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1.
Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(4):528-530, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870522

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Aggarwal A, Arora U, Mittal A, Aggarwal A, Singh K, Ray A, et al.Outcomes of HFNC Use in COVID-19 Patients inNon-ICU Settings: A Single-center Experience. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(4):528–530.

2.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(4): 528-530, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869986

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Aggarwal A, Arora U, Mittal A, Aggarwal A, Singh K, Ray A, et al.Outcomes of HFNC Use in COVID-19 Patients inNon-ICU Settings: A Single-center Experience. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(4):528-530.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 349-356, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been deployed in India. The results of the phase 3 trial have shown clinical efficacy of BBV152. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative, case-control study among employees of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India), who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and had an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the peak of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India between April 15 and May 15, 2021. Cases (test-positives) and controls (test-negatives) were matched (1:1) on the basis of age and gender. The odds of vaccination with BBV152 were compared between cases and controls and adjusted for level of occupational exposure (to COVID-19), previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and calendar time, using conditional logistic regression. The primary outcome was effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 (with the second dose received at least 14 days before testing) in reducing the odds of symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, expressed as (1 - odds ratio) × 100%. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and May 15, 2021, 3732 individuals had an RT-PCR test. Of these, 2714 symptomatic employees had data on vaccination status, and 1068 matched case-control pairs were available for analysis. The adjusted effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 after two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 50% (95% CI 33-62; p<0·0001). The adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 28 days before testing was 46% (95% CI 22-62) and administered at least 42 days before testing was 57% (21-76). After excluding participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, the adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 47% (95% CI 29-61). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 in the context of a huge surge in cases, presumably dominated by the potentially immune-evasive delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the ongoing roll-out of this vaccine to help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, while continuing the emphasis on adherence to non-pharmacological measures. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Virion/immunology
4.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 48: 101601, 2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and prophylactic efficacy of add-on Comprehensive Ayurveda and mindfulness-based Yoga (CAY) regimen to standard care among HealthCare Workers (HCWs) against COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective single-blind (outcome assessor-blinded) RCT was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Delhi during July 2020-April 2021. HCWs of both sexes were randomized to add-on CAY intervention or control group. The primary outcomes were the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 positive cases and influenza-like illness events (ILI). Secondary outcomes were anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), and quality of life (SF-36) at the end of 12 weeks. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-six participants (181 in intervention and 175 in the control group) were randomized. With the modified intention to treat approach, we analyzed 309 participants. The mean age for the intervention and control group was 39.3 ± 10.1 and 36.6 ± 10 years, respectively. Incidence of COVID-19 event was higher in control group compared to CAY group (16 of 164 [9.8%] vs. 11 of 145 [7.6%]; P = 0.50). The incidence of ILI events was also higher in the control group as compared to the CAY group (14 of 164 [8.5%] vs 9 of 145 [6.2%]). The health change domain of the SF-36 questionnaire showed statistically significant improvement in the CAY group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Incidence of COVID-19 and ILI events was lower in the CAY group compared with the contr ol group, though the difference is not statistically significant.

5.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(6): 622-628, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A large number of studies describing the clinicoepidemiological features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients are available but very few studies have documented similar features of the deceased. This study was aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological features and the causes of mortality of COVID-19 deceased patients admitted in a dedicated COVID center in India. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study done in adult deceased patients admitted in COVID ICU from April 4 to July 24, 2020. The clinical features, comorbidities, complications, and causes of mortality in these patients were analyzed. Pediatric deceased were analyzed separately. RESULTS: A total of 654 adult patients were admitted in the ICU during the study period and ICU mortality was 37.7% (247/654). Among the adult deceased, 65.9% were males with a median age of 56 years [interquartile range (IQR), 41.5-65] and 94.74% had one or more comorbidities, most common being hypertension (43.3%), diabetes mellitus (34.8%), and chronic kidney disease (20.6%). The most common presenting features in these deceased were fever (75.7%), cough (68.8%), and shortness of breath (67.6%). The mean initial sequential organ failure assessment score was 9.3 ± 4.7 and 24.2% were already intubated at the time of admission. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days (IQR, 3-11). The most common cause of death was sepsis with multi-organ failure (55.1%) followed by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (25.5%). All pediatric deceased had comorbid conditions and the most common cause of death in this group was severe ARDS. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of adult deceased, most were young males with age less than 65 years with one or more comorbidities, hypertension being the most common. Only 5% of the deceased had no comorbidities. Sepsis with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome was the most common cause of death. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Aggarwal R, Bhatia R, Kulshrestha K, Soni KD, Viswanath R, Singh AK, et al. Clinicoepidemiological Features and Mortality Analysis of Deceased Patients with COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Center. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021; 25(6):622-628.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(3): 1140-1145, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753782

