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1.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 154, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The physiological effects of prone ventilation in ARDS patients have been discussed for a long time but have not been fully elucidated. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has emerged as a tool for bedside monitoring of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, allowing the opportunity to obtain data. This study aimed to investigate the effect of prone positioning (PP) on ventilation-perfusion matching by contrast-enhanced EIT in patients with ARDS. DESIGN: Monocenter prospective physiologic study. SETTING: University medical ICU. PATIENTS: Ten mechanically ventilated ARDS patients who underwent PP. INTERVENTIONS: We performed EIT evaluation at the initiation of PP, 3 h after PP initiation and the end of PP during the first PP session. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was analyzed based on EIT images and compared to the clinical variables regarding respiratory and hemodynamic status. Prolonged prone ventilation improved oxygenation in the ARDS patients. Based on EIT measurements, the distribution of ventilation was homogenized and dorsal lung ventilation was significantly improved by PP administration, while the effect of PP on lung perfusion was relatively mild, with increased dorsal lung perfusion observed. The ventilation-perfusion matched region was found to increase and correlate with the increased PaO2/FiO2 by PP, which was attributed mainly to reduced shunt in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged prone ventilation increased dorsal ventilation and perfusion, which resulted in improved ventilation-perfusion matching and oxygenation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04725227. Registered on 25 January 2021.


Subject(s)
Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Electric Impedance , Humans , Perfusion , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Virol J ; 19(1): 120, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965846

ABSTRACT

Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10), the causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), caused a series of outbreaks in recent years and often leads to neurological impairment, but a clear understanding of the disease pathogenesis and host response remains elusive. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs), a large family of non-coding RNA molecules, have been reported to be key regulators in viral pathogenesis and virus-host interactions. However, the role of host cellular miRNAs defensing against CV-A10 infection is still obscure. To address this issue, we systematically analyzed miRNA expression profiles in CV-A10-infected 16HBE cells by high-throughput sequencing methods in this study. It allowed us to successfully identify 312 and 278 miRNAs with differential expression at 12 h and 24 h post-CV-A10 infection, respectively. Among these, 4 miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR, which confirmed the sequencing data. Gene target prediction and enrichment analysis revealed that the predicted targets of these miRNAs were significantly enriched in numerous cellular processes, especially in regulation of basic physical process, host immune response and neurological impairment. And the integrated network was built to further indicate the regulatory roles of miRNAs in host-CV-A10 interactions. Consequently, our findings could provide a beneficial basis for further studies on the regulatory roles of miRNAs relevant to the host immune responses and neuropathogenesis caused by CV-A10 infection.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus A, Human , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , MicroRNAs , Benzeneacetamides , Enterovirus A, Human/genetics , Epithelial Cells , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Piperidones
3.
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science & Engineering ; 19(2):555-559, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1788783

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only posed a significant threat to health, life, economy, and the whole society but also led to numerous new theoretical and practical challenges for automation science and engineering. The goal of this Special Issue is to bring together researchers and practitioners into a forum to show the state-of-the-art research and applications in responding to the challenges and opportunities of automation science and engineering to the pandemic, by presenting efficient scientific and engineering solutions, addressing the needs and difficulties for integration of new automation methodologies and technologies, and providing visions for future research and development. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of IEEE Transactions on Automation Science & Engineering is the property of IEEE and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736907

