom for ICU-admitted patients. There were significant decreases in PH, HCO3 and base excess, as well as increases in creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and potassium levels between ICU-admitted and non-ICU patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), shock, and acute cardiac injury were the most common features among ICU-admitted patients. The mortality rate in the ICU-admitted patients was substantially higher than non-ICU cases (45.9% vs. 1.9%, respectively;p<0.001). Conclusions: Underlying diseases were the major risk factors for the increased ICU admissions and mortality rates in pediatric COVID-19 patients. There were few paraclinical parameters that could differentiate between pediatrics in terms of prognosis and serious outcomes of COVID-19. Healthcare providers should consider children as a high-risk group, especially those with underlying medical conditions. © 2021 Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

11.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Anesthesia ; 6(2):148-153, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1395550

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike (S) glycoprotein facilitates receptor binding to initiate cell entry that is the critical initial step in the infection cycle. Due to S glycoprotein's pivotal role, in this review, we pointed to show potential functional and structural consequences of S glycoprotein and its variants, which has been related to increased viral load in humans with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
New Microbes New Infect ; 43: 100910, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328778

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 raised the attention towards bacterial coinfection and its role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. This study aims to systematically review and identify the pooled prevalence of bacterial coinfection in the related articles. A comprehensive search was conducted in international databases, including MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase, to identify the articles on the prevalence of bacterial coinfections in COIVD-19 patients from 1 December 2019 until 30 December 2020. All observational epidemiological studies that evaluated the prevalence of bacterial coinfections in patients with COVID-19 were included without any restriction. Forty-two studies including a total sample size of 54,695 were included in the analysis. The pooled estimate for the prevalence of bacterial coinfections was 20.97% (95% CI: 15.95-26.46), and the pooled prevalence of bacterial coinfections was 5.20% (95% CI: 2.39-8.91) for respiratory subtype and 4.79% (95% CI: 0.11-14.61) for the gastrointestinal subtype. The pooled prevalence for Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and South-East Asia Regional Office was 100% (95% CI: 82.35-100.00) and 2.61% (95% CI: 1.74-3.62). This rate of coinfection poses a great danger towards patients, especially those in critical condition. Although there are multiple complications and adverse effects related to extensive use of antibiotics to treat patients with COVID-19, it seems there is no other option except applying them, and it needs to be done carefully.

13.
Future Virology ; : 6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1158322

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, the SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is recognized as the primary cause of mortality in humans. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted through human-to-human contact and is asymptomatic in most patients. In addition to approved vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection, miRNAs may also be promising options against this new virus. miRNAs are small and noncoding RNAs 18-25 nucleotides in length that target the mRNAs to degrade them or obstruct their translation miRNAs act as an observer in cells. This study reviewed the literature on the potential role of cellular miRNAs in the SARS-CoV-2-host interplay as a therapeutic option in COVID-19 patients.

14.
Advances in Human Biology ; 11(1):26-43, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1150830

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus outbreak in December 2019 leads to current pandemic condition worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 known as the aetiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The major characterisation of COVID-19 is to involve lung and induce pneumonia, multiorgan failure, hypoxia and deat h. This systematic literature review aimed to assess the clinical manifestation and laboratory and radiologic features in patients with COVID-19. A literature review of the indexed articles in the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase was performed to evaluate pathophysiology of COVID-19. Between 77,406 assessed COVID-19 patients, the most reported background diseases were cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. After fever, cough was the second most common repeated clinical feature. Furthermore, the laboratory investigations reveal that the C-reactive protein (CRP) increasing is the most common frequent laboratory finding. Chest imaging assessment indicates that bilateral involvement of the lungs is more common than unilateral involvement. Despite the fact that some of the COVID-19-infected patients are asymptomatic, the majority of patients showed a broad range of manifestation. The clinical findings help in better understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis and patient's management. The primary concept of understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology is necessary for reach to target therapeutics approach. According to the results, further in vivo investigations on animal models could be recommended for the treatment of COVID-19 patients in future.

16.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Anesthesia ; 5(4):266-268, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1000775

ABSTRACT

A novel beta-coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, which in December 2019, which was named SARS-CoV-2. It causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) that can affect lung tissue and airways. The immune system can respond to SARS-CoV-2 infection via various mechanisms. Cytokines play crucial roles in COVID-19. In the present study, the latest information on the immune responses, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 is reviewed. © 2020 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Anesthesiology Research Center. All right reserved.

17.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 9(6):244-247, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-946038

ABSTRACT

Diabetes, as the major cause of hyperglycemia, is a chronic metabolic disease. Immune system disorders caused by diabetes can increase the risk of respiratory diseases. Thus, diabetes is considered to be a major risk factor for viral respiratory infections such as coronavirus infections. Coronaviruses are members of the Coronaviridae, which has caused three outbreaks from 2003 to 2020. Patients with coronavirus infection in the lower and upper respiratory tract could show mild to severe symptoms. In this review, we focus on the relationship between diabetes and three coronaviruses: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2.

18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(12): 6484-6485, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635405
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