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1.
Frontiers in molecular biosciences ; 7:157-157, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689155

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A recently emerging respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly spread across the world This disease is initiated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and uncontrolled cytokine storm, but it remains unknown as to whether a robust antibody response is related to clinical deterioration and poor outcome in COVID-19 patients Methods: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by chemiluminescence analysis (CLIA) in COVID-19 patients at a single center in Wuhan Median IgG and IgM levels in acute and convalescent-phase sera (within 35 days) for all included patients were calculated and compared between severe and non-severe patients Immune response phenotyping based on the late IgG levels and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was characterized to stratified patients into different disease severities and outcomes Results: A total of 222 patients were included in this study IgG was first detected on day 4 of illness, and its peak levels occurred in the fourth week Severe cases were more frequently found in patients with high IgG levels, compared to those with low IgG levels (51 8 vs 32 3%;p = 0 008) Severity rates for patients with NLR(hi)IgG(hi), NLR(hi)IgG(lo), NLR(lo)IgG(hi), and NLR(lo)IgG(lo) phenotype were 72 3, 48 5, 33 3, and 15 6%, respectively (p < 0 0001) Furthermore, severe patients with NLR(hi)IgG(hi), NLR(hi)IgG(lo) had higher inflammatory cytokines levels including IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10, and decreased CD4+ T cell count compared to those with NLR(lo)IgG(lo) phenotype (p < 0 05) Recovery rates for severe patients with NLR(hi)IgG(hi), NLR(hi)IgG(lo), NLR(lo)IgG(hi), and NLR(lo)IgG(lo) phenotype were 58 8% (20/34), 68 8% (11/16), 80 0% (4/5), and 100% (12/12), respectively (p = 0 0592) Dead cases only occurred in NLR(hi)IgG(hi) and NLR(hi)IgG(lo) phenotypes Conclusions: COVID-19 severity is associated with increased IgG response, and an immune response phenotyping based on the late IgG response and NLR could act as a simple complementary tool to discriminate between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients, and further predict their clinical outcome

2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235458, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638588

ABSTRACT

A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 bursting in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread across the world. We report the clinical characteristics of 82 cases of death from COVID-19 in a single center. Clinical data on 82 death cases laboratory-confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 infection were obtained from a Wuhan local hospital's electronic medical records according to previously designed standardized data collection forms. All patients were local residents of Wuhan, and a large proportion of them were diagnosed with severe illness when admitted. Due to the overwhelming of our system, a total of 14 patients (17.1%) were treated in the ICU, 83% of deaths never received Critical Care Support, only 40% had mechanical ventilation support despite 100% needing oxygen and the leading cause of death being pulmonary. Most of the patients who died were male (65.9%). More than half of the patients who died were older than 60 years (80.5%), and the median age was 72.5 years. The bulk of the patients who died had comorbidities (76.8%), including hypertension (56.1%), heart disease (20.7%), diabetes (18.3%), cerebrovascular disease (12.2%), and cancer (7.3%). Respiratory failure remained the leading cause of death (69.5%), followed by sepsis/MOF (28.0%), cardiac failure (14.6%), hemorrhage (6.1%), and renal failure (3.7%). Furthermore, respiratory, cardiac, hemorrhagic, hepatic, and renal damage were found in 100%, 89%, 80.5%, 78.0%, and 31.7% of patients, respectively. On admission, lymphopenia (89.2%), neutrophilia (74.3%), and thrombocytopenia (24.3%) were usually observed. Most patients had a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio of >5 (94.5%), high systemic immune-inflammation index of >500 (89.2%), and increased C-reactive protein (100%), lactate dehydrogenase (93.2%), and D-dimer (97.1%) levels. A high level of IL-6 (>10 pg/ml) was observed in all detected patients. The median time from initial symptoms to death was 15 days (IQR 11-20), and a significant association between aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.002), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.037) and time from initial symptoms to death was remarkably observed. Older males with comorbidities are more likely to develop severe disease and even die from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Respiratory failure is the main cause of COVID-19, but the virus itself and cytokine release syndrome-mediated damage to other organs, including cardiac, renal, hepatic, and hemorrhagic damage, should be taken seriously as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 245-250, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health emergency. METHODS: 204 elderly patients (≥60 years old) diagnosed with COVID-19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 31st to February 20th, 2020 were included in this study. Clinical endpoint was in-hospital death. RESULTS: Of the 204 patients, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were the most common coexisting conditions. 76 patients died in the hospital. Multivariate analysis showed that dyspnea (hazards ratio (HR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.414-3.517; p < 0.001), older age (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.070-1.123; p < 0.001), neutrophilia (HR 4.4, 95% CI 1.310-15.061; p = 0.017) and elevated ultrasensitive cardiac troponin I (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.471-10.433; p = 0.006) were independently associated with death. CONCLUSION: Although so far the overall mortality of COVID-19 is relatively low, the mortality of elderly patients is much higher. Early diagnosis and supportive care are of great importance for the elderly patients of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Eur Radiol ; 30(8): 4417-4426, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the chest computed tomography (CT) findings of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) according to clinical severity. We compared the CT features of common cases and severe cases, symptomatic patients and asymptomatic patients, and febrile and afebrile patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical and thoracic CT features of 120 consecutive patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to a tertiary university hospital between January 10 and February 10, 2020, in Wuhan city, China. RESULTS: On admission, the patients generally complained of fever, cough, shortness of breath, and myalgia or fatigue, with diarrhea often present in severe cases. Severe patients were 20 years older on average and had comorbidities and an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level. There were no differences in the CT findings between asymptomatic and symptomatic common type patients or between afebrile and febrile patients, defined according to Chinese National Health Commission guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and CT features at admission may enable clinicians to promptly evaluate the prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Clinicians should be aware that clinically silent cases may present with CT features similar to those of symptomatic common patients. KEY POINTS: • The clinical features and predominant patterns of abnormalities on CT for asymptomatic, typic common, and severe cases were summarized. These findings may help clinicians to identify severe patients quickly at admission. • Clinicians should be cautious that CT findings of afebrile/asymptomatic patients are not better than the findings of other types of patients. These patients should also be quarantined. • The use of chest CT as the main screening method in epidemic areas is recommended.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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