Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 314, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether a genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorders is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. METHODS: Our analytic sample consisted of 287,123 white British participants in UK Biobank who were alive on 31 January 2020. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis for each psychiatric disorder (substance misuse, depression, anxiety, psychotic disorder, and stress-related disorders) in a randomly selected half of the study population ("base dataset"). For the other half ("target dataset"), the polygenic risk score (PRS) was calculated as a proxy of individuals' genetic predisposition to a given psychiatric phenotype using discovered genetic variants from the base dataset. Ascertainment of COVID-19 was based on the Public Health England dataset, inpatient hospital data, or death registers in UK Biobank. COVID-19 cases from hospitalization records or death records were considered "severe cases." The association between the PRS for psychiatric disorders and COVID-19 risk was examined using logistic regression. We also repeated PRS analyses based on publicly available GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: A total of 143,562 participants (including 10,868 COVID-19 cases) were used for PRS analyses. A higher genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorders was associated with an increased risk of any COVID-19 and severe COVID-19. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for any COVID-19 was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.13) and 1.06 (95% CI 1.01-1.11) among individuals with a high genetic risk (above the upper tertile of the PRS) for substance misuse and depression, respectively, compared with individuals with a low genetic risk (below the lower tertile). Slightly higher ORs were noted for severe COVID-19, and similar result patterns were obtained in analyses based on publicly available GWAS summary statistics. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential role of genetic factors in the observed phenotypic association between psychiatric disorders and COVID-19. Our data underscore the need for increased medical surveillance for this vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/genetics , Multifactorial Inheritance , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
2.
Journal of Education for Teaching ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1931587

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has compelled teacher educators to move their teaching online. On the positive side, teacher educators may become more willing to continue integrating online teaching as part of their practice post-pandemic due to frequent usage of digital tools and platforms during pandemic. The social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to investigate how this intention was related to the tandem of self-efficacy and expected outcomes, as well as their sources (i.e. identity commitment to student teacher learning and the supportive environment at the institution). The results of partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-PM) revealed the following: first, self-efficacy did not affect intention directly, but through the chain mediation of expected outcomes and interests. It mirrored the effectiveness-oriented instructional mindset of teacher educators. Second, identity commitment to student teacher learning and a supportive environment at the institution affected self-efficacy but did not affect expected outcomes directly. The multigroup analysis revealed that for those who had attended pre-pandemic online teaching training, a supportive environment significantly affected their expected outcomes when using online teaching. This study argued for the importance of entry-level training to facilitate peer support and mentoring for teacher educators working with online teaching strategies. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Education for Teaching is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Psychol Med ; 52(9): 1793-1800, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 generated severe emotional reactions, and restricted mobility was a crucial measure to reduce the spread of the virus. This study describes the changes in public emotional reactions and mobility patterns in the Chinese population during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: We collected data on public emotional reactions in response to the outbreak through Weibo, the Chinese Twitter, between 1st January and 31st March 2020. Using anonymized location-tracking information, we analyzed the daily mobility patterns of approximately 90% of Sichuan residents. RESULTS: There were three distinct phases of the emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 outbreak. The alarm phase (19th-26th January) was a restriction-free period, characterized by few new daily cases, but a large amount public negative emotions [the number of negative comments per Weibo post increased by 246.9 per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) 122.5-371.3], and a substantial increase in self-limiting mobility (from 45.6% to 54.5%, changing by 1.5% per day, 95% CI 0.7%-2.3%). The epidemic phase (27th January-15th February) exhibited rapidly increasing numbers of new daily cases, decreasing expression of negative emotions (a decrease of 27.3 negative comments per post per day, 95% CI -40.4 to -14.2), and a stabilized level of self-limiting mobility. The relief phase (16th February-31st March) had a steady decline in new daily cases and decreasing levels of negative emotion and self-limiting mobility. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the public's emotional reaction was strongest before the actual peak of the outbreak and declined thereafter. The change in human mobility patterns occurred before the implementation of restriction orders, suggesting a possible link between emotion and behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emotions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Psychol Med ; 51(11): 1952-1954, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the drastic surge of COVID-19 patients, many countries are considering or already graduating health professional students early to aid professional resources. We aimed to assess outbreak-related psychological distress and symptoms of acute stress reaction (ASR) in health professional students and to characterize individuals with potential need for interventions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1442 health professional students at Sichuan University, China. At baseline (October 2019), participants were assessed for childhood adversity, stressful life events, internet addiction, and family functioning. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined associations of the above exposures with subsequent psychological distress and ASR in response to the outbreak. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-four (26.63%) participants demonstrated clinically significant psychological distress, while 160 (11.10%) met the criterion for a probable ASR. Individuals who scored high on both childhood adversity and stressful life event experiences during the past year were at increased risks of both distress (ORs 2.00-2.66) and probable ASR (ORs 2.23-3.10), respectively. Moreover, internet addiction was associated with elevated risks of distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60-2.64) and probable ASR (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.10). By contrast, good family functioning was associated with decreased risks of distress (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55) and probable ASR (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.69). All associations were independent of baseline psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 related psychological distress and high symptoms burden of ASR are common among health professional students. Extended family and professional support should be considered for vulnerable individuals during these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/epidemiology , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
5.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 15, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increased susceptibility to COVID-19 has been suggested for individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, but data are scarce from longitudinal studies. METHODS: In this community-based cohort study, we included 96,275 participants of the UK Biobank who had available SARS-CoV-2 test results in Public Health England. Of these, 2617 had a clinical diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases in the UK Biobank inpatient hospital data before the outbreak of COVID-19 (defined as January 31st, 2020), while the remaining participants constituted the reference group. We then followed both groups from January 31st, 2020 to June 14th, 2021 for ascertainment of COVID-19 outcomes, including any COVID-19, inpatient care for COVID-19, and COVID-19 related death. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the association between neurogenerative disease and risks of COVID-19 outcomes, adjusted for multiple confounders and somatic comorbidities. RESULTS: We observed an elevated risk of COVID-19 outcomes among individuals with a neurodegenerative disease compared with the reference group, corresponding to a fully adjusted odds ratio of 2.47 (95%CI 2.25-2.71) for any COVID-19, 2.18 (95%CI 1.94-2.45) for inpatient COVID-19, and 3.67 (95%CI 3.11-4.34) for COVID-19 related death. Among individuals with a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, individuals with neurodegenerative diseases had also a higher risk of COVID-19 related death than others (fully adjusted odds ratio 2.08; 95%CI 1.71-2.53). CONCLUSION: Among UK Biobank participants who received at least one test for SARS-CoV-2, a pre-existing diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease was associated with a subsequently increased risk of COVID-19, especially COVID-19 related death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Biological Specimen Banks , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 301, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of people infected with and recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the extent of major health consequences of COVID-19 is unclear, including risks of severe secondary infections. METHODS: Based on 445,845 UK Biobank participants registered in England, we conducted a matched cohort study where 5151 individuals with a positive test result or hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the exposed group. We then randomly selected up to 10 matched individuals without COVID-19 diagnosis for each exposed individual (n = 51,402). The life-threatening secondary infections were defined as diagnoses of severe secondary infections with high mortality rates (i.e., sepsis, endocarditis, and central nervous system infections) from the UK Biobank inpatient hospital data, or deaths from these infections from mortality data. The follow-up period was limited to 3 months after the initial COVID-19 diagnosis. Using a similar study design, we additionally constructed a matched cohort where exposed individuals were diagnosed with seasonal influenza from either inpatient hospital or primary care data between 2010 and 2019 (6169 exposed and 61,555 unexposed individuals). After controlling for multiple confounders, Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of life-threatening secondary infections after COVID-19 or seasonal influenza. RESULTS: In the matched cohort for COVID-19, 50.22% of participants were male, and the median age at the index date was 66 years. During a median follow-up of 12.71 weeks, the incidence rate of life-threatening secondary infections was 2.23 (123/55.15) and 0.25 (151/600.55) per 1000 person-weeks for all patients with COVID-19 and their matched individuals, respectively, which corresponded to a fully adjusted HR of 8.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.33-10.59). The corresponding HR of life-threatening secondary infections among all patients with seasonal influenza diagnosis was 4.50, 95% CI 3.34-6.08 (p for difference < 0.01). Also, elevated HRs were observed among hospitalized individuals for life-threatening secondary infections following hospital discharge, both in the COVID-19 (HR = 6.28 [95% CI 4.05-9.75]) and seasonal influenza (6.01 [95% CI 3.53-10.26], p for difference = 0.902) cohorts. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients have increased subsequent risks of life-threatening secondary infections, to an equal extent or beyond risk elevations observed for patients with seasonal influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 1(2): e69-e79, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric morbidities have been associated with a risk of severe infections through compromised immunity, health behaviours, or both. However, data are scarce on the association between multiple types of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and COVID-19. We aimed to assess the association between pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and the subsequent risk of COVID-19 using UK Biobank. METHODS: For this cohort analysis, we included participants from UK Biobank who were registered in England and excluded individuals who died before Jan 31, 2020, (the start of the COVID-19 outbreak in the UK) or had withdrawn from UK Biobank. Participants diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder before Jan 31 were included in the group of individuals with pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders, whereas participants without a diagnosis before the outbreak were included in the group of individuals without pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders. We used the Public Health England dataset, UK Biobank hospital data, and death registers to collect data on COVID-19 cases. To examine the relationship between pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and susceptibility to COVID-19, we used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs), controlling for multiple confounders and somatic comorbidities. Key outcomes were all COVID-19, COVID-19 specifically diagnosed in inpatient care, and COVID-19-related deaths. ORs were also estimated separately for each psychiatric disorder and on the basis of the number of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders. As a positive disease control, we repeated analyses for hospitalisation for other infections. FINDINGS: We included 421 014 UK Biobank participants in our study and assessed their COVID-19 status between Jan 31 and July 26, 2020. 50 809 participants were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders before the outbreak, while 370 205 participants had no psychiatric disorders. The mean age at outbreak was 67·80 years (SD 8·12). We observed an elevated risk of COVID-19 among individuals with pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders compared with that of individuals without such conditions. The fully adjusted ORs were 1·44 (95% CI 1·28-1·62) for All COVID-19 cases, 1·55 (1·34-1·78) for Inpatient COVID-19 cases, and 2·03 (1·59-2·59) for COVID-19-related deaths. We observed excess risk, defined as risk that increased with the number of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders, across all diagnostic categories of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders. We also observed an association between psychiatric disorders and elevated risk of hospitalisation due to other infections (OR 1·74, 95% CI 1·58-1·93). INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that pre-existing psychiatric disorders are associated with an increased risk of COVID-19. These findings underscore the need for surveillance of and care for populations with pre-existing psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046931, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on cardiovascular disease (CVD) related mortality and hospitalisation. DESIGN: Community-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: The UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 421 372 UK Biobank participants who were registered in England and alive as of 1 January 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome of interest was CVD-related death, which was defined as death with CVD as a cause in the death register. We retrieved information on hospitalisations with CVD as the primary diagnosis from the UK Biobank hospital inpatient data. The study period was 1 January 2020 to June 30 2020, and we used the same calendar period of the three preceding years as the reference period. In order to control for seasonal variations and ageing of the study population, standardised mortality/incidence ratios (SMRs/SIRs) with 95% CIs were used to estimate the relative risk of CVD outcomes during the study period, compared with the reference period. RESULTS: We observed a distinct increase in CVD-related deaths in March and April 2020, compared with the corresponding months of the three preceding years. The observed number of CVD-related deaths (n=218) was almost double in April, compared with the expected number (n=120) (SMR=1.82, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.07). In addition, we observed a significant decline in CVD-related hospitalisations from March onwards, with the lowest SIR observed in April (0.45, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.49). CONCLUSIONS: There was a distinct increase in the number of CVD-related deaths in the UK Biobank population at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. The shortage of medical resources for hospital care and stress reactions to the pandemic might have partially contributed to the excess CVD-related mortality, underscoring the need of sufficient healthcare resources and improved instructions to the public about seeking healthcare in a timely way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biological Specimen Banks , Disease Outbreaks , England/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 289-294, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Global Health Security (GHS) Index has been developed to measure a country's capacity to cope with a public health emergency; however, evidence for whether it corresponds to the response to a global pandemic is lacking. This study performed a multidimensional association analysis to explore the correlation between the GHS Index and COVID-19-associated morbidity, mortality, and disease increase rate (DIR) in 178 countries (regions). METHODS: The GHS Index and COVID-19 pandemic data - including total cases per million (TCPM), total deaths per million (TDPM), and daily growth rate - were extracted from online databases. The Spearman correlation coefficient was applied to describe the strength of the association between the GHS Index, sociological characteristics, and the epidemic situation of COVID-19. DIRs were compared, and the impact of the GHS Index on the DIR by the time of "lockdown" was visualized. RESULTS: The overall GHS Index was positively correlated with TCPM and TDPM, with coefficients of 0.34 and 0.41, respectively. Countries categorized into different GHS Indextiers had different DIRs before implementing lockdown measures. However, no significant difference was observed between countries in the middle and upper tiers after implementing lockdown measures. The correlation between GHS Index and DIR was positive five days before lockdown measures were taken, but it became negative 13 days later. CONCLUSIONS: The GHS Index has limited value in assessing a country's capacity to respond to a global pandemic. Nevertheless, it has potential value in determining the country's ability to cope with a local epidemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health
13.