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) had generated considerable interest for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prophylaxis. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary care hospital in India, with dedicated COVID-19 care facilities. Objectives: Primary objective was incidence of adverse effects, secondary objective being efficacy in preventing COVID-19. Methods: Healthcare workers were recruited and grouped based on voluntary HCQ prophylaxis as per national guidelines. Side effects in HCQ group were graded in accordance with national cancer institute-common terminology criteria for adverse events (NCI-CTCAE) version 5.0. At 3-7-week follow-up, groups were compared for COVID-19 exposure, symptoms development and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR results. Results: Among 358 participants recruited, 216 (60.3%) were males and mean age was 31.2 ± 6.6 years. Chemoprophylaxis was initiated by 258 (72%) participants. After loading dose, 7 (2.7%) reported grade 2 and 1 (0.4%) grade 3 adverse effects. Discontinuation of HCQ due to side effects was reported in 11 (4.3%) participants. Electrocardiogram was done by 50 (19.4%) participants on HCQ; no abnormalities were noted. A total of 106 (41%) among those taking and 63 (63%) among those not taking HCQ were tested for SARS-CoV-2 due to influenza-like illness or significant exposure. Among all participants, 25 (6.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3-9.6) developed COVID-19 during the study period. In the group taking HCQ, 10 (3.9%) tested positive compared to 15 (15%) in the group not taking HCQ (P < 0.001). Odds ratio with HCQ intake was 0.34 (95% CI 0.13-0.83, P = 0.01) and the number needed to treat was 12. Conclusion: HCQ is safe at the recommended dose for pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19.

7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4058, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735282

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-19 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 was performed for the assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. In a total of 55, 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung samples were tested for ACE2, 36 for CD163, and 26 for CD61, compared to 15 non-covid 19 control lung sections. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis were used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels were positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin beta3/genetics , Integrin beta3/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321185

ABSTRACT

Background: and Aim There is a paucity of data on the clinical presentations and outcomes of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in patients with underlying liver disease. We aimed to summarize the presentations and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients and compare with historical controls. Methods: Patients with known chronic liver disease who presented with superimposed COVID- 19(n=28) between 22nd April and 22nd June 2020 were studied. Seventy-eight cirrhotic patients from historical controls were taken as comparison group. Results: A total of 28 COVID patients- two without cirrhosis, one with compensated cirrhosis, sixteen with acute decompensation (AD), and nine with acute-on-chronic liver failure(ACLF) were included. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcohol(n=9), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(n=2), viral(n=5), autoimmune hepatitis(n=4), and cryptogenic cirrhosis(n=6). The clinical presentations included complications of cirrhosis in 12(46.2%), respiratory symptoms in 3(11.5%) and combined complications of cirrhosis and respiratory symptoms in 11(42.3%) patients. The median hospital stay was 8(7-12) days. The mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was 42.3%(11/26), as compared to 23.1%(18/78) in the historical controls(p=0.077). All COVID-19 patients with ACLF(9/9) died compared to 53.3%(16/30) in ACLF of historical controls(p=0.015). Mortality rate was higher in COVID patients with compensated cirrhosis and AD as compared to historical controls 2/17(11.8%) vs 2/48(4.2%), though not statistically significant (p=0.278). Requirement of mechanical ventilation independently predicted mortality (hazard ratio, 13.68). Both non-cirrhotic patients presented with respiratory symptoms and recovered uneventfully. Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, with worst survival rates in ACLF. Mechanical ventilation is associated with a poor outcome.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318838

ABSTRACT

Background: - The sharp uptick in the cases of mucormycosis in the background of the COVID19 pandemic is a cause of concern and the reasons and it’s impact remains to be seen. We studied the clinical characteristics in patients with mucormycosis and COVID19 co-infection and performed a literature review. Methods: - This retrospective study was conducted at tertiary centre in India. All patients admitted with COVID19 and mucormycosis were included, clinical details were obtained from hospital records. We did review of literatures using the terms “SARS-CoV2” OR “COVID19” AND “Mucormycosis” AND “co-infection” on Pubmed published before February 20, 2021. Results: - Sixteen cases (M:F–13:3), mean age 46·5 years (24-75years), were included. Fourteen had known risk factors for mucormycosis, the most common being diabetes mellitus. Most patients (n=14) were symptomatic with mucormycosis before diagnosis of COVID19. There was delay in surgery by 22.5 days (IQR–>17.75–29.5), pending SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity. There were six deaths in this cohort, unrelated to the COVID19 severity. The literature review revealed eleven case reports on co-infection. Patients who had developed mucormycosis were found to have history of mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: - The apparent increase in the incidence of mucormycosis may be due to decompensation of underlying comorbidities (decreased access to healthcare), and increased use of immunosuppressants in COVID19. Patients with co-infection were noted to have poorer outcomes.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311096

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COVID-19 (COrona VIrus Disease 2019). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-9 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 were performed for assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis was used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that among a total of 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues and 15 lung biopsies in non-COVID-19 patients included, ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.

