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1.
Eplasty ; 22: e3, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989446

ABSTRACT

Background: Plastic surgery is a competitive specialty that attracts many qualified applicants. This study provides results of a survey conducted to identify the attributes that make integrated and independent plastic surgery residency programs in the United States most desirable. Medical students' preferences for virtual events during the 2020 to 2021 Match cycle were also investigated. Methods: An anonymous 7-question survey was deployed to plastic surgery residency program directors to forward to medical students and current residents during the 2021 to 2022 National Resident Matching Program cycle. Demographics and ranking of program attributes were collected in the survey, and data analysis consisted of both qualitative and quantitative results. Results: A total of 50 survey respondents from 28% of plastic surgery residency programs was received. The happiness and well-being of residents and training at their preferred geographical location were identified as the most desirable qualities of a program (P < 0.05). However, 82% of respondents opposed mandatory research (P = 0.002). There was a statistically significant larger proportion of students that highly valued faculty responsiveness to feedback over perceived program ranking (P < 0.05). In the context of COVID-19, virtual meet and greets, as well as resident happy hours, were rated most desirable (n = 35, 70%), followed by social media outreach (n = 23, 46%). Conclusions: Resident happiness and well-being, followed by preferred geographical location, were the most favorable program attributes. Plastic surgery residency programs may seek to better integrate these preferences within their curricula, as well as showcase them on social media, to attract high-quality applicants and optimize the training experience for matched residents.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775894

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter pollution (APMP) is a global health issue that directly affects the human respiratory system. Thus, we estimated the spatiotemporal trends in the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, data on the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases were analyzed by age, sex, cause, and location. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze the temporal trends in the burden of different respiratory diseases over the 30 years. Results: Globally, in 2019, APMP contributed the most to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with 695.1 thousand deaths and 15.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); however, the corresponding age-standardized death and DALY rates declined from 1990 to 2019. Similarly, although age-standardized death and DALY rates since 1990 decreased by 24% and 40%, respectively, lower respiratory infections (LRIs) still had the second highest number of deaths and DALYs attributable to APMP. This was followed by tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer, which showed increased age-standardized death and DALY rates during the past 30 years and reached 3.78 deaths per 100,000 persons and 84.22 DALYs per 100,000 persons in 2019. Among children aged < 5 years, LRIs had a huge burden attributable to APMP, whereas for older people, COPD was the leading cause of death and DALYs attributable to APMP. The APMP-related burdens of LRIs and COPD were relatively higher among countries with low and low-middle socio-demographic index (SDI), while countries with high-middle SDI showed the highest burden of TBL cancer attributable to APMP. Conclusions: APMP contributed substantially to the global burden of respiratory diseases, posing a significant threat to human health. Effective actions aimed at air pollution can potentially avoid an increase in the PM2.5-associated disease burden, especially in highly polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
3.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 1026, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389143

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.00862.].

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 640782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247895

