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4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614026

ABSTRACT

The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine affords indirect protection against COVID-19, which is presumably due to priming of the innate immune system. It was hypothesized that the live attenuated Varicella Zoster (LAVZ) vaccine, recommended for the elderly population, would also protect against COVID-19 infection. A retrospective population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using the Leumit Health Services (LHS) database. LAVZ-vaccinated patients were matched with controls based on a propensity score model using 1:9 nearest-neighbor matching. Matching was based on age, gender, and the presence of some chronic disorders, which were selected according to their association with COVID-19 infection. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, comorbidities, and chronic medications associated with COVID-19 risk, were used to estimate the association between LAVZ vaccination and COVID-19 RT-PCR results. Subjects (625) vaccinated with LAVZ and RT-PCR-tested for COVID-19 were identified. After 1:9 matching of subjects who received the LAVZ vaccine, 6250 subjects were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant and independent negative association between having received the LAVZ vaccine and the likelihood of COVID-19 infection (adjusted OR = 0.47 (95% CI 0.33-0.69, p < 0.001)). This association was further strengthened after separate analysis based on the time of LAVZ vaccination before COVID-19 RT-PCR testing. Individuals aged ≥50 years vaccinated with LAVZ had a decreased likelihood of being tested positive for COVID-19.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2265-2275, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Benefits of school reopening must be weighed against the morbidity and mortality risks and the impact of enhancing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated the effects of school reopening and easing of social-distancing restrictions on dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in Israel between March and July 2020. METHODS: We examined the nationwide age-wise weekly incidence, prevalence, SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests, their positivity, COVID-19 hospitalizations, and associated mortality. Temporal differences in these parameters following school reopening, school ending, and following easing of restrictions such as permission of large-scale gatherings were examined. RESULTS: Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections gradually increased following school reopening in all age groups, with a significantly higher increase in adults than children. Higher rate ratios (RRs) of sample positivity rates 21-27 days following school reopening relative to positivity rates prior to openings were found for the age groups 40-59 (RR, 4.72; 95% CI, 3.26-6.83) and 20-39 (RR, 3.37 [2.51-4.53]) years, but not for children aged 0-9 (RR, 1.46 [.85-2.51]) and 10-19 (RR, .93 [.65-1.34]) years. No increase was observed in COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and deaths following school reopening. In contrast, permission of large-scale gatherings was accompanied by increases in incidence and positivity rates of samples for all age groups, and increased hospitalizations and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis does not support a major role of school reopening in the resurgence of COVID-19 in Israel. Easing restrictions on large-scale gatherings was the major influence on this resurgence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Schools
7.
Acta Paediatr ; 111(3): 595-601, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555863

ABSTRACT

AIM: To examine and compare the medical burden of measles, influenza and COVID-19 outbreaks in the city of Bnei Brak, Israel. METHODS: The study was conducted during 2018-2021. The numbers of hospitalisations for these infections and their complications were recorded. Hospitalisation rates were determined by using the number of children residing in Bnei Brak and hospitalised with these infections during the study period as the numerators. The denominators were the estimated paediatric cases of measles, influenza and COVID-19 in Bnei Brak and were calculated under both pragmatic and conservative assumptions. RESULTS: A total of 247, 65 and 32 children were hospitalised with influenza, COVID-19 and measles respectively. Complication rates were higher following measles than after influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infections. Hospitalisation rates were 10% for measles, 0.6%-1.2% for influenza and 0.15% - 0.25% for COVID-19 infections. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hospitalisation following measles compared with COVID-19 ranged from 42 (26.3-67.3) to 70.1 (43.8-112.1), while the relative risks for influenza hospitalisation ranged from 2.5 (1.83-3.41) to 8.2 (6.0-11.2), compared with COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: Hospitalisation rates and direct medical burdens of measles and influenza were significantly higher than those of COVID-19 infection in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Measles , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(8): e310-e311, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541587

ABSTRACT

The dynamics of intrafamilial spread of SARS-CoV-2 during January-February 2021 when variant B.1.1.7 predominated were compared with data from April to May 2020, when other circulating variants prevailed. Much higher intrafamilial transmission rates among all age groups, in particular in young children, and lower rates of sensory impairment were demonstrated during January-February 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Adolescent , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/virology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Israel/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 188-191, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529982

ABSTRACT

The relative increase in coronavirus disease incidence during summer 2020 in Israel was most prominent in young children. This finding contrasts with the lower increase in incidence observed in children than in adults during the school attendance period. School closure without lockdown conditions might not be independently effective at reducing spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Seasons
12.
J Perinatol ; 41(11): 2621-2624, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We compared neonatal immunity after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy to that achieved after maternal infection. STUDY DESIGN: We tested cord blood from women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy (group 1, n = 29), women who were vaccinated during pregnancy (group 2, n = 29) and from women not infected and not vaccinated (Group 3, n = 21) for titers of antibodies to both SARS-CoV-2 spike and 'N' proteins. RESULTS: Seventy-nine women were included: Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were detected in all samples from Group 1 and 2. Antibodies to the 'N' protein were detected in 25/29 samples in Group 1. None of the samples from Group 3 had antibodies to either protein. Mean titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Neonates born to mothers vaccinated during pregnancy have higher antibody titers and may therefore have more prolonged protection than those born to women infected during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fetal Blood , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(7): 757-765, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mild. We assessed nationally severe COVID-19, including pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS), in hospitalized children. METHODS: An ongoing, prospective, national surveillance was conducted from March 2020 through March 2021, at 20 hospitals treating children <18 years across Israel (~75% of Israeli hospitals). RESULTS: Overall, 1007 cases (439 outpatients and 568 hospitalized) identified represent 0.35% of pediatric COVID-19 nationwide (n = 291 628). Of hospitalized cases, 464 (82%), 48 (8%), and 56 (10%) had mild, moderate/severe, and PIMS disease, respectively. The mean ± SD age was 5.6 ± 6.4 years. In mild, moderate/severe, and PIMS disease, 55%, 23%, and 4% of patients were <1 year old, respectively. Obesity was reported in 1%, 4%, and 13% of patients, respectively (P < .001). The most common symptom was fever in 67%, 60%, and 100%, respectively, whereas respiratory symptoms were documented in 33%, 41%, and 38% of patients, respectively. Lymphopenia was recorded in 25%, 60%, and 86% of cases, respectively. PIMS diagnosis was mainly serology-based (in 59%). Gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiovascular involvement, rash, and conjunctivitis were noted in 82%, 61%, 57%, and 34% of PIMS episodes, respectively. Elevated C-reactive protein (100%), ferritin, troponin, D-dimer, low albumin, and thrombocytopenia were common in PIMS. Echocardiography revealed pathological findings in 33% of patients. PIMS mainstay treatment included corticosteroids (77%) and intravenous immunoglobulin (53%). No mortality was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: At a national level, pediatric COVID-19 is mild, even in hospitalized cases, with only a third presenting with respiratory involvement. PIMS is rare, but necessitates a high index of suspicion, and with suitable treatment prognosis is favorable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Israel/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 62(1): 90-96, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding the safety of vaginal delivery in women infected with COVID-19. Our goal was to assess the safety of vaginal delivery in women infected with COVID-19 and the risk of neonatal infection. METHODS: This was a single medical center cohort study. Data were collected about the outcome of twenty-one women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who delivered between March 23, 2020, and May 8, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-one gravidas were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection. None required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and there were no fatalities. Seventeen delivered vaginally and four by caesareans. Apgar scores of all neonates were 9 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. One neonate was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection 24 h after birth. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal delivery in women infected with COVID-19 is not associated with a significant risk of neonatal infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Cohort Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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