11.
J Infect ; 84(3): 383-390, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the Coronavirus-disease associated mucormycosis (CAM) syndemic is poorly elucidated. We aimed to identify risk factors that may explain the burden of cases and help develop preventive strategies. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing cases diagnosed with CAM and taking controls as recovered COVID 19 patients who did not develop mucormycosis. Information on comorbidities, glycemic control, and practices related to COVID-19 prevention and treatment was recorded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: A total of 352 patients (152 cases and 200 controls) diagnosed with COVID-19 during April-May 2021 were included. In the CAM group, symptoms of mucormycosis began a mean of 18.9 (SD 9.1) days after onset of COVID-19, and predominantly rhino-sinus and orbital involvement was present. All, but one, CAM cases had conventional risk factors of diabetes and steroid use. On multivariable regression, increased odds of CAM were associated with the presence of diabetes (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1-11), use of systemic steroids (aOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.4-24.7), prolonged use of cloth and surgical masks (vs. no mask, aOR 6.9, 95%CI 1.5-33.1), and repeated nasopharyngeal swab testing during the COVID-19 illness (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). Zinc therapy was found to be protective (aOR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01-0.19). Notably, the requirement of oxygen supplementation or hospitalization did not affect the risk of CAM. CONCLUSION: Judicious use of steroids and stringent glycemic control are vital to preventing mucormycosis. Use of clean masks, preference for N95 masks if available, and minimizing swab testing after the diagnosis of COVID-19 may further reduce the incidence of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 303-309, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544346

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n = 10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n = 7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Atypical Bacterial Forms/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Legionnaires' Disease/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , India , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
13.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 254-260, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542928

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
14.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 273-277, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542926

ABSTRACT

Use of systemic corticosteroids is well-established in COVID-19 patients with hypoxia; however, there is scant data on its role in patients with mild disease and prolonged symptoms as a measure to prevent disease progression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of systemic corticosteroids in preventing hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93% on room-air) among mild COVID-19 patients. An observational study was conducted among symptomatic COVID-19 patients taking oral corticosteroids and attending institute teleconsultation facility between 10th-30th June 2021. Patients who were already on corticosteroids for other indication or required oxygen supplementation before or within 24-hours of initiation of corticosteroids were excluded. A total of 140 consecutive symptomatic COVID-19 patients were included. Higher baseline C-reactive protein (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06, p < 0.001) and early systemic corticosteroid (within 7 days) initiation (OR: 6.5, 95% CI: 2.1-20.1, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for developing hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%). Progression to hypoxia was significantly higher in patients who received corticosteroids before day 7 of illness (36.7%, 95% CI, 23.4-51.7%) compared to ≥ 7 of illness (14.3%, 95% CI, 7.8-23.2%) for persistent fever. Systemic corticosteroids within 7 days from symptom-onset were harmful and increased the risk of progression to hypoxia, whereas it may decrease the risk of progression when administered on or beyond 7 days in patients with mild COVID-19 and persistent symptoms. A well-designed randomised controlled trial is required to validate the findings.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypoxia/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
15.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1824-1830, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) over noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is not known. We aimed to assess the incidence of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 treated with either HFNC or NIV. METHODS: This was a single-center randomized controlled trial performed in the COVID-19 ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. One hundred and nine subjects with severe COVID-19 pneumonia presenting with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were recruited and allocated to either HFNC (n = 55) or NIV (n = 54) arm. Primary outcome was intubation by 48 h. Secondary outcomes were improvement in oxygenation by 48 h, intubation rate at day 7, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio were similar in both the groups. Intubation rate at 48 h was similar between the groups (33% NIV vs 20% HFNC, relative risk 0.6, 95% CI 0.31-1.15, P = .12). Intubation rate at day 7 was lower in the HFNC (27.27%) compared to the NIV group (46.29%) (relative risk 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.99, P = .045), and this difference remained significant after adjustment for the incidence of chronic kidney disease and the arterial pH (adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.93, P = .03). Hospital mortality was similar between HFNC (29.1%) and NIV (46.2%) group (relative risk 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-1.04, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: We were not able to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement of oxygenation parameters nor of the intubation rate at 48 h between NIV and HFNC. These findings should be further tested in a larger randomized controlled trial. The study was registered at the Clinical Trials Registry of India (www.ctri.nic.in; reference number: CTRI/2020/07/026835) on July 27, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1126): 20210187, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as pandemic in March 2020. Currently there is no specific effective treatment for COVID-19. The major cause of death in COVID-19 is severe pneumonia leading to respiratory failure. Radiation in low doses (<100 cGy) has been known for its anti-inflammatory effect and therefore, low dose radiation therapy (LDRT) to lungs can potentially mitigate the severity of pneumonia and reduce mortality. We conducted a pilot trial to study the feasibility and clinical efficacy of LDRT to lungs in the management of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: From June to Aug 2020, we enrolled 10 patients with COVID-19 having moderate to severe risk disease [National Early Warning Score (NEWS) of ≥5]. Patients were treated as per the standard COVID-19 management guidelines along with LDRT to both lungs with a dose of 70cGy in single fraction. Response assessment was done based on the clinical parameters using the NEWS. RESULTS: All patients completed the prescribed treatment. Nine patients had complete clinical recovery mostly within a period ranging from 3 to 7 days. One patient, who was a known hypertensive, showed clinical deterioration and died 24 days after LDRT. No patients showed the signs of acute radiation toxicity. CONCLUSION: The results of our pilot study suggest that LDRT is feasible in COVID-19 patients having moderate to severe disease. Its clinical efficacy may be tested by conducting randomized controlled trials. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: LDRT has shown promising results in COVID-19 pneumonia and should be researched further through randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/radiotherapy , Adult , Aged , Early Warning Score , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiotherapy Dosage , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Journal of Medical Virology ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1410037