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a matter of international concern as the disease is spreading exponentially. Statistics showed that infected patients in China who received combined treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine and modern medicine exhibited lower fatality rate and relatively better clinical outcomes. Both Lian-Hua-Qing-Wen Capsule (LHQWC) and Jin-Hua-Qing-Gan Granule (JHQGG) have been recommended by China Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of COVID-19 and have played a vital role in the prevention of a variety of viral infections. Here, we desired to analyze the broad-spectrum anti-viral capacities of LHQWC and JHQGG, and to compare their pharmacological functions for rational clinical applications. Based on literature mining, we found that both LHQWC and JHQGG were endowed with multiple antiviral activities by both targeting viral life cycle and regulating host immune responses and inflammation. In addition, from literature analyzed, JHQGG is more potent in modulating viral life cycle, whereas LHQWC exhibits better efficacies in regulating host anti-viral responses. When translating into clinical applications, oral administration of LHQWC could be more beneficial for patients with insufficient immune functions or for patients with alleviated symptoms after treatment with JHQGG.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 549117, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the follow-up of patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the quarantine and observation period, some of the cured patients showed positive results again. The recurrent positive RT-PCR test results drew widespread concern. We observed a certain number of cured COVID-19 patients with positive RT-PCR test results and try to analyze the factors that caused the phenomenon. METHODS: We conducted an observational study in COVID-19 patients discharged from 6 rehabilitation stations in Wuhan, China. All observed subjects met the criteria for hospital discharge and were in quarantine. Data regarding age, sex, body mass index (BMI), course of disease, comorbidity, smoking status and alcohol consumption, symptoms in and out of quarantine, and intervention were collected from the subjects' medical records and descriptively analyzed. The main outcome of this study was the RT-PCR test result of the observed subjects at the end of quarantine (negative or positive). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the influencing factors related to recurrent positive RT-PCR test results. RESULTS: In this observational study, 420 observed subjects recovered from COVID-19 were included. The median age was 56 years, 63.6% of the subjects were above 50 years old, and 50.7% (213/420) were female. The most common comorbidities were hypertension [26.4% (111/420)], hyperlipidemia [10.7% (45/420)], and diabetes [10.5% (44/420)]. 54.8% (230/420) manifested one or more symptoms at the beginning of the observation period, the most common symptoms were cough [27.6% (116/420)], shortness of breath 23.8% (100/420)], and fatigue [16.2% (68/420)], with fever rare [2.6% (11/420)]. A total of 325 subjects were exposed to comprehensive intervention; 95 subjects were absence of intervention. The recurrence rate of positive RT-PCR test results with comprehensive intervention was 2.8% (9/325), and that with no intervention was 15.8% (15/95). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusted for factors such as age, sex, and comorbidity and found out that comprehensive intervention was correlated with the recurrent positive RT-PCR test results. There was appreciably less recurrence in the comprehensive intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: The factors related to positive RT-PCR test results in observed subjects recovered from COVID-19 were age, comorbidity, and comprehensive intervention, among which comprehensive intervention might be a protective factor. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR2000030747.

6.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 862, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732919

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particle (VLP) is a self-assembled nanostructure incorporating key viral structural proteins. VLP resembles molecular and morphological features of authentic viruses but is non-infectious and non-replicating due to lack of genetic materials. Successful applications of VLP has been shown in vaccinological and virological research. As an accessibly safe and relevant substitute of naturally pathogenic viruses, the construction of SARS-CoV-2 VLPs is much in demand in the ongoing fight against 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemics. In the current study, using mammalian expression system, which is advantageous in maintaining correct protein glycosylation patterns, we efficiently constructed SARS-CoV-2 VLPs. We showed that among four SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, expression of membrane protein (M) and small envelope protein (E) are essential for efficient formation and release of SARS-CoV-2 VLPs. Moreover, the corona-like structure presented in SARS-CoV-2 VLPs from Vero E6 cells is more stable and unified, as compared to those from HEK-293T cells. Our data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 VLPs possess molecular and morphological properties of native virion particles, which endow such VLPs with a promising vaccine candidate and a powerful tool for the research of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Balkan Med J ; 37(3): 163-165, 2020 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7568

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus has impacted nearly >90,000 people in more than 75 countries. In this case report, we aim to define the chest computed tomography findings of 2019-novel coronavirus associated with pneumonia and its successful resolution after treatment. Case Report: A fifty-year-old female patient, who is a businesswoman, presented with chief complaints of "fever for one week, diarrhea, anorexia, and asthenia." Initially, she was given Tamiflu. The influenza A virus serology was negative. Three days later, levofloxacin was started because the patient's symptoms did not improve. The novel coronavirus nucleic acid test was negative. It was noted that before the onset of the disease, the patient went to Wuhan on a business trip. Despite the given treatment, her body temperature rose to 39.2°C and she was referred to our clinic for further evaluation. Then, chest computed tomography was performed and showed bilateral multifocal ground glass opacities with consolidation which suggested viral pneumonia as a differential diagnosis, and the subsequent 2019-novel coronavirus pneumonia nucleic acid test was positive. Conclusion: Chest computed tomography offers fast and convenient evaluation of patients with suspected 2019-novel coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
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