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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 773271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731865

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-pharmaceutical interventions were implemented in most countries to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. We aimed to describe the incidence of influenza in four countries in the 2019-2020 season and examined the effect of these non-pharmaceutical interventions on the incidence of influenza. Methods: We used the network surveillance data from 2015 to 2020 to estimate the percentage increase in influenza cases to explore the effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented to control the COVID-19 on the incidence of influenza in China, the United States, Japan, and Singapore. Results: We found that the incidence of influenza has been almost zero and reached a persistent near-zero level for a continuous period of six months since epidemiologic week 14 of 2020 in the four countries. Influenza incidence decreased by 77.71% and 60.50% in the early days of COVID-19 in the 2019-2020 season compared to the same period in preceding years in Japan and Singapore, respectively. Furthermore, influenza incidence decreased by 60.50-99.48% during the period of compulsory interventions in the 2019-2020 season compared to the same period in preceding years in the four countries. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the application of non-pharmaceutical interventions, even everyday preventive action, was associated with a reduction of influenza incidence, which highlights that more traditional public health interventions need to be reasserted and universalized to reduce influenza incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325104

ABSTRACT

Background: To evaluate the significance of social media and the impacts of Covid-19 on urogenital continuing education in China through WeChat. Methods Backend database from a Chinese urological online learning platform on account of WeChat named Jiujing before and during Covid-19 pandemic were compared and analyzed. An online questionnaire investigation containing 482 respondents was carried out to evaluate the impact of Covid-19 on urological online learning through WeChat. Results During the epidemic of Covid-19, the amounts of national subscribers in Jiujing platform increased by 26.24%, while the constituent ratio of subscribers’ quantity from Hubei province decreased although there were 189 new subscribers, and only surgery video section experienced increased constituent ratio of subscribers’ concerns. Online investigation indicated that most respondents experienced whittled offline learning opportunities and boosted online learning demands during Covid-19 pandemic as online learning was more efficiency, and these attitudes were associated with qualifications of the respondents. Surgery videos and academic lectures were the most popular sections. Preferences of the respondents were determined by gender, title, degree and affiliation hierarchy. Conclusions Even though the Covid-19 pandemic has affected the patterns of online medical education to a certain degree, continuing learning through social media like WeChat is essential and beneficial for urologists. Positional title, affiliation hierarchy and education background are supposed to impact their attitudes towards online learning.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323613

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 remains a global challenge. Corticosteroids are a group of anti-inflammatory and suppressive immune response drugs that are widely used in the treatment of COVID-19, especially when it presents with viral pneumonia. Comprehensive reviews investigating the comparative proportion and efficacy of corticosteroid use are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials to evaluate the proportion and efficacy of corticosteroid use for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: : We conducted a comprehensive literature review of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database for relevant trials on glucocorticoid therapy in COVID-19 patients. Outcome measures were the proportion of patients administered corticosteroids, viral clearance and mortality. Effect size was reported as weighted mean differences (WMDs) for continuous outcomes and odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous outcomes with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: : Forty-three trials involving 6603 patients were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the proportion of COVID-19 patients who received corticosteroids was significantly lower than that of patients who did not receive corticosteroids. In addition, our meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the proportions of severe and nonsevere patients who were administered corticosteroids. We also performed subgroup analyses stratified by severity, indicating that the proportion of patients administered corticosteroids was significantly higher among intensive care unit (ICU) patients than among non-ICU patients. The results of our meta-analysis indicated that corticosteroid treatment significantly delayed the viral clearance time. Finally, our meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 patients who died and those who survived. This result indicated that mortality was not correlated with corticosteroid therapy. Conclusion: The proportion of COVID-19 patients who received corticosteroids was significantly lower than that of patients who did not receive corticosteroids. Corticosteroid use in subjects with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections delayed virus clearance and did not convincingly improve survival;therefore, corticosteroids should be used with caution in the treatment of COVID-19.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313446