ABSTRACT

Abstract Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n?=?10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n?=?7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.

18.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 665-670, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367963

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: In the present scenario, the most common sample for diagnosis of COVID-19 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is nasal and throat swab (NTS). Other sampling options such as gargle lavage have found limited application in clinical use mostly because of unavailability of an appropriate gargling liquid. This study was conducted to assess the stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in normal saline at 4°C that can serve as a gargling liquid as well as a transport medium. The study also looked at the agreement between NTS and gargle lavage/saliva for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: In 29 consecutive real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) positive COVID-19 patients, paired NTS, gargle and saliva samples were taken. Samples were processed by rRT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. To assess the SARS-CoV-2 RNA stability in normal saline, gargle lavage specimens were divided into two aliquots; one subset of the specimen was run within 4-6 h along with the routine samples (NTS and saliva) and the other subset was stored at 4°C and processed after 24-30 h. Agreement between cycle threshold (Ct) values from both the runs was compared using Bland-Altman (BA) analysis. Results: The positivity rates of rRT-PCR in NTS, saliva and gargle lavage samples were 82.7 (24/29), 79.3 (23/29) and 86.2 per cent (25/29), respectively. BA plot showed a good agreement between the Ct values of fresh and stored gargle samples, stipulating that there were no significant differences in the approximate viral load levels between the fresh and stored gargle lavage samples (bias: E gene -0.64, N gene -0.51, ORF gene -0.19). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study results show stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the gargle samples collected using normal saline up to 24-30 h. Gargle lavage and saliva specimen collection are cost-effective and acceptable methods of sampling for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by rRT-PCR. These simplified, inexpensive and acceptable methods of specimen collection would reduce the cost and workload on healthcare workers for sample collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saliva , Humans , Nasopharynx , Pharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Therapeutic Irrigation
19.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(10): 1367-1375, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the histopathology of patients dying of COVID-19 using post-mortem minimally invasive sampling techniques. METHODS: This was a single-center observational study conducted at JPNATC, AIIMS. Thirty-seven patients who died of COVID-19 were enrolled. Post-mortem percutaneous biopsies were taken from lung, heart, liver, kidney and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemistry was performed using CD61 and CD163. SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected using IHC with primary antibodies. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.7 years and 59.5% were males. Lung histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 78% patients. Associated bronchopneumonia was seen in 37.5% and scattered microthrombi in 21% patients. Immunopositivity for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in Type II pneumocytes. Acute tubular injury with epithelial vacuolization was seen in 46% of renal biopsies. Seventy-one percent of liver biopsies showed Kupffer cell hyperplasia and 27.5% showed submassive hepatic necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Predominant finding was diffuse alveolar damage with demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 protein in the acute phase. Microvascular thrombi were rarely identified in any organ. Substantial hepatocyte necrosis, Kupffer cell hypertrophy, microvesicular, and macrovesicular steatosis unrelated to microvascular thrombi suggested that liver might be a primary target of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(3): 130-138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296656

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a life-threatening mosquito borne viral disease. We are still in the era of supportive treatment where morbidity and mortality are a major concern. Dengue infection in presence of other co-infections makes this scenario rather worse. Timely recognition and raising alarm to be intensive is the need of the hour for primary care physicians practicing in the community and indoors. This review provides a comprehensive knowledge about the recent trends of coinfection in dengue as well as their management consideration which will be particularly helpful for physicians practicing in rural and remote areas of India.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/therapy , Coinfection/therapy , Dengue Virus , Malaria/therapy , Virus Diseases/therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Reinfection , Serogroup , Virulence , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
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