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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2814-e2817, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501023

ABSTRACT

Intrahost analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic sequences identified 2 viral haplotypes comprised of 3 genetically linked mutations from the respiratory and intestinal tracts of a patient with coronavirus disease 2019. Spatiotemporal data suggest that this patient initially had dual infection of 2 SARS-CoV-2 variants, which subsequently redistributed into the 2 systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genomics , Humans , Respiratory System
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 735125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441109

ABSTRACT

Background: The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has turned into a worldwide public health crisis and caused more than 100,000,000 severe cases. Progressive lymphopenia, especially in T cells, was a prominent clinical feature of severe COVID-19. Activated HLA-DR+CD38+ CD8+ T cells were enriched over a prolonged period from the lymphopenia patients who died from Ebola and influenza infection and in severe patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, the CD38+HLA-DR+ CD8+ T population was reported to play contradictory roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A total of 42 COVID-19 patients, including 32 mild or moderate and 10 severe or critical cases, who received care at Beijing Ditan Hospital were recruited into this retrospective study. Blood samples were first collected within 3 days of the hospital admission and once every 3-7 days during hospitalization. The longitudinal flow cytometric data were examined during hospitalization. Moreover, we evaluated serum levels of 45 cytokines/chemokines/growth factors and 14 soluble checkpoints using Luminex multiplex assay longitudinally. Results: We revealed that the HLA-DR+CD38+ CD8+ T population was heterogeneous, and could be divided into two subsets with distinct characteristics: HLA-DR+CD38dim and HLA-DR+CD38hi. We observed a persistent accumulation of HLA-DR+CD38hi CD8+ T cells in severe COVID-19 patients. These HLA-DR+CD38hi CD8+ T cells were in a state of overactivation and consequent dysregulation manifested by expression of multiple inhibitory and stimulatory checkpoints, higher apoptotic sensitivity, impaired killing potential, and more exhausted transcriptional regulation compared to HLA-DR+CD38dim CD8+ T cells. Moreover, the clinical and laboratory data supported that only HLA-DR+CD38hi CD8+ T cells were associated with systemic inflammation, tissue injury, and immune disorders of severe COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that HLA-DR+CD38hi CD8+ T cells were correlated with disease severity of COVID-19 rather than HLA-DR+CD38dim population.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immune System Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , CD8 Antigens/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 614193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417124

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the discrepancy between self-rating and professional evaluation of mental health status in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cluster cases. Method: A total of 65 COVID-19 cluster cases admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital Capital Medical University from June 14, 2020 to June 16, 2020 were included in the study. Mental health assessment was completed by self-rating and professional evaluation. The gaps between self-rating and professional evaluation in different demographic characteristics were compared. Results: The results of self-rating were inconsistent with those of professional evaluation. The gap was statistically different among certain demographic subgroups. As for anxiety, the gaps had remarkable statistics differences in subgroups of sex, monthly income, infection way, and anxiety/depression medical history. Similarly, in the terms of depression, the gaps had significant statistic differences in the subgroups of the medical history of anxiety/depression, history of physical disease, employment status and the insurance type, marriage, education (year), residing in Beijing (year), and the monthly income. Conclusion: Compared to the professional evaluation, patients had a higher self-rating, which may be related to some demographic characteristics. It suggests that screening can be conducted in patients with COVID-19 by self-rating first, and then professional evaluation should be carried out in the patients with suspicious or positive results.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 687928, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348548

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic not only threatens people's physical health, but also affects their mental health in the long term. Although people had returned to work and school, they are closely monitoring the development of the epidemic and taking preventive measures. This study attempted to examine the relationship between media exposure, sense of coherence (SOC) and mental health, and the moderating effect of media exposure in college students after returning to school. In the present study, we conducted a cross sectional survey on 424 college students returning to school around May 2020. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess media exposure scale, SOC, depression, anxiety and stress. Correlation and moderation analysis was conducted. The results showed that (1) negative epidemic information exposure, rather than positive epidemic information exposure, was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. (2) SOC was also associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. (3) The effect of SOC on depression was modified by negative epidemic information exposure. With the increase of negative epidemic information exposure, the predictive effect of SOC on depression is increasing gradually. These findings demonstrated that negative epidemic information exposure was associated with an increased psychological distress in the sample. A high SOC played a certain protective role in the adaptation of college students in the post-epidemic period. It is important to find more ways to increase the colleges' SOC level and avoid negative information exposure.

