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1.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739404

ABSTRACT

Signaling pathway alterations in COVID-19 of living humans as well as therapeutic targets of the host proteins are not clear. We analyzed 317 urine proteomes, including 86 COVID-19, 55 pneumonia and 176 healthy controls, and identified specific RNA virus detector protein DDX58/RIG-I only in COVID-19 samples. Comparison of the COVID-19 urinary proteomes with controls revealed major pathway alterations in immunity, metabolism and protein localization. Biomarkers that may stratify severe symptoms from moderate ones suggested that macrophage induced inflammation and thrombolysis may play a critical role in worsening the disease. Hyper activation of the TCA cycle is evident and a macrophage enriched enzyme CLYBL is up regulated in COVID-19 patients. As CLYBL converts the immune modulatory TCA cycle metabolite itaconate through the citramalyl-CoA intermediate to acetyl-CoA, an increase in CLYBL may lead to the depletion of itaconate, limiting its anti-inflammatory function. These observations suggest that supplementation of itaconate and inhibition of CLYBL are possible therapeutic options for treating COVID-19, opening an avenue of modulating host defense as a means of combating SARS-CoV-2 viruses.

3.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(2): 85-96, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299806

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo describe the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19 confirmed patients in a single center in Beijing, China. Methods The study retrospectively included 19 patients with nucleic acid-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at our hospital from January 20 to March 5, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 14, 2020. The epidemiologic and clinical information was obtained through direct communication with the patients or their family members. Laboratory results retrieved from medical records and radiological images were analyzed both qualitatively by two senior chest radiologists as well as quantitatively via an artificial intelligence software. Results We identified 5 family clusters (13/19, 68.4%) from the study cohort. All cases had good clinical prognoses and were either mild (3/19) or moderate (16/19) clinical types. Fever (15/19, 78.9%) and dry cough (11/19, 57.9%) were common symptoms. Two patients received negative results for more than three consecutive viral nucleic acid tests. The longest interval between an initial CT abnormal finding and a confirmed diagnosis was 30 days. One patient's nucleic acid test turned positive on the follow-up examination after discharge. The presence of radiological abnormalities was non-specific for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions COVID-19 patients with mild or no clinical symptoms are common in Beijing, China. Radiological abnormalities are mostly non-specific and massive CT examinations for COVID-19 screening should be avoided. Analyses of the contact histories of diagnosed cases in combination with clinical, radiological and laboratory findings are crucial for the early detection of COVID-19. Close monitoring after discharge is also recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 28, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are distributed worldwide and have various susceptible hosts; CoVs infecting humans are called human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Although HCoV-specific drugs are still lacking, many potent targets for drug discovery are being explored, and many vigorously designed clinical trials are being carried out in an orderly manner. The aim of this review was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the current status of drug development against HCoVs, particularly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MAIN TEXT: A scoping review was conducted by electronically searching research studies, reviews, and clinical trials in PubMed and the CNKI. Studies on HCoVs and therapeutic drug discovery published between January 2000 and October 2020 and in English or Chinese were included, and the information was summarized. Of the 3248 studies identified, 159 publication were finally included. Advances in drug development against HCoV, especially SARS-CoV-2, are summarized under three categories: antiviral drugs aimed at inhibiting the HCoV proliferation process, drugs acting on the host's immune system, and drugs derived from plants with potent activity. Furthermore, clinical trials of drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2 are summarized. CONCLUSIONS: During the spread of COVID-19 outbreak, great efforts have been made in therapeutic drug discovery against the virus, although the pharmacological effects and adverse reactions of some drugs under study are still unclear. However, well-designed high-quality studies are needed to further study the effectiveness and safety of these potential drugs so as to provide valid recommendations for better control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/physiology , Drug Discovery , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Development , Drug Discovery/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(3): 376-382, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631729

ABSTRACT

Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics and chest CT findings of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)patients in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH). Methods A total of 13 patients with COVID-19 confirmed at PUMCH from January 20 to February 6,2020 were selected as the research subjects.Their epidemiological histories,clinical characteristics,laboratory tests,and chest CT findings were analyzed retrospectively.The location,distribution,density,and other accompanying signs of abnormal lung CT lesions were recorded,and the clinical types of these patients were assessed. Results The clinical type was "common type" in all these 13 patients aged(46.8±14.7)years(range:27-68 years).Ten patients had a travel history to Wuhan or direct contact with patients from Wuhan,2 cases had recent travel histories,and 1 case had a travel history to Beijing suburb.The white blood cell(WBC)count was normal or decreased in 92.3% of the patients and the lymphocyte count decreased in 15.4% of the patients.Twelve patients(92.3%)had a fever,among whom 11 patients were admitted due to fever and 2 patients(15.4%)had low fever.Eight patients(61.5%)had dry cough.The CT findings in these 13 patients were all abnormal.The lesions were mainly distributed along the bronchi and under the pleura.The lesions were relatively limited in 8 patients(affecting 1-3 lobes,predominantly in the right or left lower lobe),and diffuse multiple lesions of bilateral lungs were seen in 5 patients.The CT findings mainly included ground glass opacities(GGOs)(n=10,76.9%),focal consolidation within GGOs(n=7,53.8%),thickened vascular bundle passing through the lesions(n=10,76.9%),bronchial wall thickening(n=12,92.3%),air bronchogram(n=10,76.9%),vacuole signs in the lesions(n=7,53.8%),fine reticulation and interlobular septal thickening(n=3,23.1%),reversed halo-sign(n=2,15.4%),crazy-paving pattern(n=2,15.4%),and pleural effusion(n=2,15.4%).Conclusions Most of our patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at PUMCH had a travel history to Wuhan or direct contact with patients from Wuhan.The first symptoms of COVID-19 mainly include fever and dry cough,along with normal or reduced counts of WBC and lymphocytes.CT may reveal that the lesions distribute along the bronchi and under the pleura;they are typically localized GGOs in the early stage but can become multiple GGOs and infiltrative consolidation in both lungs in the advanced stage.Scattered vacuole signs may be visible inside the lesions in some patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Chin J Acad Radiol ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47416

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a public health emergency due to its rapid transmission. The appearance of pneumonia is one of the major clues for the diagnosis, progress and therapeutic evaluation. More and more literatures about imaging manifestations and related research have been reported. In order to know about the progress and prospective on imaging of COVID-19, this review focus on interpreting the CT findings, stating the potential pathological basis, proposing the challenge of patients with underlying diseases, differentiating with other diseases and suggesting the future research and clinical directions, which would be helpful for the radiologists in the clinical practice and research.

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