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic constitutes a public health emergency that threatens all of society. During this time, it is important for people to help each other by providing support related to the viral components of the pandemic while also assisting with difficulties experienced at the social level. However, the nature of the infection itself puts everyone at risk, which may prevent altruistic behaviors. In other words, the pandemic has created a dilemma in which individuals may need to choose between their personal safety and continuing to help others. As such, this study explored how public health emergencies affect altruistic behaviors in the context of COVID-19. Methods: : Questionnaire surveys were distributed to 1508 residents from 31 provinces across China in February 2020 during the outbreak of COVID-19. Structural equation models were then implemented to test multiple research hypotheses using the obtained data. Results: : Findings showed that the severity of the pandemic had both positive and negative effects on altruistic behaviors. Empathy mediated the positive relationship between the severity of the pandemic and altruistic behavior, while the sense of control mediated the negative effect between the severity of the pandemic and altruistic behavior. Conclusions: : In the context of public emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic, altruistic behaviors can be enhanced by strengthening the factors of empathy and sense of control. These findings are useful for a government’s altruistic behavior promotion and disaster risk management.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310217

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to surges in the demand for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. However, little in-depth evidence is known about the application of ECMO therapy in COVID-19 patients. Methods This retrospective multicenter cohort study included 88 patients who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 and received ECMO therapy at seven designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. The clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, treatments, and outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between weaned and non-weaned ECMO patients. The patients were followed until June 30, 2020. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with unsuccessful ECMO weaning. Propensity score matching was used to match patients who received veno-venous ECMO with those who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)-only therapy. The primary endpoint, 120-day all-cause mortality after intensive care unit (ICU) admission during hospitalization, was compared using a mixed-effect Cox model. Results Of 88 patients who received ECMO therapy, 27 and 61 patients were and were not successfully weaned from ECMO, respectively. Additionally, 15, 15, and 65 patients were further weaned from IMV, discharged from hospital, or died during hospitalization, respectively. A lymphocyte count ≤ 0.5 × 10 9 /L and D-dimer concentration > 4 × the upper limit of normal at ICU admission, a peak PaCO 2  > 60 mmHg at 24 hours before ECMO initiation, and no tracheotomy performed during the ICU stay were independently associated with lower odds of ECMO weaning. In the propensity score-matched analysis, a mixed-effect Cox model detected a lower hazard ratio for 120-day all-cause mortality after ICU admission during hospitalization in the ECMO group, as compared with the IMV-only group. Conclusion Patients in Wuhan who received ECMO therapy had a relatively high mortality rate. This outcome may be largely attributable to resource-limited situations during the COVID-19 outbreak. In future, the presence of lymphocytopenia and higher D-dimer concentrations at ICU admission and hypercapnia at 24 hours before ECMO initiation could help to identify patients with a poor prognosis. Moreover, tracheotomy could facilitate weaning from ECMO. Despite the high mortality, ECMO was associated with improved outcomes relative to IMV-only therapy in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153720, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671137

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown, ambient ozone levels are widely reported to show much smaller decreases or even dramatical increases under substantially reduced precursor NOx levels, yet changes in ambient precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been scarcely reported during the COVID-19 lockdown, which is an opportunity to examine the impacts of dramatically changing anthropogenic emissions on ambient VOC levels in megacities where ozone formation is largely VOC-limited. In this study, ambient VOCs were monitored online at an urban site in Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown. The average total mixing ratios of VOCs became 19.1% lower during the lockdown than before, and those of alkanes, alkenes and aromatics decreased by 19.0%, 24.8% and 38.2%, respectively. The levels of light alkanes (C < 6) decreased by only 13.0%, while those of higher alkanes (C ≥ 6) decreased by 67.8% during the lockdown. Disappeared peak VOC levels in morning rush hours and the drop in toluene to benzene ratios during the lockdown suggested significant reductions in vehicle exhaust and industrial solvent emissions. Source apportioning by positive matrix factorization model revealed that reductions in industrial emissions, diesel exhaust (on-road diesel vehicles and off-road diesel engines) and gasoline-related emissions could account for 48.9%, 42.2% and 8.8%, respectively, of the decreased VOC levels during the lockdown. Moreover, the reduction in industrial emissions could explain 56.0% and 70.0% of the reductions in ambient levels of reactive alkenes and aromatics, respectively. An average increase in O3-1 h by 17% and a decrease in the daily maximum 8-h average ozone by 11% under an average decrease in NOx by 57.0% and a decrease in VOCs by 19.1% during the lockdown demonstrated that controlling emissions of precursors VOCs and NOx to prevent ambient O3 pollution in megacities such as Guangzhou remains a highly challenging task.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Ozone , Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667149

