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1.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(10):95-99, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1975282

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the transmission characteristics of a family cluster outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Xi-an, in order to provide reference for prevention and control efforts.

2.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(10):89-94, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1975281

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Xi'an, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control measures.

3.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787455

ABSTRACT

Influenza shares the same putative transmission pathway with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and causes tremendous morbidity and mortality annually globally. Since the transmission of COVID-19 in China, a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against to the disease have been implemented to contain its transmission. Based on the surveillance data of influenza, Search Engine Index, and meteorological factors from 2011 to 2021 in Xi'an, and the different level of emergence responses for COVID-19 from 2020 to 2021, Bayesian Structural Time Series model and interrupted time series analysis were applied to quantitatively assess the impact of NPIs in sequent phases with different intensities, and to estimate the reduction of influenza infections. From 2011 to 2021, a total of 197,528 confirmed cases of influenza were reported in Xi'an, and the incidence of influenza continuously increased from 2011 to 2019, especially, in 2019–2020, when the incidence was up to 975.90 per 100,000 persons;however, it showed a sharp reduction of 97.68% in 2020–2021, and of 87.22% in 2021, comparing with 2019–2020. The highest impact on reduction of influenza was observed in the phase of strict implementation of NPIs with an inclusion probability of 0.54. The weekly influenza incidence was reduced by 95.45%, and an approximate reduction of 210,100 (95% CI: 125,100–329,500) influenza infections was found during the post-COVID-19 period. The reduction exhibited significant variations in the geographical, population, and temporal distribution. Our findings demonstrated that NPIs against COVID-19 had a long-term impact on the reduction of influenza transmission.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3121-3132, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750404

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence has shown that anti-COVID-19 nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) can support prevention and control of various infectious diseases, including intestinal diseases. However, most studies focused on the short-term mitigating impact and neglected the dynamic impact over time. This study is aimed to investigate the dynamic impact of anti-COVID-19 NPIs on hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) over time in Xi'an City, northwestern China. Based on the surveillance data of HFMD, meteorological and web search data, Bayesian Structural Time Series model and interrupted time series analysis were performed to quantitatively measure the impact of NPIs in sequent phases with different intensities and to predict the counterfactual number of HFMD cases. From 2013 to 2021, a total number of 172,898 HFMD cases were reported in Xi'an. In 2020, there appeared a significant decrease in HFMD incidence (-94.52%, 95% CI: -97.54% to -81.95%) in the first half of the year and the peak period shifted from June to October by a small margin of 6.74% compared to the previous years of 2013 to 2019. In 2021, the seasonality of HFMD incidence gradually returned to the bimodal temporal variation pattern with a significant average decline of 61.09%. In particular, the impact of NPIs on HFMD was more evident among young children (0-3 years), and the HFMD incidence reported in industrial areas had an unexpected increase of 51.71% in 2020 autumn and winter. Results suggested that both direct and indirect NPIs should be implemented as effective public health measures to reduce infectious disease and improve surveillance strategies, and HFMD incidence in Xi'an experienced a significant rebound to the previous seasonality after a prominent decline influenced by the anti-COVID-19 NPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Seasons
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929701, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a cluster outbreak caused by an imported case from Hubei Province was reported in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. Ten patients from 2 families and 1 hospital were involved in the transmission. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted an epidemiological investigation to identify the cluster transmission of COVID-19. The demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and cluster characteristics were described and analyzed. RESULTS From January 27 to February 13, 2020, a total of 10 individuals were confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 by the nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal swabs from 2 families and 1 hospital. Among the confirmed cases, 7 had atypical clinical symptoms and 3 were asymptomatic. The median times from onset to diagnosis and to discharge were 3.5 days (range, 1-5 days) and 19.5 days (range, 16-38 days), respectively. There were 4 patients whose exposure dates were 1, 3, 3, and 2 days earlier than the onset dates of their previous-generation cases, respectively. Four prevention and control measures were effectively used to interrupt the disease transmission. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 can be easily transmitted within families and in hospitals, and asymptomatic patients could act as a source of disease transmission. The results of this outbreak at the early epidemic stage support the recommendation that individuals with confirmed COVID-19 and all their close contacts should be subjected to medical quarantined observation and nucleic acid screening as early as possible, even if they do not have any symptoms. Meanwhile, people in high-risk areas should improve their protective measures.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/prevention & control , Carrier State/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Quarantine/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2045-2051, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unprecedented outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Wuhan City has caused global concern; the outflow of the population from Wuhan was believed to be a main reason for the rapid and large-scale spread of the disease, so the government implemented a city-closure measure to prevent its transmission considering the large amount of travel before the Chinese New Year. METHODS: Based on the daily reported new cases and the population-movement data between 1 and 31 January, we examined the effects of population outflow from Wuhan on the geographical expansion of the infection in other provinces and cities of China, as well as the impacts of the city closure in Wuhan using different closing-date scenarios. RESULTS: We observed a significantly positive association between population movement and the number of the COVID-19 cases. The spatial distribution of cases per unit of outflow population indicated that the infection in some areas with a large outflow of population might have been underestimated, such as Henan and Hunan provinces. Further analysis revealed that if the city-closure policy had been implemented 2 days earlier, 1420 (95% confidence interval, 1059-1833) cases could have been prevented, and if 2 days later, 1462 (1090-1886) more cases would have been possible. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that population movement might be one important trigger for the transmission of COVID-19 infection in China, and the policy of city closure is effective in controlling the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Humans , Pandemics
9.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 20(3):279-282, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1115741

ABSTRACT

Objective: To predict the short-term progress of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) and evaluate the degree of population control among different provinces.

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