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ARP Rheumatol ; 1(1): 100-101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1870620


Infections including COVID-19 infection are associated with immune overactivation and hyperinflammation, and cases of incident inflammatory arthritis after COVID-19 and other respiratory viral infections have been reported. Theoretical concerns of autoimmunity due to molecular mimicry exist with vaccines including vaccines for COVID-19, and rare cases of flares of underlying chronic inflammatory disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. Here we present the case of a patient with a 7-year history of well-controlled palindromic rheumatism who developed rheumatoid arthritis 2 weeks after vaccination for COVID-19. This is the first such case to our knowledge, and further studies can elaborate on the risk of autoimmunity due to COVID-19 vaccines if one exists. Given the overall safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, the proven benefits of vaccinating vulnerable patients with autoimmune disorders outweigh this potential theoretical risk of autoimmune disease flare, and vaccinations in this at-risk population shall be strongly encouraged.

Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects
Ann Med ; 53(1): 117-134, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889359


Hydroxychloroquine, initially used as an antimalarial, is used as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of autoimmune and rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Lately, there has been interest in its potential efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, with several speculated mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the mechanisms surrounding hydroxychloroquine. The review is an in-depth analysis of the antimalarial, immunomodulatory, and antiviral mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine, with detailed and novel pictorial explanations. The mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine are related to potential cardiotoxic manifestations and demonstrate potential adverse effects when used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, current literature associated with hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19 has been analyzed to interrelate the mechanisms, adverse effects, and use of hydroxychloroquine in the current pandemic. Currently, there is insufficient evidence about the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. KEY MESSAGES HCQ, initially an antimalarial agent, is used as an immunomodulatory agent for managing several autoimmune diseases, for which its efficacy is linked to inhibiting lysosomal antigen processing, MHC-II antigen presentation, and TLR functions. HCQ is generally well-tolerated although severe life-threatening adverse effects including cardiomyopathy and conduction defects have been reported. HCQ use in COVID-19 should be discouraged outside clinical trials under strict medical supervision.

Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antimalarials/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pandemics