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a substantial threat to people's lives and aroused health concerns. This study aims at exploring the following questions. First, how does the COVID-19 pandemic affect people's willingness to pay for health (WPH) in the short and long term? Second, what is the psychological mechanism underlying such an effect? Finally, what are the boundary conditions for this effect? To answer these questions, we conducted three longitudinal surveys. The first survey was launched in February 2020-the time of the most serious outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Data were obtained from 1548 participants through questionnaires on an online survey platform. The sample covered 297 prefecture-level cities in 31 provincial administrative regions. Subsequently, we conducted two follow-up surveys in August 2020 and July 2021. The samples of these surveys were randomly selected from the sample of the first survey. The findings showed that the pandemic promoted people's WPH in the outbreak period. The fear of death and self-esteem mediated and moderated this effect, respectively. Moreover, the effect persisted for six months after the COVID-19 pandemic had been brought under control (August 2020). However, the effect disappeared after a year and a half (July 2021). These results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic promoted people's WPH and that this effect was sustained in the short term after the pandemic had been brought under control but not in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Phobic Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(1): 58-65, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605425

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Both genetic variants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute to the risk of incident severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Whether genetic risk of incident severe COVID-19 is the same regardless of preexisting COPD is unknown. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential interaction between genetic risk and COPD in relation to severe COVID-19. Methods: We constructed a polygenic risk score for severe COVID-19 by using 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 430,582 participants from the UK Biobank study. We examined the associations of genetic risk and COPD with severe COVID-19 by using logistic regression models. Results: Of 430,582 participants, 712 developed severe COVID-19 as of February 22, 2021, of whom 19.8% had preexisting COPD. Compared with participants at low genetic risk, those at intermediate genetic risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.66) and high genetic risk (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) had higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P for trend = 0.001), and the association was independent of COPD (P for interaction = 0.76). COPD was associated with a higher risk of incident severe COVID-19 (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67; P = 0.002). Participants at high genetic risk and with COPD had a higher risk of severe COVID-19 (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.35-3.04; P < 0.001) than those at low genetic risk and without COPD. Conclusions: The polygenic risk score, which combines multiple risk alleles, can be effectively used in screening for high-risk populations of severe COVID-19. High genetic risk correlates with a higher risk of severe COVID-19, regardless of preexisting COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 787819, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581146

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has put the global health system under the spotlight. As part of the medical workforce, nurses play an important role in interacting with and caring for patients; hence, patient-centered communication (PCC) has been emphasized in nursing education. Thus, it is worth investigating how future nurses perceive PCC and PCC-related factors under the special circumstances of COVID-19. For this purpose, the present study analyzed the mechanisms underlying the association between self-efficacy and nurse-patient communication tendency through learning burnout among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The general self-efficacy questionnaire, college students' learning burnout scale, and doctor-patient communication tendency scale were used to survey 2,231 nursing students in higher vocational medical colleges at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: General self-efficacy can directly negatively correlate with the degree of nursing students' overall nurse-patient communication, including caring, sharing, and health promotion. Dejection from learning burnout partially mediated the relationships between self-efficacy and caring and between self-efficacy and sharing; it fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and health promotion. Reduced personal accomplishment partially mediated between self-efficacy and caring, while it fully mediated between self-efficacy and health promotion; however, it did not play a role in the sharing model. Conclusion: Self-efficacy influences nurse-patient communication through learning burnout. Specifically, dejection and reduced personal accomplishment-two aspects of learning burnout-may compromise nursing students' willingness to engage in PCC. Thus, the importance of PCC, especially during critical health situations such as pandemics, should be emphasized further in future nursing education.