ABSTRACT

Depression is ranked as the second-leading cause for years lived with disability worldwide. Objective monitoring with a standardized scale for depressive symptoms can improve treatment outcomes. This study evaluates the construct and concurrent validity of the Malay Self-Report Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR16) among Malaysian clinical and community samples. This cross-sectional study was based on 277 participants, i.e., patients with current major depressive episode (MDE), n = 104, and participants without current MDE, n = 173. Participants answered the Malay QIDS-SR16 and were administered the validated Malay Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV-TR. Factor analysis was used to determine construct validity, alpha statistic for internal consistency, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for concurrent validity with MINI to determine the optimal threshold to identify MDE. Data analysis provided evidence for the unidimensionality of the Malay QIDS-SR16 with good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.88). Based on ROC analysis, the questionnaire demonstrated good validity with a robust area under the curve of 0.916 (p < 0.000, 95% CI 0.884-0.948). A cut-off score of nine provided the best balance between sensitivity (88.5%) and specificity (83.2%). The Malay QIDS-SR16 is a reliable and valid instrument for identifying MDE in unipolar or bipolar depression.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Humans , Malaysia , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Self Report
5.
Physica A ; 592: 126819, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586862

ABSTRACT

Recent months have seen ever-increasing levels of confirmed COVID-19 cases despite the accelerated adoption of vaccines. In the wake of the pandemic, travel patterns of individuals change as well. Understanding the changes in biking behaviors during evolving COVID-19 situations is a primary goal of this paper. It investigated usage patterns of the bike-share system in Singapore before, during, and after local authorities imposed lockdown measures. It also correlated the centrality attributes of biking mobility networks of different timestamps with land-use conditions. The results show that total ridership surprisingly climbed by 150% during the lockdown, compared with the pre-pandemic level. Biking mobility graphs became more locally clustered and polycentric as the epidemic develop. There existed a positive and sustained spatial autocorrelation between centrality measures and regions with high residential densities or levels of the land-use mixture. This study suggests that bike-share systems may serve as an alternative mode to fulfill mobility needs when public transit services are restricted due to lockdown policies. Shared-micromobility services have the potential to facilitate a disease-resilient transport system as societies may have to coexist with COVID in the future.

6.
Surg Endosc ; 35(12): 6532-6538, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with deep-learning technique and to validate its efficiency on detecting the four categories of lesions such as polyps, advanced cancer, erosion/ulcer and varices at endoscopy. METHODS: A deep convolutional neural network (CNN) that consists of more than 50 layers were trained with a big dataset containing 327,121 white light images (WLI) of endoscopy from 117,005 cases collected from 2012 to 2017. Two CAD models were developed using images with or without annotation of the training dataset. The efficiency of the CAD system detecting the four categories of lesions was validated by another dataset containing consecutive cases from 2018 to 2019. RESULTS: A total of 1734 cases with 33,959 images were included in the validation datasets which containing lesions of polyps 1265, advanced cancer 500, erosion/ulcer 486, and varices 248. The CAD system developed in this study may detect polyps, advanced cancer, erosion/ulcer and varices as abnormality with the sensitivity of 88.3% and specificity of 90.3%, respectively, in 0.05 s. The training datasets with annotation may enhance either sensitivity or specificity about 20%, p = 0.000. The sensitivities and specificities for polyps, advanced cancer, erosion/ulcer and varices reached about 90%, respectively. The detect efficiency for the four categories of lesions reached to 89.7%. CONCLUSION: The CAD model for detection of multiple lesions in gastrointestinal lumen would be potentially developed into a double check along with real-time assessment and interpretation of the findings encountered by the endoscopists and may be a benefit to reduce the events of missing lesions.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Neural Networks, Computer , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Pilot Projects
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4959-4984, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334842