6.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(4): nwab006, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254806

ABSTRACT

After a short recovery period, COVID-19 reinfections could occur in convalescent patients, even those with measurable levels of neutralizing antibodies. Effective vaccinations and protective public health measures are recommended for the convalescent COVID-19 patients.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 242-246, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is recommended for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and provides a powerful tool to identify new infections and facilitate contact tracing. In fact, as the prevalence of COVID-19 decreases, this RT-PCR testing remains as the main preventive measure to avoid rebound. However, inconsistent results can lead to misdiagnoses in the clinic. These inconsistencies are due to the variability in (1) the collection times of biological samples post infection, and (2) sampling procedures. METHODS: We applied the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate logistic regression on RT-PCR results from 258 confirmed patients with COVID-19 to evaluate the factors associated with negative conversion. We also estimated the proportion (%) of negative conversion among patients who had tested twice or more, and compared the proportions arising from oropharyngeal swabs, sputum, and combined double testing, respectively. MAIN RESULTS: The proportion of negative conversion was 6.7% on day 4, 16.4% on day 7, 41.0% at 2 weeks, and 61.0% at 3 weeks post-admission. We also found that 34.1% and 60.3% of subjects had at least one negative RT-PCR result on days 7 and 14 after the onset of symptoms, respectively. The proportion of negative conversions following sputum testing was higher than that from oropharyngeal swabs in the early stages but this declined after the onset of symptoms. CONCLUSION: In the absence of effective treatments or vaccines, efficient testing strategies are critical if we are to control the COVID-19 epidemic. According to this study, early, consecutive and combined double testing, will be the key to identify infected patients, particularly for asymptomatic and mild symptomatic cases. These strategies will minimize misdiagnosis and the ineffective isolation of infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sputum/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
8.
2020 Ieee 5th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Engineering ; : 551-555, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1198059

ABSTRACT

Emergency supplies transportation is a key issue during the epidemic period of COVID-19. Considering the potential of high-speed passenger trains to carry time-sensitive goods, this paper studies the transport scheme design problem for emergency transportation to meet the demand in time limit. To address this problem, we develop a multi-commodity flow model based on feasible paths in a space-time network structure. And a modelling method is proposed for k shortest paths generation. The proposed models consider the timeliness of emergency logistics and the characteristic of railway freight transportation. A numerical example is given to test this method. Results show that the model and method are effective and efficient.

9.
Global Health ; 17(1): 44, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The possibility of psychopathological symptoms and related risk factors among normal persons and patients infected during the outbreak of COVID-19 has been widely investigated. The mental health outcomes of the second wave of the pandemic remain unclear, especially those of patients with an infection. Thus, this study aims to explore the prevalence of and related risk factors associated with psychopathological symptoms among patients infected with COVID-19 during the second wave. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five isolated wards of a designated hospital in Beijing, China, from July 1 to July 15, 2020. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was conducted to assess psychiatric disorders, and a series of scales were used to measure self-reported psychopathological symptoms and psychosomatic factors. Multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors associated with psychopathological symptoms. RESULTS: Among 119 participants with infections, the prevalence of generalized anxiety symptoms (51.3%), depressive symptoms (41.2%), and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)/posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (33.6%) was observed. Loneliness, hope, coping strategies, and history of mental disorders were the shared risk or protective factors across several psychopathological symptoms. The perceived impact of COVID-19 is the specific risk factor associated with state anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSS/PTSD is high among patients with infections during the second wave of the pandemic in Beijing. Clinical doctors must realize that these patients will probably experience depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and PTSS/PTSD, as well as some neuropsychiatric syndromes. Specific mental health care is urgently required to help patients manage the virus during the second wave of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Pandemics , Adult , Beijing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/psychology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(2): 100099, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142304

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused over 100 million deaths and continues to spread rapidly around the world. Asymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is the Achilles' heel of COVID-19 public health control measures. Phylogenomic data on SARS-CoV-2 could provide more direct information about asymptomatic transmission. In this study, using a novel MINERVA sequencing technology, we traced asymptomatic transmission of COVID-19 patients in Beijing, China. One hundred and seventy-eight close contacts were quarantined, and 14 COVID-19 patients were laboratory confirmed by RT-PCR. We provide direct phylogenomic evidence of asymptomatic transmission by constructing the median joining network in the cluster. These data could help us to determine whether the current symptom-based screening should cover asymptomatic persons.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 634266, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110322

ABSTRACT

Background: Yindan Jiedu Granules (YDJDG) have been newly prescribed as a Chinese herbal formula. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of YDJDG and lopinavir-ritonavir in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Overall, 131 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. In addition to standard care, 60 of these patients received YDJDG (YDJDG group) and 71 received lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir-ritonavir group). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match the characteristics of individuals in the two groups, while the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the proportion recovery observed. Results: Cox analysis revealed that YDJDG and CD4 ≥ 660 cells/µL were independent predictive factors of proportion recovery. At baseline, disease types differed between the YDJDG and lopinavir-ritonavir treatment groups. Furthermore, no significant adverse effects or toxicities relevant to YDJDG were observed. The median recovery time was 21 days in the YDJDG group and 27 days in the lopinavir-ritonavir group. After PSM (1:1), 50 patient pairs, YDJDG vs. lopinavir-ritonavir, were analyzed. In the YDJDG group, the proportion of recovered patients was remarkably higher than that observed in the lopinavir-ritonavir group (p = 0.0013), especially for those presenting mild/moderate disease type and CD4 < 660 cells/µL. In the YDJDG group, the mean duration of fever and pulmonary exudative lesions was significantly shorter than that observed in the lopinavir-ritonavir group (p = 0.0180 and p = 0.0028, respectively). Conclusion: YDJDG reveals the potential to hasten the recovery period in COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate disease type or CD4 < 660 cells/µL by shortening the mean duration of fever and pulmonary exudative lesions.

