Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
Journal of Medical Virology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1802457

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been widely used to build an immunologic barrier in the population against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, a newly emerging Omicron variant including BA.1 and BA.2 sublineages, largely escaped the neutralization of existing neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), even those elicited by three doses of vaccines. Here, we used the Omicron BA.1 RBD as a fourth dose of vaccine to induce potent Omicron-specific nAbs and evaluated the broadly neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 variants. The BA.1-based vaccine is indeed prone to induce a strain-specific antibody response which substantially cross-reactive with BA.2 sublineage and yet triggered broad neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants when it was used in the sequential immunization with WT and other variant vaccines. These results demonstrated that the booster of Omicron RBD vaccine could be a rational strategy to enhance the broadly neutralizing antibody response.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324806

ABSTRACT

Recently, the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients get more attention. Here we report a cohort study on the follow up of 182 recovered patients under medical isolation observation. There are 20 (10.99 %) patients out of the 182 were detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned positive, but none of them shows any clinical symptomatic recurrence indicating that COVID-19 has a good prognosis. Females and young patients aged under 15 have higher re-positive rate than the average, and none of the severe patients turned re-positive. Notably, most of the re-positive cases turn negative in the followed tests, suggesting that the importance of dynamic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for infectivity assessment.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324805

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is getting worse every day all over the world. The present study aimed to review the epidemiological characteristics of patients infected with COVID-19 in Shenzhen city, a super megacity of China, to provide some references for fighting to the coronavirus. We collected data of 417 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 of Shenzhen through March 7 th , 2020. The epidemiological characteristics of the patients were analyzed. Besides, we collected the governmental measures of Shenzhen city, and the the dynamic changes of the epidemic outbreak. Governmental strategies such as early detection, early hospitalization and popular science etc. are effective for the prevention and control of the epidemic. Nearly 80% confirmed patients with COVID-19 in Shenzhen were in normal or mild conditions, and the mortality was less than 1%. Age, gender, exposure to source of transmission within 14 days and basic diseases are major risk factors for severe patients. Patients in characters of elder, male, with exposure of Wuhan and carried basic diseases had higher risk to be in severe condition (P<0.01;P<0.001). There were 368 patients discharged from hospital by the end of March 7 th , 2020. Patients in severe conditions took more time from onset to discharge (P<0.001), so as those elder one (P<0.001) or who carried basic diseases (P<0.01). The differences of epidemiological characteristics between children and the elderly are still not clear. The nucleic acid test of some discharged patients returned to positive again, and the potential mechanisms need to be further explored. In conclusion, timely administrative intervention is necessary for prevention and control of the COVID-19 outbreak. Patients in characters of elder, male and carried basic diseases worthy more attention. The management of discharged patients, especially the investigation of the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA will be the focus on for the next step. Authors Bo Yuan and Ya-Wen An contributed equally to this work.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315306

ABSTRACT

The emergence of numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has presented new challenges to the global efforts to control the still ravaging COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we obtain two cross-neutralizing antibodies (7D6 and 6D6) that target Sarbecoviruses’ receptor binding domain (RBD) with sub-picomolar affinities and potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structures show that both antibodies bind a cryptic site different from that recognized by existing antibodies and highly conserved across Sarbecovirus isolates. Binding of these two antibodies to the RBD clashes with the adjacent N-terminal domain and disrupts the viral spike. Significantly, both antibodies confer good mutation resistance to the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, our results have direct relevance to public health as options for passive antibody therapeutics and even active prophylactics, and can also inform the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.

9.
Virol J ; 19(1): 2, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608023

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants still poses a threat to public health worldwide. Effective next-generation vaccines and optimized booster vaccination strategies are urgently needed. Here, we sequentially immunized mice with a SARS-CoV-2 wild-type inactivated vaccine and a heterologous mutant RBD vaccine, and then evaluated their neutralizing antibody responses against variants including Beta, Delta, Alpha, Iota, Kappa, and A.23.1. These data showed that a third booster dose of heterologous RBD vaccine especially after two doses of inactivated vaccines significantly enhanced the GMTs of nAbs against all SARS-CoV-2 variants we tested. In addition, the WT and variants all displayed good cross-immunogenicity and might be applied in the design of booster vaccines to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5652, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440473

ABSTRACT

The emergence of numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has presented new challenges to the global efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we obtain two cross-neutralizing antibodies (7D6 and 6D6) that target Sarbecoviruses' receptor-binding domain (RBD) with sub-picomolar affinities and potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structures show that both antibodies bind a cryptic site different from that recognized by existing antibodies and highly conserved across Sarbecovirus isolates. Binding of these two antibodies to the RBD clashes with the adjacent N-terminal domain and disrupts the viral spike. Both antibodies confer good resistance to mutations in the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, our results have direct relevance to public health as options for passive antibody therapeutics and even active prophylactics. They can also inform the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/administration & dosage , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/isolation & purification , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , CHO Cells , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sf9 Cells , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 250, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387324

