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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(9): 1078-1087, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245319

ABSTRACT

Importance: Myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden death in competitive athletes. Myocardial inflammation is known to occur with SARS-CoV-2. Different screening approaches for detection of myocarditis have been reported. The Big Ten Conference requires comprehensive cardiac testing including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for all athletes with COVID-19, allowing comparison of screening approaches. Objective: To determine the prevalence of myocarditis in athletes with COVID-19 and compare screening strategies for safe return to play. Design, Setting, and Participants: Big Ten COVID-19 Cardiac Registry principal investigators were surveyed for aggregate observational data from March 1, 2020, through December 15, 2020, on athletes with COVID-19. For athletes with myocarditis, presence of cardiac symptoms and details of cardiac testing were recorded. Myocarditis was categorized as clinical or subclinical based on the presence of cardiac symptoms and CMR findings. Subclinical myocarditis classified as probable or possible myocarditis based on other testing abnormalities. Myocarditis prevalence across universities was determined. The utility of different screening strategies was evaluated. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction testing. Main Outcome and Measure: Myocarditis via cardiovascular diagnostic testing. Results: Representing 13 universities, cardiovascular testing was performed in 1597 athletes (964 men [60.4%]). Thirty-seven (including 27 men) were diagnosed with COVID-19 myocarditis (overall 2.3%; range per program, 0%-7.6%); 9 had clinical myocarditis and 28 had subclinical myocarditis. If cardiac testing was based on cardiac symptoms alone, only 5 athletes would have been detected (detected prevalence, 0.31%). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for all athletes yielded a 7.4-fold increase in detection of myocarditis (clinical and subclinical). Follow-up CMR imaging performed in 27 (73.0%) demonstrated resolution of T2 elevation in all (100%) and late gadolinium enhancement in 11 (40.7%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of 1597 US competitive athletes with CMR screening after COVID-19 infection, 37 athletes (2.3%) were diagnosed with clinical and subclinical myocarditis. Variability was observed in prevalence across universities, and testing protocols were closely tied to the detection of myocarditis. Variable ascertainment and unknown implications of CMR findings underscore the need for standardized timing and interpretation of cardiac testing. These unique CMR imaging data provide a more complete understanding of the prevalence of clinical and subclinical myocarditis in college athletes after COVID-19 infection. The role of CMR in routine screening for athletes safe return to play should be explored further.


Subject(s)
Athletes , COVID-19/complications , Mass Screening/methods , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(5): 1039-1050, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073691

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders overlap with comorbidities associated with poor outcomes related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. However, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and relationship to outcomes is poorly characterized, and the relevance of other sleep disorders remains unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of pre-existing sleep disorders and association with outcomes related to severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection admitted to the University of Michigan Hospital System were included. Electronic medical records were queried for sleep disorders diagnostic codes. Data were extracted from polysomnography and home sleep testing in a subgroup with previous diagnostic testing at our center. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of sleep disorders with mechanical ventilation requirement, treatment with vasopressors, and death and Cox proportional hazards regression for time to discharge. RESULTS: Among n = 572 adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 113 (19.8%) patients had obstructive sleep apnea, 4 patients had central sleep apnea (0.7%), 5 had hypoventilation (0.9%), 63 had insomnia (11.0%), and 22 had restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movements disorder (3.9%). After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and race, no significant relationship was apparent between sleep disorders diagnoses or indices of sleep-disordered breathing severity and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders in a well-characterized cohort of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Once hospitalized, a significant contribution of sleep disorders to outcomes was not identified. Therefore, future evaluations should focus on earlier outcomes, such as infection or clinical manifestations after exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Michigan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
3.
Transplantation ; 105(1): 128-137, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are considered to be "vulnerable" to COVID-19 infection due to immunosuppression. To date, there are no studies that compared the disease severity of COVID-19 in SOT recipients with nontransplant patients. METHODS: In this case-control study, we compared the outcomes of COVID-19 between SOT recipients and their matched nontransplant controls. The cases were all adult SOT recipients (N = 41) from our academic health center who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 10, 2020 and May 15, 2020 using positive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV2. The controls (N = 121) were matched on age (±5 y), race, and admission status (hospital or outpatient). The primary outcome was death and secondary outcomes were severe disease, intubation and renal replacement therapy (RRT). RESULTS: Median age of SOT recipients (9 heart, 3 lung, 16 kidney, 8 liver, and 5 dual organ) was 60 y, 80% were male and 67% were Black. Severe disease adjusted risk of death was similar in both the groups (hazard ratio = 0.84 [0.32-2.20]). Severity of COVID-19 and intubation were similar, but the RRT use was higher in SOT (odds ratio = 5.32 [1.26, 22.42]) compared to non-SOT COVID-19 patients. Among SOT recipients, COVID-19-related treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was associated with 10-fold higher hazard of death compared to without HCQ (hazard ratio = 10.62 [1.24-91.09]). CONCLUSIONS: Although African Americans constituted one-tenth of all SOT in our center, they represented two-thirds of COVID-19 cases. Despite high RRT use in SOT recipients, the severe disease and short-term death were similar in both groups. HCQ for the treatment of COVID-19 among SOT recipients was associated with high mortality and therefore, its role as a treatment modality requires further scrutiny.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Organ Transplantation/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e445-e454, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest in rapid decompensation and respiratory failure with elevated inflammatory markers, consistent with cytokine release syndrome for which IL-6 blockade is an approved treatment. METHODS: We assessed effectiveness and safety of IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab in a single-center cohort of patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary endpoint was survival probability postintubation; secondary analyses included an ordinal illness severity scale integrating superinfections. Outcomes in patients who received tocilizumab compared with tocilizumab-untreated controls were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression with propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: 154 patients were included, of whom 78 received tocilizumab and 76 did not. Median follow-up was 47 days (range, 28-67). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, although tocilizumab-treated patients were younger (mean: 55 vs 60 years), less likely to have chronic pulmonary disease (10% vs 28%), and had lower D-dimer values at time of intubation (median: 2.4 vs 6.5 mg/dL). In IPTW-adjusted models, tocilizumab was associated with a 45% reduction in hazard of death (HR, .55; 95% CI, .33-.90) and improved status on the ordinal outcome scale [OR per 1-level increase, .58; .36-.94). Although tocilizumab was associated with an increased proportion of patients with superinfections (54% vs 26%; P < .001), there was no difference in 28-day case fatality rate among tocilizumab-treated patients with versus without superinfection (22% vs 15%; P = .42). Staphylococcus aureus accounted for ~50% of bacterial pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, tocilizumab was associated with lower mortality despite higher superinfection occurrence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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