12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 77-82, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An increasing number of reports have observed thrombosis in severe cases of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of thromboembolism in mild/moderate cases of COVID-19. All of the patients had normal coagulation tests and none had any overt thrombotic complications. Our findings indicate that it is important to screen the thrombotic status of cases with mild/moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Between 11 June and 8 July 2020, 23 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 pneumonia consented to having computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CPTA) and computed tomography venography (CTV) scans of the lungs and extremity veins. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was also performed in all patients for screening. The incidence, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, imaging features, and prognosis, of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) were analyzed and compared with those of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia without VTE. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (82.6%) had VTE, mainly distal limb thrombosis. Only one of the VTE patients was positive when screened by DUS; the other VTE patients were negative by DUS. All of the mild/moderate patients with VTE were screened by CTPA + CTV. Blood tests for inflammatory, coagulation, and biochemical, parameters were all within the normal range, except for WBC and LDH. CONCLUSIONS: When using CTV screening for DVT, we found that the incidence of thrombosis in patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 markedly increased to 82.6% (19/23). Screening for thrombosis is therefore important in patients with COVID-19. CTV is more sensitive than DUS for the detection of thrombosis. More research is now needed to evaluate the significance of thrombosis in COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925974, 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease, and acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS) plays an important role in the process of disease aggravation. The detailed clinical course and risk factors of ARDS have not been well described. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of adult confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Beijing Ditan Hospital from Jan 20 to Feb 29, 2020 and compared the differences between ARDS cases and non-ARDS cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were employed to explore the risk factors associated with ARDS. RESULTS Of the 130 adult patients enrolled in this study, the median age was 46.5 (34-62) years and 76 (58.5%) were male. ARDS developed in 26 (20.0%) and 1 (0.8%) death occurred. Fever occurred in 114 patients, with a median highest temperature of 38.5 (38-39)°C and median fever duration of 8 (3-11) days. The median time from illness onset to ARDS was 10 (6-13) days, the median time to chest CT improvement was 17 (14-21) days, and median time to negative nucleic acid test result was 27 (17-33) days. Multivariate regression analysis showed increasing odds of ARDS associated with age older than 65 years (OR=4.75, 95% CL1.26-17.89, P=0.021), lymphocyte counts [0.5-1×109/L (OR=8.80, 95% CL 2.22-34.99, P=0.002); <0.5×109/L(OR=36.23, 95% CL 4.63-2083.48, P=0.001)], and temperature peak ≥39.1°C (OR=5.35, 95% CL 1.38-20.76, P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS ARDS tended to occur in the second week of the disease course. Potential risk factors for ARDS were older age (>65 years), lymphopenia (≤1.0×109/L), and temperature peak (≥39.1°C). These findings could help clinicians to predict which patients will have a poor prognosis at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/etiology , COVID-19 , China , Cities/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Immunity ; 53(3): 685-696.e3, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a current world-wide public health threat. However, little is known about its hallmarks compared to other infectious diseases. Here, we report the single-cell transcriptional landscape of longitudinally collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in both COVID-19- and influenza A virus (IAV)-infected patients. We observed increase of plasma cells in both COVID-19 and IAV patients and XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and FAS-induced T cell apoptosis in COVID-19 patients. Further analyses revealed distinct signaling pathways activated in COVID-19 (STAT1 and IRF3) versus IAV (STAT3 and NFκB) patients and substantial differences in the expression of key factors. These factors include relatively increase of interleukin (IL)6R and IL6ST expression in COVID-19 patients but similarly increased IL-6 concentrations compared to IAV patients, supporting the clinical observations of increased proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients. Thus, we provide the landscape of PBMCs and unveil distinct immune response pathways in COVID-19 and IAV patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(5): ofaa169, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623975

ABSTRACT

Background: There is currently a lack of nonspecific laboratory indicators as a quantitative standard to distinguish between the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and an influenza A or B virus infection. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish a nomogram to detect COVID-19. Methods: A nomogram was established using data collected from 457 patients (181 with COVID-19 and 276 with influenza A or B infection) in China. The nomogram used age, lymphocyte percentage, and monocyte count to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza. Results: Our nomogram predicted probabilities of COVID-19 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.913 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.883-0.937), greater than that of the lymphocyte:monocyte ratio (0.849; 95% CI, 0.812-0.880; P = .0007), lymphocyte percentage (0.808; 95% CI, 0.768-0.843; P < .0001), monocyte count (0.780; 95% CI, 0.739-0.817; P < .0001), or age (0.656; 95% CI, 0.610-0.699; P < .0001). The predicted probability conformed to the real observation outcomes of COVID-19, according to the calibration curves. Conclusions: We found that age, lymphocyte percentage, and monocyte count are risk factors for the early-stage prediction of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus. As such, our research provides a useful test for doctors to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza.