Interdiscip Sci ; 13(1): 61-72, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012252

ABSTRACT

Assessing pulmonary lesions using computed tomography (CT) images is of great significance to the severity diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected patients. Such assessment mainly depends on radiologists' subjective judgment, which is inefficient and presents difficulty for those with low levels of experience, especially in rural areas. This work focuses on developing a radiomics signature to quantitatively analyze whether COVID-19-infected pulmonary lesions are mild (Grade I) or moderate/severe (Grade II). We retrospectively analyzed 1160 COVID-19-infected pulmonary lesions from 16 hospitals. First, texture features were extracted from the pulmonary lesion regions of CT images. Then, feature preselection was performed and a radiomics signature was built using a stepwise logistic regression. The stepwise logistic regression also calculated the correlation between the radiomics signature and the grade of a pulmonary lesion. Finally, a logistic regression model was trained to classify the grades of pulmonary lesions. Given a significance level of α = 0.001, the stepwise logistic regression achieved an R (multiple correlation coefficient) of 0.70, which is much larger than Rα = 0.18 (the critical value of R). In the classification, the logistic regression model achieved an AUC of 0.87 on an independent test set. Overall, the radiomics signature is significantly correlated with the grade of a pulmonary lesion in COVID-19 infection. The classification model is interpretable and can assist radiologists in quickly and efficiently diagnosing pulmonary lesions. This work aims to develop a CT-based radiomics signature to quantitatively analyze whether COVID-19-infected pulmonary lesions are mild (Grade I) or moderate/severe (Grade II). The logistic regression model established based on this radiomics signature can assist radiologists to quickly and efficiently diagnose the grades of pulmonary lesions. The model calculates a radiomics score for a lesion and is interpretable and appropriate for clinical use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Area Under Curve , Calibration , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041671, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 outbreak has caused enormous strain on healthcare systems, and healthcare trainees, which comprise the future healthcare workforce, may be a vulnerable group. It is essential to assess the psychological distress experienced by healthcare trainees during the COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study with 4184 healthcare trainees at Sichuan University in China was implemented during 7-13 February 2020. Participants were grouped by training programmes (medicine, medical technology and nursing) and training stages (undergraduate, postgraduate and residency). MAIN OUTCOMES: COVID-19-related psychological distress and acute stress reaction (ASR) were assessed using the Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. We estimated the ORs of distress by comparing trainees across programmes and training stages using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Significant psychological distress was found in 1150 (30.90%) participants and probable ASR in 403 (10.74%). Compared with the nursing trainees, the medical trainees (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.95) reported a higher burden of psychological distress during the outbreak, while the medical technology trainees (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.62) reported similar symptom scores. Postgraduates (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.08) in medicine had higher levels of distress than their undergraduate counterparts did, whereas the nursing residents (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.71) reported a lower burden than did nursing undergraduates. A positive association was found between having active clinical duties during the outbreak and distress (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.39), particularly among the medical trainees (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.33) and undergraduates (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.61 to 11.70). No clear risk patterns of ASR symptoms were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Medical trainees, particularly postgraduates and those with active clinical duties, were at risk for psychological distress during the COVID-19 outbreak. Stress management may be considered for high-risk healthcare trainees.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Young Adult
15.
ECNU Review of Education ; : 2096531120930021-2096531120930021, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-603764
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL