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Clinical Laboratory ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121562


Background: The incidence of respiratory viral diseases including parainfluenza virus (PIV) infection has decreased noticeably due to strict quarantine measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the recent outbreak of PIV in children occurred unexpectedly and the distribution pattern showed prominent differences from before the COVID-19 pandemic. PIV is one of the major viral pathogens related to acute lower respiratory infection in young children and the elderly. Accordingly, the authors intended to identify the incidence and distribution pattern of PIV outbreaks and to contribute to public health by providing information on it. Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively to investigate the incidence and distribution of PIV according to age group, gender, month, and season, and to analyze the co-infections from March 2020 to February 2022. The detection for respiratory microorganisms was performed through FilmArray assay.Results: The overall incidence for at least one respiratory pathogen was 45.9% (665/1,450). PIV was not detected at all from March 2020 to August 2021. However, it was first detected in September 2021 and the rate in the month that followed, October, accounted for 60% (114/190) of the total PIV infections during the entire study period. It also accounted for 44.9% (190/423) of patients with respiratory pathogens from September 2021 to February 2022. It reached the highest proportion at 90.5% (114/126) in October 2021. As for the distribution according to the age groups, group 3 (58.4%) accounted for the highest percentage, followed by group 4 (21.1%). In the PIV positive cases, the overall rate of more than two respiratory pathogens was 32.6% (62/190). The most common pattern of co-infection was PIV3 with rhinovirus/enterovirus (67.7%), followed by PIV3 with adenovirus (8.1%) and PIV3 with rhinovirus/enterovirus and adenovirus (8.1%).Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about many changes in our daily lives. It has been confirmed that the seasonal distribution of PIV was distinctly different from before the COVID-19 pandemic. It is anticipated that this phenomenon will affect the incidence or distribution of other respiratory pathogens and viral epidemiology. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to these changes in terms of public health.

Clinical Laboratory ; : 9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1667675


Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most common infectious disease in all ages and genders worldwide. Respiratory microorganisms such as respiratory viruses, are commonly responsible for causing ARI. COVID-19 is still prevalent in Korea. The implementation of lockdown and strict control measures, the mandatory wearing of masks, and social distancing are critical steps for controlling the risk of COVID-19 spread. This study was conducted to find out how these changes in daily lives impacted the distribution of respiratory microorganisms. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to identify the incidence and distribution patterns of ARI-causing respiratory microorganisms before (Period.) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (Period.) in terms of detection method, age, month, and season. In particular, data in Periods. and. were compared for eight major kinds of respiratory microorganisms: adenovirus (AdV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus/enterovirus (Rhino/Entero), influenza virus (Flu) A, Flu B, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Results: A total of 27,191 respiratory specimens were tested, of which 5,513 were obtained from children and adolescents (age groups 1. 5) and 21,678 from adults (age group 6). The overall positive rates for at least one respiratory microorganism in Periods. and. were 23.1% (1,199/5,193) and 4.9% (1,070/21,998), respectively (p < 0.001). The overall positive rates in male and female patients were significantly different (8.7% vs. 7.9%;p = 0.016). On the FilmArray (TM) RP assay, positive rates in all age groups decreased significantly in Period. compared with Period.. AdV, Rhino/Entero, and Flu A were detected in all four seasons, but HMPV and HPIV3 were not detected. The overall positive rates on FilmArray and the Flu antigen test in Period. were significantly decreased. In the COVID-19 test, the positive rates were high in March and April 2020, and decreased thereafter, but these increased again in the winter of 2020/2021. Conclusions: Life changes due to COVID-19 pandemic have had a significant impact on the distribution of respiratory microorganisms;our study results might provide useful information on respiratory virus epidemiology.