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1.
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research ; 27(4):357-373, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1900873

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, South Korea implemented relatively flexible quarantine measures such as recommending social distancing. In contrast, China strictly controlled the pandemic, enforcing a ban on going out. This study examined the process of forming people’s pro-social tourism behavioral intention in both countries considering the differing disciplinary techniques in response to COVID-19. We employed a framework combining the Norm Activation Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. This study contributes to creating a safe tourism environment, proposals for revitalizing tourism activities, and measures to ensure that tourism services are in line with public health. © 2022 Asia Pacific Tourism Association.

2.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337444

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.1 first emerged on the Chinese mainland in January 2022 in Tianjin and caused a large wave of infections. During mass PCR testing, a total of 430 cases infected with Omicron were recorded between January 8 and February 7, 2022, with no new infections detected for the following 16 days. Most patients had been vaccinated with SARSCoV-2 inactivated vaccines. The disease profile associated with BA.1 infection, especially after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, is unclear. Whether BA.1 breakthrough infection after receiving inactivated vaccine could create a strong enough humoral immunity barrier against Omicron is not yet investigated. Methods We collected the clinical information and vaccination history of the 430 COVID-19 patients infected with Omicron BA.1. Re-positive cases and inflammation markers were monitored during the patient’s convalescence phase. Ordered multiclass logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for COVID-19 disease severity. Authentic virus neutralization assays against SARS-CoV-2 wildtype, Beta and Omicron BA.1 were conducted to examine the plasma neutralizing titers induced after post-vaccination Omicron BA.1 infection, and were compared to a group of uninfected healthy individuals who were selected to have a matched vaccination profile. Findings Among the 430 patients, 316 (73.5%) were adults with a median age of 47 years, and 114 (26.5%) were under-age with a median age of 10 years. Female and male patients account for 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with mild (47.7%) to moderate diseases (50.2%), with only 2 severe cases (0.5%) and 7 (1.6%) asymptomatic infections. No death was recorded. 341 (79.3%) of the 430 patients received inactivated vaccines (54.3% BBIBP-CorV vs. 45.5% CoronaVac), 49 (11.4%) received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (Ad5-nCoV), 2 (0.5%) received recombinant protein subunit vaccines (ZF2001), and 38 (8.8%) received no vaccination. No vaccination is associated with a substantially higher ICU admission rate among Omicron BA.1 infected patients (2.0% for vaccinated patients vs. 23.7% for unvaccinated patients, P<0.001). Compared with adults, child patients presented with less severe illness (82.5% mild cases for children vs. 35.1% for adults, P<0.001), no ICU admission, fewer comorbidities (3.5% vs. 53.2%, P<0.001), and less chance of turning re-positive on nucleic acid tests (12.3% vs. 22.5%, P=0.019). For adult patients, compared with no prior vaccination, receiving 3 doses of inactivated vaccine was associated with significantly lower risk of severe disease (OR 0.227 [0.065-0.787], P=0.020), less ICU admission (OR 0.023 [0.002-0.214], P=0.001), lower re-positive rate on PCR (OR 0.240 [0.098-0.587], P=0.002), and shorter duration of hospitalization and recovery (OR 0.233 [0.091-0.596], P=0.002). At the beginning of the convalescence phase, patients who had received 3 doses of inactivated vaccine had substantially lower systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and C-reactive protein than unvaccinated patients, while CD4+/CD8+ ratio, activated Treg cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were higher compared to their 2-dose counterparts, suggesting that receipt of 3 doses of inactivated vaccine could step up inflammation resolution after infection. Plasma neutralization titers against Omicron, Beta, and wildtype significantly increased after breakthrough infection with Omicron. Moderate symptoms were associated with higher plasma neutralization titers than mild symptoms. However, vaccination profiles prior to infection, whether 2 doses versus 3 doses or types of vaccines, had no significant effect on post-infection neutralization titer. Among recipients of 3 doses of CoronaVac, infection with Omicron BA.1 largely increased neutralization titers against Omicron BA.1 (8.7x), Beta (4.5x), and wildtype (2.2x), compared with uninfected healthy individuals who have a matched vaccination profile. Interpretation Receipt of 3-dose inactivated vaccines can substantially reduce the disease severity of Omicr n BA.1 infection, with most vaccinated patients presenting with mild to moderate illness. Child patients present with less severe disease than adult patients after infection. Omicron BA.1 convalescents who had received inactivated vaccines showed significantly increased plasma neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron BA.1, Beta, and wildtype SARS-CoV-2 compared with vaccinated healthy individuals.

3.
2021 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology, WI-IAT 2021 ; : 438-445, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1832573

ABSTRACT

Contact tracing apps use mobile devices to keep track of and promptly identify those who come in contact with an individual who tests positive for COVID-19. However, privacy is a major obstacle to the wide-spread use of such apps since users are concerned about sharing their contact and diagnosis data. This research overcomes multiple challenges facing contact tracing apps: (1) As researchers have pointed out, there is a need to balance contact tracing effectiveness with the amount of user identity and diagnosis information shared. (2) No matter what information the user chooses to share, the app should safeguard the privacy of user information. (3) On the other hand, some essential test result information must be shared for the contact tracing app to work. While contact tracing apps have done a good job maintaining contact information on the user's device, most such apps publish positive COVID-19 test results to a central server which have some risks for compromise. We address these challenges by (1) giving the user the right to choose how much information to share about their diagnosis and their identity, (2) building our novel contact tracing app on top of Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) to assure privacy preserving user authentication with verifiable credentials, and (3) decentralizing the storage of COVID-19 test results. We, in collaboration with Verizon, have implemented our Privacy-preserving Contact Tracing (PpCT) app, leveraging SSI advances based on the blockchain for their 5G network. © 2021 ACM.

4.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334805

ABSTRACT

Omicron sub-lineage BA.2 has rapidly surged globally, accounting for over 60% of recent SARS-CoV-2 infections. Newly acquired RBD mutations and high transmission advantage over BA.1 urge the investigation of BA.2's immune evasion capability. Here, we show that BA.2 causes strong neutralization resistance, comparable to BA.1, in vaccinated individuals' plasma. However, BA.2 displays more severe antibody evasion in BA.1 convalescents, and most prominently, in vaccinated SARS convalescents' plasma, suggesting a substantial antigenicity difference between BA.2 and BA.1. To specify, we determined the escaping mutation profiles1,2 of 714 SARS-CoV-2 RBD neutralizing antibodies, including 241 broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies isolated from SARS convalescents, and measured their neutralization efficacy against BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2. Importantly, BA.2 specifically induces large-scale escape of BA.1/BA.1.1effective broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies via novel mutations T376A, D405N, and R408S. These sites were highly conserved across sarbecoviruses, suggesting that Omicron BA.2 arose from immune pressure selection instead of zoonotic spillover. Moreover, BA.2 reduces the efficacy of S309 (Sotrovimab)3,4 and broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies targeting the similar epitope region, including BD55-5840. Structural comparisons of BD55-5840 in complexes with BA.1 and BA.2 spike suggest that BA.2 could hinder antibody binding through S371F-induced N343-glycan displacement. Intriguingly, the absence of G446S mutation in BA.2 enabled a proportion of 440-449 linear epitope targeting antibodies to retain neutralizing efficacy, including COV2-2130 (Cilgavimab)5. Together, we showed that BA.2 exhibits distinct antigenicity compared to BA.1 and provided a comprehensive profile of SARS-CoV-2 antibody escaping mutations. Our study offers critical insights into the humoral immune evading mechanism of current and future variants.