ABSTRACT

Understanding the mechanism for antibody neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for the development of effective therapeutics and vaccines. We recently isolated a large number of monoclonal antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Here we select the top three most potent yet variable neutralizing antibodies for in-depth structural and functional analyses. Crystal structural comparisons reveal differences in the angles of approach to the receptor binding domain (RBD), the size of the buried surface areas, and the key binding residues on the RBD of the viral spike glycoprotein. One antibody, P2C-1F11, most closely mimics binding of receptor ACE2, displays the most potent neutralizing activity in vitro and conferred strong protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Ad5-hACE2-sensitized mice. It also occupies the largest binding surface and demonstrates the highest binding affinity to RBD. More interestingly, P2C-1F11 triggers rapid and extensive shedding of S1 from the cell-surface expressed spike glycoprotein, with only minimal such effect by the remaining two antibodies. These results offer a structural and functional basis for potent neutralization via disruption of the very first and critical steps for SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4210, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303772

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to SARS-CoV-2 hold powerful potentials for clinical interventions against COVID-19 disease. However, their common genetic and biologic features remain elusive. Here we interrogate a total of 165 antibodies from eight COVID-19 patients, and find that potent nAbs from different patients have disproportionally high representation of IGHV3-53/3-66 usage, and therefore termed as public antibodies. Crystal structural comparison of these antibodies reveals they share similar angle of approach to RBD, overlap in buried surface and binding residues on RBD, and have substantial spatial clash with receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) in binding to RBD. Site-directed mutagenesis confirms these common binding features although some minor differences are found. One representative antibody, P5A-3C8, demonstrates extraordinarily protective efficacy in a golden Syrian hamster model against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, virus escape analysis identifies a single natural mutation in RBD, namely K417N found in B.1.351 variant from South Africa, abolished the neutralizing activity of these public antibodies. The discovery of public antibodies and shared escape mutation highlight the intricate relationship between antibody response and SARS-CoV-2, and provide critical reference for the development of antibody and vaccine strategies to overcome the antigenic variation of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Virol J ; 18(1): 87, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207602

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid spread of the B.1.1.7 lineage (VOC-202012/01) SARS-CoV-2 variant has aroused global concern. The N501Y substitution is the only mutation in the interface between the RBD of B.1.1.7 and ACE2, raising concerns that its recognition by neutralizing antibodies may be affected. Here, we assessed the neutralizing activity and binding affinity of a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies against the wild type and N501Y mutant SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and RBD protein, respectively. We found that the neutralization activity and binding affinity of most detected antibodies (10 out of 12) were unaffected, although the N501Y substitution decreased the neutralizing and binding activities of CB6 and increased that of BD-23. These findings could be of value in the development of therapeutic antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Binding Sites , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
Clin Lab ; 67(2)2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has recently been declared an epidemic by the WHO, and there is an urgent need for affected countries and laboratories to assess and treat people at risk of COVID-19. A heat procedure has been suggested for specimen inactivation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of serum heating on biochemical indexes, and providing a basis for accurate detection results of the COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected 29 normal cases of two tubes of 5 mL whole blood. One tube was analyzed directly, and the other was analyzed after heating at 56°C 30 minutes. RESULTS: A total of 34 serum biochemical index quantitative results were obtained, 28/34 indexes were not significantly affected by the heat inactivation and remained clinically interpretable. As the thermal inactivation for these indexes showed good correlation, ALB (p = 0.04, Pearson R = 0.91, 2.6% mean increase), CysC (p = 0.03, Pearson R = 0.98, 9.9% mean increase), CO2CP (p < 0.001, Pearson R = 0.96, 13% mean decrease), they were still inter-pretable. Four biochemical indexes ALP, CK, CK-MB, and insulin were inactivated and showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed CK, CK-MB, ALP, and insulin were sensitive to heat and will be inhibited or degrade after heating, indicating that the rapid decrease of this indexes in the COVID-19 patients may be caused by sample heat inactivation. For safety and diagnostic accuracy, we recommend the use of a point-of-care device for blood gases, electrolytes, troponin, and liver and renal function tests within a ISL 2 or above biosafety cabinet with level 3 or above biosafety laboratory practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19 , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Blood Chemical Analysis/standards , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 646-651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027827

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A significant proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients still have some symptoms. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played an important role in the treatment of COVID-19, but whether it is helpful for discharged patients is still unknown. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the impacts of TCM treatment on the convalescents of COVID-19. Methods: A total of 372 COVID-19 convalescents from February 21 to May 3 in Shenzhen, China were retrospectively analyzed, 291 of them accepted clinically examined at least once and 191 convalescents accepted TCM. Results: After retrospective analysis of the clinical data of convalescents accepted TCM treatment or not, we found that the white blood cell count, as well as serum interleukin-6 and procalcitonin decreased in TCM group. Serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase was significantly decreased, while prealbumin and albumin increased in TCM group. Red blood cell, hemoglobin, and platelet count increased in TCM group. The mechanisms of TCM treatment might be the overall regulations, including balanced immune response, improved hematopoiesis and coagulation systems, enhanced functions of liver and heart, increased nutrient intake and lipid metabolism. Conclusions: This study suggested that TCM treatment would be beneficial for discharged COVID-19 patients. However, long-term medical observation and further study with randomized trial should be done to confirm this result. Besides, the potential molecular mechanisms of TCM treatment should be further revealed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Convalescence , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals, Isolation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
17.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(1): 176-186, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005042