ABSTRACT

Antiviral drugs (AvDs) are the primary resource in the global battle against viruses, including the recent fight against corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most AvDs require multiple medications, and their use frequently leads to drug resistance, since they have poor oral bioavailability and low efficacy due to their low solubility/low permeability. Characterizing the in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AvDs may help to solve the problems associated with AvDs and enhance their efficacy. In this review of AvDs, we systematically investigated their structure-based metabolic reactions and related enzymes, their cellular pharmacology, and the effects of metabolism on AvD pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. We further assessed how delivery systems achieve better metabolism and pharmacology of AvDs. This review suggests that suitable nanosystems may help to achieve better pharmacological activity and pharmacokinetic behavior of AvDs by altering drug metabolism through the utilization of advanced nanotechnology and appropriate administration routes. Notably, such AvDs as ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir have been confirmed to bind to the severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) receptor and thus may represent anti-COVID-19 treatments. Elucidating the metabolic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AvDs may help pharmacologists to identify new formulations with high bioavailability and efficacy and help physicians to better treat virus-related diseases, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
9.
Nurse Educ Today ; 102: 104938, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Almost all universities have been forced to close and change to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has been a big challenge for students. There is little knowledge about the academic burnout among nursing students in these difficult circumstances, especially in traditional Chinese medicine universities, and the relationship between the burnout and their psychological capital and academic engagement. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to describe academic burnout and clarify the relationships between academic burnout, academic engagement, and psychological capital among nursing students in traditional Chinese medicine universities. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. SETTING: The study sampled a four-year undergraduate traditional Chinese medicine university in Jian, Shandong Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sampling method was used to select 733 nursing students from April to June 2020. METHODS: The Academic Burnout Scale, the Positive Psychological Capital Scale, and the Academic Engagement Scale were used for data collection, in addition to social-demographic data. Path analysis was used to clarify the relationships among academic burnout, academic engagement and psychological capital. RESULTS: Of all the study participants, 39.29% had a certain degree of academic burnout. Academic engagement and psychological capital were negatively correlated with academic burnout among nursing students in traditional Chinese medicine university. Psychological capital was positively correlated with academic engagement. CONCLUSION: Nursing students had a certain degree of academic burnout. Academic engagement played a partial mediated role in the relationship between psychological capital and academic burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Adolescent , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Students, Nursing/psychology , Students, Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Young Adult
10.
Acad. J. Second Mil. Med. Univ. ; 6(41):616-620, 2020.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-727546

ABSTRACT

Objective To summarize the clinical features and imaging findings of six coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, so as to provide evidences for early diagnosis and clinical intervention. Methods Six COVID-19 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were enrolled from the Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from Jan. 1 to Feb. 22, 2020. The epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, imaging data and laboratory indicators were retrospectively analyzed. Results All six patients had a clear travel or residence history in Wuhan. Four patients had fever, three had cough, two had upper respiratory tract symptoms such as runny nose and sore throat, and two had systemic symptoms such as headache and muscle ache. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed that all the six patients had abnormal manifestations in bilateral lungs, and the lower lung lesions were more common than the upper lung lesions. The main manifestations were multiple ground-glass opacities, consolidation shadows, crazy paving sign and different degrees of fibrosis in lateral field of bilateral lungs. Chest CT examination later after onset showed lung consolidation and severe fibrosis. Conclusion The imaging of COVID-19 has special characteristics. Combined with the epidemiological history, clinical manifestations and the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, COVID-19 can be effectively diagnosed in the early stage.

11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(10): 129672, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality of lung diseases although the underlying mechanisms have not been fully uncovered. Airway inflammation is a critical event in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. This study aimed to examine the role of oxidative stress and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PM2.5-induced pro-inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 0, 20, 50, 100 and 150 µg/ml of PM2.5. Secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and IL-1ß was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of the EGFR was examined with immunoblotting. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure increased the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß in a concentration-dependent fashion. Moreover, exposure to PM2.5 elevated intracellular levels of ROS, and phosphorylation of the EGFR (Y1068). Pretreatment of BEAS-2B cells with either an antioxidant or a specific EGFR inhibitor significantly reduced PM2.5-induced IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1ß secretion, implying that both oxidative stress and EGFR activation were involved in PM2.5-induced pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, pre-treatment of BEAS-2B cells with an antioxidant significantly blunted PM2.5-induced EGFR activation, suggesting that oxidative stress was required for PM2.5-induced EGFR activation. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 exposure induces pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells through oxidative stress-mediated EGFR activation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/metabolism , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/cytology , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism
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