5.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 149(2):AB59-AB59, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798141
6.
Acta Crystallographica a-Foundation and Advances ; 77:C705-C705, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1762645
7.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, BIBM 2021 ; : 2456-2462, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1722872

ABSTRACT

Given the huge amount of data from diverse sources and involving various conceptual fields in heterogeneous formats, researchers have encountered challenges in their effort to process, search for, and access knowledge about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this paper, we built COVID19-OBKG, an ontology-based knowledge graph and web service for COVID-19, to enable the access and retrieval of knowledge. First, we built the schema of COVID19-OBKG based on biomedical ontologies to guide the construction of the instance layer of COVID19-OBKG from top to bottom. Secondly, we collected data sources related to COVID-19, including structured databases and web pages. We acquired entities and relationships from data sources through named entity recognition and relation extraction algorithms and merged them with knowledge in biomedical ontologies. Thirdly, we modeled our data in the form of an attribute graph and stored it in Dgraph. Finally, we built a web service to support the retrieval and visualization of COVID19-OBKG, which verified the effectiveness of our approach to constructing a knowledge graph, and the usability of COVID19-OBKG. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
20th IEEE Sensors Conference ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1700865

ABSTRACT

In this work, we present the combination of near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to distinguish respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Sendai virus (SeV), the first study of its kind. Using a low-cost and portable spectrometer, a total of 440 virus spectra were collected over four separate sessions. The spectra were pre-processed by normalisation and baseline removal, and variable elimination was conducted based on the standard deviation. Partial least squares discrimination analysis was used to model the relationship between the spectra and the virus categories, resulting in the accuracy of 0.825 and 0.855 for validation and prediction, respectively. Since the portable spectrometer has simple operation and can provide analytical results in real time, it can be used as a viable tool for rapid, on-site and low-cost virus screening for RSV, SeV and possibly other similar viruses such as SARS-CoV-2.

9.
European Respiratory Journal ; 58:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1700409
10.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327050

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutic antibodies has been limited by the continuous emergence of viral variants, and by the restricted diffusion of antibodies from circulation into the sites of respiratory virus infection. Here, we report the identification of two highly conserved regions on Omicron variant RBD recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Based on this finding, we generated a bispecific single-domain antibody that was able to simultaneously and synergistically bind these two regions on a single Omicron variant RBD as revealed by Cryo-EM structures. This inhalable antibody exhibited exquisite neutralization breadth and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The structures also deciphered an uncommon cryptic epitope within the spike trimeric interface that may have implications for the design of broadly protective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutics.

11.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326764

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant (Omicron) contains 15 mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron would evade RBD neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) requires immediate investigation. Here, we used high-throughput yeast display screening1,2 to determine the RBD escaping mutation profiles for 247 human anti-RBD NAbs and showed that the NAbs could be unsupervised clustered into six epitope groups (A-F), which is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications3-5. Strikingly, various single mutations of Omicron could impair NAbs of different epitope groups. Specifically, NAbs in Group A-D, whose epitope overlap with ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, G446S, E484A, and Q493R. Group E (S309 site)6 and F (CR3022 site)7 NAbs, which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but still, a subset of NAbs are escaped by G339D, N440K, and S371L. Furthermore, Omicron pseudovirus neutralization showed that single mutation tolerating NAbs could also be escaped due to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested NAbs are escaped by Omicron. Regarding NAb drugs, the neutralization potency of LYCoV016/LY-CoV555, REGN10933/REGN10987, AZD1061/AZD8895, and BRII-196 were greatly reduced by Omicron, while VIR-7831 and DXP-604 still function at reduced efficacy. Together, data suggest Omicron would cause significant humoral immune evasion, while NAbs targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region remain most effective. Our results offer instructions for developing NAb drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.