17.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 206, 2020 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with critical illness due to infection with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) show rapid disease progression to acute respiratory failure. The study aimed to screen the most useful predictive factor for critical illness caused by COVID-19. METHODS: The study prospectively involved 61 patients with COVID-19 infection as a derivation cohort, and 54 patients as a validation cohort. The predictive factor for critical illness was selected using LASSO regression analysis. A nomogram based on non-specific laboratory indicators was built to predict the probability of critical illness. RESULTS: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was identified as an independent risk factor for critical illness in patients with COVID-19 infection. The NLR had an area under receiver operating characteristic of 0.849 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707 to 0.991) in the derivation cohort and 0.867 (95% CI 0.747 to 0.944) in the validation cohort, the calibration curves fitted well, and the decision and clinical impact curves showed that the NLR had high standardized net benefit. In addition, the incidence of critical illness was 9.1% (1/11) for patients aged ≥ 50 and having an NLR < 3.13, and 50% (7/14) patients with age ≥ 50 and NLR ≥ 3.13 were predicted to develop critical illness. Based on the risk stratification of NLR according to age, this study has developed a COVID-19 pneumonia management process. CONCLUSIONS: We found that NLR is a predictive factor for early-stage prediction of patients infected with COVID-19 who are likely to develop critical illness. Patients aged ≥ 50 and having an NLR ≥ 3.13 are predicted to develop critical illness, and they should thus have rapid access to an intensive care unit if necessary.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Lymphocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
18.
Traditional Med.Res. ; 3(5): 145-159, 20200501.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-176103

ABSTRACT

Background: Chai-Ling decoction (CLD), derived from a modification of Xiao-Chai-Hu (XCH) decoction and Wu-Ling-San (WLS) decoction, has been used to treat the early-stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 remain unknown. In this study, the potential mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 were preliminarily investigated based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Methods: Initially, the active components and targets of CLD were screened based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform and PharmMapper database. The targets of COVID-19 were obtained from GeneCards database. The protein-protein interaction network was established using STRING database to analyze the key targets. Gene Oncology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis were also conducted to evaluate the pathways related to the targets of CLD on COVID-19. Moreover, the compound-target-pathway network was established using Cytoscape 3.2.7. Subsequently, the molecular docking method was performed to select the active compounds with high binding affinity on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the key target of SARS-CoV-2 in entering target cells. The possible binding sites were also visualized by a three-dimensional graph. Results: Network pharmacology analysis showed that there were 106 active components and 160 targets of CLD. Additionally, 251 targets related to COVID-19 were identified, and 24 candidates of CLD on COVID-19 were selected. A total of 283 GO terms of CLD on COVID-19 were identified, and 181 pathways were screened based on GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. CLD might alleviate the inflammatory response and improve lung injury to treat COVID-19 through interleukin 17 signaling, T helper cell 17 differentiation, tumor necrosis factor signaling, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 signaling. Besides, molecular docking indicated that beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol were the top three candidates in CLD with the highest affinity to SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2. Conclusion: Our study identifies the potential mechanisms of CLD on COVID-19 and beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol may be the key compounds that exert antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.

19.
J Infect ; 81(2): e26-e30, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its discovery, SARS-CoV-2 has been spread throughout China before becoming a global pandemic. In Beijing, family clusters are the main mode of human-human transmission accounting for 57.6% of the total confirmed cases. METHOD: We present the epidemiological and clinical features of the clusters of three large and one small families. RESULT: Our results revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted quickly through contact with index case, and a total of 22/24 infections were observed. Among those infected, 20/22 had mild symptoms and only two had moderate to severe clinical manifestations. Children in the families generally showed milder symptoms. The incubation period varied from 2 to 13 days, and the shedding of virus from the upper respiratory tract lasted from 5 to over 30 days. A prolonged period of virus shedding (>30 days) in upper respiratory tract was observed in 6/24 cases. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted quickly in the form of family clusters. While the infection rate is high within the cluster, the disease manifestations, latent period, and virus shedding period varied greatly. We therefore recommend rigorously testing contacts even during the no-symptom phase and consider whether viral shedding has ceased before stopping isolation measures for an individual.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Beijing/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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