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JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242945


BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, infodemic spread even more rapidly than the pandemic itself. The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has been prevalent worldwide and hindered pandemic exiting strategies. Misinformation around COVID-19 vaccine is a vital contributor to vaccine hesitancy. However, no evidence systematically summarized COVID-19 vaccine misinformation. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the global evidence on misinformation related to COVID-19 vaccines, including its prevalence, features, influencing factors, impacts, and solutions for combating misinformation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review by searching five peer-reviewed databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO). We included original articles that investigated misinformation related to COVID-19 vaccine and were published in English from January 1, 2020, to August 18, 2022. We excluded publications that did not cover or focus on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation. The Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies, Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool, and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Checklist were used to assess the study quality. The review was guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021288929). RESULTS: Of 8864 studies identified, 91 observational studies and 11 interventional studies met the inclusion criteria. Misinformation around COVID-19 vaccine covered conspiracy, concerns on vaccine safety and efficacy, no need for vaccine, morality, liberty, and humor. Conspiracy and safety concerns were the most prevalent misinformation. There was a great variation in misinformation prevalence with 2.5~55.4% in general population and 6.0~96.7% in antivaccine/vaccine hesitant groups from survey-based studies, and the prevalence of 0.1~41.3% on general online data and 0.5~56% on antivaccine/vaccine hesitant data from Internet-based studies. Younger age, lower education and economic status, right-wing and conservative ideology, having psychological problems enhanced beliefs in misinformation. The content, format, and source of misinformation influenced its spread. A five-step framework was proposed to address vaccine-related misinformation, including identifying misinformation, regulating producers and distributors, cutting production and distribution, supporting target audiences, and disseminating trustworthy information. The debunking messages/videos were found to be effective in several experimental studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our review provided comprehensive and up-to-date evidence on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and helps responses to vaccine infodemic in future pandemics.

BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 556, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753111


BACKGROUND: Regular testing and vaccination are effective measures to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence on the willingness and uptake of the COVID-19 testing is scarce, and the willingness and uptake of vaccination may change as the pandemic evolves. This study aims to examine willingness and uptake of COVID-19 testing and vaccination during a low-risk period of the COVID-19 pandemic in urban China. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 2244 adults in urban China. Descriptive analyses were performed to compare the respondents' willingness and uptake of COVID-19 testing and vaccination. Multivariate logistic regressions were fitted to investigate factors associated with the willingness and uptake of the two measures. RESULTS: In early 2021, about half (52.45%) of the respondents had received or scheduled a COVID-19 test at least once, and a majority (95.63%) of the respondents were willing to receive testing. About two-thirds (63.28%) of the respondents had received/scheduled or were willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Willingness and uptake of COVID-19 testing were not associated with socio-demographic characteristics, except for occupation. Being of older age, migrants, having higher educational attainment and secure employment were associated with a higher uptake of COVID-19 vaccination among the surveyed respondents, while willingness to vaccinate was consistent across socio-demographic characteristics among those who had not been vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: By early 2021, Chinese adults expressed almost universal willingness of COVID-19 testing and over half of adults have been tested, while the willingness and uptake of COVID-19 vaccination were relatively low at the low-risk period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Maintaining willingness of COVID-19 vaccination is critical and necessary, especially when the pandemic evolved into a low-risk period.

COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(5): e26372, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290683


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic and the related containment strategies may affect parental and pediatric health behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the change in children's and adolescents' prevention and vaccination behaviors amid China's COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey in mid-March 2020 using proportional quota sampling in Wuhan (the epidemic epicenter) and Shanghai (a nonepicenter). Data were collected from 1655 parents with children aged 3 to 17 years. Children's and adolescents' prevention behaviors and regular vaccination behaviors before and during the epidemic were assessed. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate respondents' characteristics, public health prevention behaviors, unproven protection behaviors, and vaccination behaviors before and during the COVID-19 epidemic. Univariate analyses were performed to compare differences in outcome measures between cities and family characteristics, using chi-square tests or Fisher exact tests (if expected frequency was <5) and analyses of variance. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the factors and disparities associated with prevention and vaccination behaviors. RESULTS: Parent-reported prevention behaviors increased among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic compared with those before the epidemic. During the epidemic, 82.2% (638/776) of children or adolescents always wore masks when going out compared with 31.5% (521/1655) before the epidemic; in addition, 25.0% (414/1655) and 79.8% (1321/1655) had increased their frequency and duration of handwashing, respectively, although only 46.9% (776/1655) went out during the epidemic. Meanwhile, 56.1% (928/1655) of the families took unproven remedies against COVID-19. Parent-reported vaccination behaviors showed mixed results, with 74.8% (468/626) delaying scheduled vaccinations and 80.9% (1339/1655) planning to have their children get the influenza vaccination after the epidemic. Regarding socioeconomic status, children and adolescents from larger families and whose parents had lower education levels were less likely to improve prevention behaviors but more likely to take unproven remedies. Girls were less likely than boys to always wear a mask when going out and wash their hands. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention behaviors and attitudes toward influenza vaccination have improved during the COVID-19 epidemic. Public health prevention measures should be continuously promoted, particularly among girls, parents with lower education levels, and larger families. Meanwhile, misinformation about COVID-19 remains a serious challenge and needs to be addressed by public health stakeholders.

Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Behavior , Hand Disinfection , Masks , Pandemics , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemics , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Surveys and Questionnaires