12.
20th IEEE Sensors, SENSORS 2021 ; 2021-October, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1672875

ABSTRACT

In this work, we present the combination of near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to distinguish respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Sendai virus (SeV), the first study of its kind. Using a low-cost and portable spectrometer, a total of 440 virus spectra were collected over four separate sessions. The spectra were pre-processed by normalisation and baseline removal, and variable elimination was conducted based on the standard deviation. Partial least squares discrimination analysis was used to model the relationship between the spectra and the virus categories, resulting in the accuracy of 0.825 and 0.855 for validation and prediction, respectively. Since the portable spectrometer has simple operation and can provide analytical results in real time, it can be used as a viable tool for rapid, on-site and low-cost virus screening for RSV, SeV and possibly other similar viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. © 2021 IEEE.

14.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):3, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407345
15.
Blood ; 136:33-34, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1344048

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Nodal PTCL with T-follicular helper phenotype (PTCL-TFH), which includes angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), is characterized by recurrent mutations affecting epigenetic regulators such as TET2, DNMT3A, IDH2 and RHOA. The association of aberrant DNA methylation with lymphomagenesis provides rationale for clinical application of hypomethylating agents. Azacitidine, an epigenetic modifier which inhibits DNA methyltransferase, has shown clinical activity as a single agent and in combination in R/R PTCL. We report the findings of the first study of oral azacitidine (CC-486) plus CHOP as initial treatment for PTCL (ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT03542266). METHODS: This phase 2 study prioritized enrollment of PTCL-TFH. Subjects received CHOP on day 1 of each cycle for 6 cycles. Priming with oral azacitidine (CC-486) at 300 mg daily was administered for 7 days prior to cycle 1 of CHOP, and for 14 days before CHOP cycles 2-6. Supportive care included mandatory G-CSF. The primary endpoint is CR per 2014 IWG criteria. Secondary endpoints include ORR, safety and survival. Correlative biomarker studies are planned to assess genomic mutations by next-generation-sequencing (NGS), in addition to methylation and transcription profiles. Using a Simon two-stage design comparing an CR of ≥60% with treatment to an unacceptable CR of ≤35% (alpha=10%, power=80%), 9 or more CR out of 17 enrolled patients were required to declare the treatment worthy of further study. RESULTS: From 6/2018 to 3/2020, 21 subjects with previously untreated PTCL were enrolled at 4 centers, and the study met its accrual. At study entry, 17 patients (81%) had PTCL-TFH (16 AITL and 1 TFH), 3 with PTCL-NOS, 1 with ATLL, including 5 (24%) with CD30+ disease. The median age was 66 years (range 22-77), and the M:F ratio was 1.6:1. Nineteen (90%) had stage III/IV disease, 10 (48%) had elevated LDH, 7 (33%) had bone marrow involvement, and 9 (43%) had IPI 3-5. Treatment was generally well tolerated with expected side effects. Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities included neutropenia (71.4%), thrombocytopenia (9.5%) and anemia (14.3%), with febrile neutropenia uncommon (14.3%). Grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities included fatigue (14.3%), hyponatremia (14.3%), diarrhea (4.8%), vomiting (4.8%), rash (4.8%), and elevated ALT (4.8%). One incidence each of influenza A, COVID-19 pneumonia, C.diff and strongyloides hyperinfection were observed and treated. There was no study treatment-related mortality to date. As of July 2020 at a median follow-up of 7 months (range 4-25 months), one subject withdrew consent after cycle 1 (patient preference), and 20 subjects had at least one response assessment, including 15 completed treatment, 2 progressed during treatment, and 3 nearing completion of therapy. At interim assessment after cycle 3 (n=20), the ORR was 85% with CR at 55% (90%CI of 34.7%-74.1%). To date, the preliminary end-of-treatment (EOT, n=17) CR was 76.5% (90%CI of 53.9%-91.5%) for all evaluable patients and was 86.7% for 15 PTCL-TFH, exceeding primary endpoint threshold. CR did not correlate with CD30 expression. The estimated 1-yr PFS for all patients was 56.8% (95%CI of 26.3%-87.3%), with 1-yrs PFS for PTCL-TFH at 61.1% (95%CI of 29.5%-92.7%), and the estimated 1-yr OS for all patients was 74.4% (95%CI of 48.8%-100.0%), with 1-yr OS for PTCL-TFH at 88.9% (95%CI of 68.4%-100.0%). Mutational status by NGS was determined in 15 patients to date. The frequencies of the TET2, RHOA, DNMT3A, and IDH2 mutations were 73%, 40%, 13% and 13%, respectively. TET2 mutations were significantly associated with