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the liver function recovery of COVID-19 patients after discharge. Patients and Methods: A total of 253 discharged COVID-19 patients in Shenzhen city, China were selected. The clinical characteristics of these patients were assessed. A 2-month follow-up and laboratory hematology test were performed to examine the status of patients' liver function. Results: Patients combined with liver diseases, especially fatty liver, are more likely to progress to severe condition (P<0.05). Patients in severe condition and those with liver diseases have higher rates of liver injuries during hospitalization, characterized by a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P<0.01). The ALT, AST/ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and A/G levels showed significant differences in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, and P<0.001); and the outlier ratio of A/G, ALT, GGT and ALP of patients remained abnormal higher within 14 days after discharge (P<0.001). Liver injuries of COVID-19 patients may be related to the epidemiological characteristics, clinical indexes, basic diseases, symptoms, drug treatment during hospitalization and the complications. Indicators of liver function were correlated with cardiac function, renal function, thyroid function, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, immune index, leukocyte, erythrocyte, hemoglobin and platelet related indexes. The outlier ratio of TP, ALB and GLB remained extremely low throughout the follow-up period; the outlier ratio of ALT, AST and GGT decreased below 10% from a high level at 40 days after discharged. However, the outlier ratio of A/G, AST/ALT and ALP remained high during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Abnormal liver function might indicate worse recovery of COVID-19 patients. Changes in liver function should be emphasized during long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge; the necessity of employing appropriate interventions for liver function repair should be emphasized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatic Insufficiency/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Young Adult
18.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(2): 347-355, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961814

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Research on recovering COVID-19 patients could be helpful for containing the pandemic and developing vaccines, but we still do not know much about the clinical features, recovery process, and antibody reactions during the recovery period. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the epidemiological information, discharge summaries, and laboratory results of 324 patients. Results: In all, 15 (8.62%) patients experienced chest distress/breath shortness, where 8 of the 15 were severely ill. This means severely ill patients need an extended amount of time to recover after discharge; next, 20 (11.49%) patients experienced anxiety and 21 (12.07%) had headache/insomnia and a small fraction of them complained of anosmia/ageusia, indicating that these patients need treatment for mental and psychological health issues. Regarding the re-positive patients, their CT and laboratory test results showed no obvious evidence of illness progress or infectivity but a high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody expression. Conclusion: Recovered COVID-19 patients need psychological and physiological care and treatment, re-positivity can occur in any person, but juveniles, females, and patients with mild/moderate existing symptoms have higher rates of re-positivity, While there is no evidence that turning re-positive has an impact on their infectivity, but it still alerted us that we need differentiate them in the following managements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11887, 2020 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650165

ABSTRACT

Recently, the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients is receiving more attention. Herein we report a cohort study on the follow-up of 182 recovered patients under medical isolation observation. Twenty (10.99%) patients out of the 182 were detected to be SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive (re-positives), although none showed any clinical symptomatic recurrence, indicating that COVID-19 responds well to treatment. Patients aged under 18 years had higher re-positive rates than average, and none of the severely ill patients re-tested positive. There were no significant differences in sex between re-positives and non-re-positives. Notably, most of the re-positives turned negative in the following tests, and all of them carried antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. This indicates that they might not be infectious, although it is still important to perform regular SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing and follow-up for assessment of infectivity. The findings of this study provide information for improving the management of recovered patients, and for differentiating the follow-up of recovered patients with different risk levels.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Recurrence , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
20.
Nature ; 584(7819): 115-119, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents a global health emergency that is in urgent need of intervention1-3. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into its target cells depends on binding between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein and its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)2,4-6. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 206 RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from single B cells from 8 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. We identified antibodies that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2; this activity correlates with competition with ACE2 for binding to RBD. Unexpectedly, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the infected plasma did not cross-react with the RBDs of SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), although there was substantial plasma cross-reactivity to their trimeric spike proteins. Analysis of the crystal structure of RBD-bound antibody revealed that steric hindrance inhibits viral engagement with ACE2, thereby blocking viral entry. These findings suggest that anti-RBD antibodies are largely viral-species-specific inhibitors. The antibodies identified here may be candidates for development of clinical interventions against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , Child , Clone Cells/cytology , Clone Cells/immunology , Cross Reactions , Crystallization , Crystallography, X-Ray , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plasma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL