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1.
Physica A ; 592: 126819, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586862

ABSTRACT

Recent months have seen ever-increasing levels of confirmed COVID-19 cases despite the accelerated adoption of vaccines. In the wake of the pandemic, travel patterns of individuals change as well. Understanding the changes in biking behaviors during evolving COVID-19 situations is a primary goal of this paper. It investigated usage patterns of the bike-share system in Singapore before, during, and after local authorities imposed lockdown measures. It also correlated the centrality attributes of biking mobility networks of different timestamps with land-use conditions. The results show that total ridership surprisingly climbed by 150% during the lockdown, compared with the pre-pandemic level. Biking mobility graphs became more locally clustered and polycentric as the epidemic develop. There existed a positive and sustained spatial autocorrelation between centrality measures and regions with high residential densities or levels of the land-use mixture. This study suggests that bike-share systems may serve as an alternative mode to fulfill mobility needs when public transit services are restricted due to lockdown policies. Shared-micromobility services have the potential to facilitate a disease-resilient transport system as societies may have to coexist with COVID in the future.

2.
Surg Endosc ; 35(12): 6532-6538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with deep-learning technique and to validate its efficiency on detecting the four categories of lesions such as polyps, advanced cancer, erosion/ulcer and varices at endoscopy. METHODS: A deep convolutional neural network (CNN) that consists of more than 50 layers were trained with a big dataset containing 327,121 white light images (WLI) of endoscopy from 117,005 cases collected from 2012 to 2017. Two CAD models were developed using images with or without annotation of the training dataset. The efficiency of the CAD system detecting the four categories of lesions was validated by another dataset containing consecutive cases from 2018 to 2019. RESULTS: A total of 1734 cases with 33,959 images were included in the validation datasets which containing lesions of polyps 1265, advanced cancer 500, erosion/ulcer 486, and varices 248. The CAD system developed in this study may detect polyps, advanced cancer, erosion/ulcer and varices as abnormality with the sensitivity of 88.3% and specificity of 90.3%, respectively, in 0.05 s. The training datasets with annotation may enhance either sensitivity or specificity about 20%, p = 0.000. The sensitivities and specificities for polyps, advanced cancer, erosion/ulcer and varices reached about 90%, respectively. The detect efficiency for the four categories of lesions reached to 89.7%. CONCLUSION: The CAD model for detection of multiple lesions in gastrointestinal lumen would be potentially developed into a double check along with real-time assessment and interpretation of the findings encountered by the endoscopists and may be a benefit to reduce the events of missing lesions.

3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4959-4984, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334842

ABSTRACT

Antiviral drugs (AvDs) are the primary resource in the global battle against viruses, including the recent fight against corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most AvDs require multiple medications, and their use frequently leads to drug resistance, since they have poor oral bioavailability and low efficacy due to their low solubility/low permeability. Characterizing the in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AvDs may help to solve the problems associated with AvDs and enhance their efficacy. In this review of AvDs, we systematically investigated their structure-based metabolic reactions and related enzymes, their cellular pharmacology, and the effects of metabolism on AvD pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. We further assessed how delivery systems achieve better metabolism and pharmacology of AvDs. This review suggests that suitable nanosystems may help to achieve better pharmacological activity and pharmacokinetic behavior of AvDs by altering drug metabolism through the utilization of advanced nanotechnology and appropriate administration routes. Notably, such AvDs as ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir have been confirmed to bind to the severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) receptor and thus may represent anti-COVID-19 treatments. Elucidating the metabolic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AvDs may help pharmacologists to identify new formulations with high bioavailability and efficacy and help physicians to better treat virus-related diseases, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
5.
Nurse Educ Today ; 102: 104938, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Almost all universities have been forced to close and change to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has been a big challenge for students. There is little knowledge about the academic burnout among nursing students in these difficult circumstances, especially in traditional Chinese medicine universities, and the relationship between the burnout and their psychological capital and academic engagement. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to describe academic burnout and clarify the relationships between academic burnout, academic engagement, and psychological capital among nursing students in traditional Chinese medicine universities. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. SETTING: The study sampled a four-year undergraduate traditional Chinese medicine university in Jian, Shandong Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sampling method was used to select 733 nursing students from April to June 2020. METHODS: The Academic Burnout Scale, the Positive Psychological Capital Scale, and the Academic Engagement Scale were used for data collection, in addition to social-demographic data. Path analysis was used to clarify the relationships among academic burnout, academic engagement and psychological capital. RESULTS: Of all the study participants, 39.29% had a certain degree of academic burnout. Academic engagement and psychological capital were negatively correlated with academic burnout among nursing students in traditional Chinese medicine university. Psychological capital was positively correlated with academic engagement. CONCLUSION: Nursing students had a certain degree of academic burnout. Academic engagement played a partial mediated role in the relationship between psychological capital and academic burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Adolescent , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Students, Nursing/psychology , Students, Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Young Adult
6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(10): 129672, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality of lung diseases although the underlying mechanisms have not been fully uncovered. Airway inflammation is a critical event in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. This study aimed to examine the role of oxidative stress and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PM2.5-induced pro-inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 0, 20, 50, 100 and 150 µg/ml of PM2.5. Secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and IL-1ß was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of the EGFR was examined with immunoblotting. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure increased the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß in a concentration-dependent fashion. Moreover, exposure to PM2.5 elevated intracellular levels of ROS, and phosphorylation of the EGFR (Y1068). Pretreatment of BEAS-2B cells with either an antioxidant or a specific EGFR inhibitor significantly reduced PM2.5-induced IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1ß secretion, implying that both oxidative stress and EGFR activation were involved in PM2.5-induced pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, pre-treatment of BEAS-2B cells with an antioxidant significantly blunted PM2.5-induced EGFR activation, suggesting that oxidative stress was required for PM2.5-induced EGFR activation. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 exposure induces pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells through oxidative stress-mediated EGFR activation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/metabolism , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/cytology , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism
7.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 6(51): 1412-1426, 20200328.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-380343

ABSTRACT

Recently, the epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in China and other countries in the world is serious. There are at present no effective treatments for COVID-19. The safety and effectiveness of western anti-coronavirus drugs are under investigation. In many places in China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat COVID-19 with a high clinical cure rate. The treatment economics of TCM is good. The immune-regulating and antiviral TCM can enhance human immunity and exert an antiviral effect. They have been widely used in the anti-COVID-19 treatment. We consulted the database of CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and PubMed for screening the immune-regulating and antiviral TCMs (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Pogostemonis Herba, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, Forsythiae Fructus, Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex, Bupleuri Radix, Isatidis Radix, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, and Houttuyniae Herba). This article summarizes the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics, and the clinical application of the effective components of immune-regulating and antiviral TCM in the prescriptions and Chinese patent medicines, in order to provide a better reference for the clinical application of TCM.

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