CR (p=0.014), favorable PFS (p-0.012) and OS (p=0.042). In contrast, DNMT3A mutations were associated with adverse OS (p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first demonstration that addition of hypomethylating agent oral azacitidine (CC486) to CHOP as initial therapy is feasible, safe, and induces high CR rate in PTCL-TFH subtype, with expected side effects. Although preliminary, the EOT CR to date exceeds the threshold of meeting study primary endpoint. Final efficacy data as well as response according to subtype and mutational profiling will be updated at ASH. This active combination will be further evaluated in the upcoming ALLIANCE/Intergroup randomized study A051902, comparing oral azacitidine-CHO(E)P with duvelisib-CHO(E)P against CHO(E)P in CD30 negative PTCL. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Ruan: Seattle Genetics: Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Research Funding;Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding;Juno: Consultancy;BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding;Pharmacyclics: Research Funding;Kite Pharma: Consultancy. Moskowitz: Seattle Genetics: Research Funding;Incyte: Research Funding;Merck: Consultancy;Seattle Genetics: Consultancy;Bristol-Myers Squibb: Research Funding;Merck: Research Funding;Imbrium Therapeutics, L.P.: Consultancy;Miragen Therapeutics: Consultancy. Mehta-Shah: Bristol Myers-Squibb: Research Funding;Genetech: Research Funding;Innate Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Kyowa Kirin: Consultancy;Verastem: Research Funding;Karyopharm Therapeutics: Consultancy;Celgene: Research Funding;C4 Therapeutics: Consultancy. Sokol: EUSA Pharma: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Kymera Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Kyowa/Kirin Inc.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Horwitz: Portola: Consultancy, Research Funding;Aileron: Consultancy, Research Funding;Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding;Beigene: Consultancy;Daiichi Sankyo: Research Funding;C4 Therapeutics: Consultancy;ADCT Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding;Millenium/Takeda: Consultancy, Research Funding;Innate Pharma: Consultancy;Corvus: Consultancy;Trillium: Consultancy, Research Funding;Kyowa Hakka Kirin: Consultancy, Research Funding;GlaxoSmithKline: Consultancy;Mundipharma: Consultancy;Infinity/Verastem: Research Funding;Forty Seven: Consultancy, Research Funding;Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Research Funding;Miragen: Consultancy;Myeloid Therapeutics: Consultancy;Verastem: Consultancy, Research Funding;Vividion Therapeutics: Consultancy;Affirmed: Consultancy;ASTEX: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy;Kura Oncology: Consultancy. Rutherford: LAM Therapeutics: Research Funding;Juno: Consultancy;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Seattle Genetics: Consultancy;Genentech/Roche: Research Funding;Regeneron: Research Funding;Celgene: Consultancy;Heron: Consultancy;Karyopharm: Consultancy, Research Funding;Dova: Consultancy;Kite: Consultancy. Coleman: Novartis Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Innocare: Research Funding;Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.: Research Funding;BeiGene: Research Funding;Acerta: Research Funding;Ipsen Group: Research Funding;BMS (Celgene Corporation): Research Funding;AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, LP: Research Funding;Karyopharma Therapeutics, Inc.: Research Funding;ARCUS Biosciences: Research Funding;AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, LP (Acerta Pharma BV Trials): Research Funding;Incyte Corporation: Research Funding;Eli Lilly and Company: Research Funding;EMD Serono Research and Development Institute Inc.: Research Funding;Genetech (F. Hoffman-LaRoche Ltd): Research Funding;Hutchinson MediPharma, LTD: Research Funding;Klus Pharma, Inc.: Research Funding;MeiPharma, Inc.: Research Funding;Seattle Genetics: Research Funding;Boston BIoMedical, Inc.: Research Funding. Melnick: Jubilant: Consultancy;Epizyme: Consultancy;Constellation: Consultancy;Janssen: Research Funding;Daiichi Sankyo: Research Funding. Cerchietti: BMS: Research Funding. Leonard: ADC Therapeutics: Consultancy;MEI Pharma: Consultancy;Bayer: Consultancy;Gilead/Kite: Consultancy;Karyopharm: Consultancy;GenMab: Consultancy;Regeneron: Consultancy;Sutro: Consultancy;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Roche/Genentech: Consultancy;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy;Epizyme: Consultancy;Miltenyi: Consultancy. Martin: Regeneron: Consultancy;I-MAB: Consultancy;Sandoz: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy;Karyopharm: Consultancy, Research Funding;Teneobio: Consultancy;Bayer: Consultan y;Beigene: Consultancy;Cellectar: Consultancy;Incyte: Consultancy;Kite: Consultancy;Morphosys: Consultancy;Celgene: Consultancy. OffLabel Disclosure: Oral azacitidine (CC-486) as hypomethylating agent for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma

16.
Value in Health ; 24:S108-S108, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1306228
17.
Value in Health ; 24:S108, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1284279

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Coronavirus (COVID-19) has resulted in 84.53 million infections and 1.85 million deaths world-wide in 2020 and both numbers are still increasing. Using a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model, this study aimed to predict the impact of different vaccination strategies in the UK on mortality, productivity loss, and healthcare burden. Methods: A SEIR model was built in R using the UK estimated age-group specific proportions of asymptomatic infections, probability of severe symptoms and death rate from published literature. Assuming vaccine supply covers 20% or 50% of the UK population as two base scenarios, three population-wide vaccination strategies with different age group priorities were modelled. Total number of infections, COVID-19 related deaths, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost, cost for critical and non-critical care, and productivity loss were estimated. Results: In the 20% population coverage scenario, 2 million more infections were prevented by vaccinating the 15-34 age group first, compared to vaccinating those over 65 first. A £6.6 billion reduction (13%) in direct healthcare costs was predicted by prioritising people over 65. Productivity and QALY losses were minimised by prioritising the 15-34 age group, while only vaccinating those over 65 resulted in the lowest number of deaths. Increasing population coverage from 20% to 50% resulted in drops in QALY loss and healthcare burden, but did not affect the age group strategy. A strategy that prioritises elderly vaccination would minimise QALY losses only if the death rate amongst 15-34s dropped by 17.4% (from 10.9% to 9%). Conclusions: With constraints in vaccine supplies, greater reductions in hospitalisation costs related to COVID-19 and deaths were associated with a vaccination strategy prioritising older age groups. Lower QALY and productivity losses were associated with a vaccination strategy prioritising younger cohorts. Future research adding age-group specific social distancing measures may provide further insights.

18.
2021 World Wide Web Conference, WWW 2021 ; : 518-528, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1280480

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic caused by coronavirus disease (COVID-19), social media has played an important role by enabling people to discuss their experiences and feelings of this global crisis. To help combat the prolonged pandemic that has exposed vulnerabilities impacting community resilience, in this paper, based on our established large-scale COVID-19 related social media data, we propose and develop an integrated framework (named Dr.Emotion) to learn disentangled representations of social media posts (i.e., tweets) for emotion analysis and thus to gain deep insights into public perceptions towards COVID-19. In Dr.Emotion, for given social media posts, we first post-train a transformer-based model to obtain the initial post embeddings. Since users may implicitly express their emotions in social media posts which could be highly entangled with other descriptive information in the post content, to address this challenge for emotion analysis, we propose an adversarial disentangler by integrating emotion-independent (i.e., sentiment-neutral) priors of the posts generated by another post-trained transformer-based model to separate and disentangle the implicitly encoded emotions from the content in latent space for emotion classification at the first attempt. Extensive experimental studies are conducted to fully evaluate Dr.Emotion and promising results demonstrate its performance in emotion analysis by comparison with the state-of-the-art baseline methods. By exploiting our developed Dr.Emotion, we further perform emotion analysis over a large number of social media posts and provide in-depth investigation from both temporal and geographical perspectives, based on which additional work can be conducted to extract and transform the constructive ideas, experiences and support into actionable information to improve community resilience in responses to a variety of crises created by COVID-19 and well beyond. © 2021 ACM.

19.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277640

ABSTRACT

Rationale: SARS CoV-2 infection has been associated with long-term sequelae, including cough. The clinical course of chronic cough following SARS CoV-2 infection and therapies are not known. This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of chronic cough following SARS CoV-2 infection, aiming to assess its course, impact on patient well-being and predisposing factors. Methods: 113 patients were analysed as part of PREDICT UK follow up (NHS HRA: 20/HRA/2344) at 3 to 6 months (mean 152 days) after admission for a PCR positive SARS CoV2 infection. The baseline clinical and demographic characteristics were examined to assess contributing mechanisms that may predispose to chronic cough (defined as >8 weeks following SARS CoV2 infection). Results: 41.5% patients did not have a cough. In contrast, 24% of patients had an acute cough (<3 weeks), 10.6% had subacute cough (3 to 8 weeks), and 21.6% had chronic cough (>8 weeks). 1.7% of patients had a pre-existing cough, unchanged following COVID-19. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population are summarised in Table 1.50% of the cough group had a pre-existing lung disease (mainly airways disease), compared to 16% of patients without cough (P < 0.001). No differences in hypoxia, inflammation or infection markers (CRP) were noted between the 2 groups at admission. Diffusion Capacity for Carbon Monoxide (DLCO) was significantly reduced in those with cough compared with the non-cough group (32.2% vs 57.7%;P = 0.02). No significant differences in cough was noted between patients treated with different ventilator support strategies i.e. ITU and CPAP vs simple oxygen supplementation. Conclusions: This study notes a prevalence of chronic cough in 21.6% of patients post COVID-19. This was not associated with airway obstruction, reducing the likelihood of post infective bronchoconstriction. There was a significant reduction in DLCO consistent with post-infective interstitial lung disease (ILD). This study has looked at first-wave patients where dexamethasone was minimally used. Future studies reviewing cough with steroids therapy in patients requiring oxygen supplementation may note reduced levels of chronic cough. The use of cough as marker of post- COVID ILD warrants investigation. The current findings are in keeping with previous reports in SARS and MERS, where DLCO impairments were noted with time resolution of up to two years.

20.
Advanced Science ; : 14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1230189

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continually worsening. Clinical treatment for COVID-19 remains primarily supportive with no specific medicines or regimens. Here, the development of multifunctional alveolar macrophage (AM)-like nanoparticles (NPs) with photothermal inactivation capability for COVID-19 treatment is reported. The NPs, made by wrapping polymeric cores with AM membranes, display the same surface receptors as AMs, including the coronavirus receptor and multiple cytokine receptors. By acting as AM decoys, the NPs block coronavirus from host cell entry and absorb various proinflammatory cytokines, thus achieving combined antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment. To enhance the antiviral efficiency, an efficient photothermal material based on aggregation-induced emission luminogens is doped into the NPs for virus photothermal disruption under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. In a surrogate mouse model of COVID-19 caused by murine coronavirus, treatment with multifunctional AM-like NPs with NIR irradiation decreases virus burden and cytokine levels, reduces lung damage and inflammation, and confers a significant survival advantage to the infected mice. Crucially, this therapeutic strategy may be clinically applied for the treatment of COVID-19 at early stage through atomization inhalation of the NPs followed by NIR irradiation of the respiratory tract, thus alleviating infection progression and reducing transmission risk.

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