10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 2197-2200, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566209

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is an increasing number and speed of SARS-CoV-2 mutation taking place around the world, posing a threat to promising public health and challenge to existing diagnostic tools. RT-PCR technology is recognized as the gold standard diagnosing methodology but has shown inaccuracy under some mutated SARS-CoV-2 circumstances. In this study, we developed a platform named SCOPE2 (Sars-COv-2 Primer covErage Evaluation) based on our previous publication. Testing by commonly-used SARS-COV-2 PCR primers, SCOPE2 is proved to effectively and efficiently assess the quality in terms of detection coverage, which may provide a practical tool for primer selection acceleration and primer design improvement.Clinical Relevance-This assists in single SARS-COV-2 Primer selection and suggestion of different SARS-COV-2 Primer combinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Acceleration , Humans , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 2119-2122, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566186

ABSTRACT

To realize integration, organization and reusability of knowledge related to COVID-19, an ontology for COVID-19 (CIDO-COVID-19) was constructed which extended the Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO) by adding terms of COVID-19 related to symptoms, prevention, drugs and clinical domains. First, terms from the existing ontologies, literature, clinical guidelines and other resources about COVID-19 were merged. Then, the Stanford seven-step approach was used to define and organize the acquired terms. Finally, the CIDO-COVID-19 was built on basis of the terms mentioned above using Protégé. The CIDO-COVID-19 is a more comprehensive ontology for COVID-19, covering multiple areas in the domain of COVID-19, including disease, diagnosis, etiology, virus, transmission, symptom, treatment, drug and prevention.Clinical Relevance- The CIDO-COVID-19 covers multiple areas related to COVID-19, including diseases, diagnosis, etiology, virus, transmission, symptoms, treatment, drugs, prevention. Compared with the CIDO, it is expanded to cover drugs, prevention, and clinical domain. The definition of terms in CIDO-COVID-19 refers to biomedical ontologies, Clinical glossaries and clinical guidelines for COVID-19, which can provide clinicians with standard terminology in the clinical domain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Land ; 10(11):1206, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1534139

ABSTRACT

Cropland abandonment occurs frequently in many countries and regions around the world, particularly in those with poor environmental conditions, such as mountainous regions. In Chongqing county, China, over 76% of the total area is mountainous. Due to the lack of reliable remote sensing monitoring and identification methods, the spatial and temporal distribution of abandoned cropland areas and its underlying causes are poorly understood. Thus, the extent of cropland abandonment in Chongqing, since 2001, was estimated using land use trajectories. The following results were obtained: (1) the cropland abandonment rate was 12.2–15.4% from 2001 to 2020, with an average of 13.3%;(2) hotspots of abandoned cropland were concentrated in the north and southeast. Cropland abandonment was clustered in the northern, southeastern, and southwestern areas;(3) socio-economic factors (including gross domestic product density, population density, and road density) had a greater impact on the spatial distribution of abandoned cropland than environmental factors. Based on the results, the government should strive to reduce production costs associated with poor agricultural infrastructure, sporadic cropland, and higher labor costs by providing grain subsidies, undertaking cropland consolidation, encouraging land transfer, and improving agricultural infrastructure.

13.
Drugs and Clinic ; 35(4):614-619, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1374634

ABSTRACT

To improve the rationality and safety of anti-novel coronavirus drugs in patients with corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially those with underlying diseases. Based on antiviral drugs mentioned in "COVID-19 Treatment Plan (Trial Version 7)", the clinical pharmacokinetic characteristics, drug interaction and adverse reaction information of these antiviral drugs were summarized by consulting the literature, collecting the information from the antiviral drugs instructions and the information from MCDEX rational drug use system. And the reasonable suggestions for drug monitoring were summarized and put forward. From the perspective of pharmacokinetics and drug interaction, the monitoring of antiviral drugs and combined drugs in patients with COVID-19 should be strengthened, which will be helpful for safe and rational use of these drugs.

15.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 14(6):241-253, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1310155

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) strategies in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients suffering from cardiogenic cardiac arrest. During CPR, both healthcare and non-healthcare workers who provide resuscitation are at risk of infection. The Working Group for Expert Consensus on Prevention and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest in COVID-19 has developed this Chinese Expert Consensus to guide clinical practice of CPR in COVID-19 patients. Main recommendations: (1) A medical team should be assigned to evaluate severe and critical COVID-19 for early monitoring of cardiac-arrest warning signs. (2) Psychological counseling and treatment are highly recommended, since sympathetic and vagal abnormalities induced by psychological stress from the COVID-19 pandemic can induce cardiac arrest. (3) Healthcare workers should wear personal protective equipment (PPE). (4) Mouth-to-mouth ventilation should be avoided on patients suspected of having or diagnosed with COVID-19. (5) Hands-only chest compression and mechanical chest compression are recommended. (6) Tracheal-intubation procedures should be optimized and tracheal-intubation strategies should be implemented early. (7) CPR should be provided for 20-30 min. (8) Various factors should be taken into consideration such as the interests of patients and family members, ethics, transmission risks, and laws and regulations governing infectious disease control. Changes in management: The following changes or modifications to CPR strategy in COVID-19 patients are proposed: (1) Healthcare workers should wear PPE. (2) Hands-only chest compression and mechanical chest compression can be implemented to reduce or avoid the spread of viruses by aerosols. (3) Both the benefits to patients and the risk of infection should be considered. (4) Hhealthcare workers should be fully aware of and trained in CPR strategies and procedures specifically for patients with COVID-19.

16.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(2): 85-96, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299806

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo describe the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19 confirmed patients in a single center in Beijing, China. Methods The study retrospectively included 19 patients with nucleic acid-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at our hospital from January 20 to March 5, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 14, 2020. The epidemiologic and clinical information was obtained through direct communication with the patients or their family members. Laboratory results retrieved from medical records and radiological images were analyzed both qualitatively by two senior chest radiologists as well as quantitatively via an artificial intelligence software. Results We identified 5 family clusters (13/19, 68.4%) from the study cohort. All cases had good clinical prognoses and were either mild (3/19) or moderate (16/19) clinical types. Fever (15/19, 78.9%) and dry cough (11/19, 57.9%) were common symptoms. Two patients received negative results for more than three consecutive viral nucleic acid tests. The longest interval between an initial CT abnormal finding and a confirmed diagnosis was 30 days. One patient's nucleic acid test turned positive on the follow-up examination after discharge. The presence of radiological abnormalities was non-specific for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions COVID-19 patients with mild or no clinical symptoms are common in Beijing, China. Radiological abnormalities are mostly non-specific and massive CT examinations for COVID-19 screening should be avoided. Analyses of the contact histories of diagnosed cases in combination with clinical, radiological and laboratory findings are crucial for the early detection of COVID-19. Close monitoring after discharge is also recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
17.
Front Psychol ; 12: 636859, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191711

ABSTRACT

In public health emergencies, people are more willing to save money rather than spending it, which is not conductive to economic development and recovery. Due to the absence of relevant research, the internal logic of this phenomenon is not clear. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study systematically explored whether and why public health emergencies stimulate consumers' preference for saving (vs. spending). We conducted two online surveys and used methods including stepwise regression analysis and bootstrapping to test the hypotheses. The first survey, with 1,511 participants from China in February 2020, indicates that the severity of emergencies has a significant positive impact on the populations' willingness to save (vs. spend). Risk perception plays a mediating role between the severity of emergencies and consumers' saving (vs. spending) willingness. Materialism plays a moderating role between risk perception and an individual's saving (vs. spending) willingness, individuals who are more materialistic have a lower saving (vs. spending) willingness when they perceive the risks of the pandemic. To verify the duration of the above effects, we conducted a follow-up survey consisted of 466 instances in August 2020. It is noteworthy that the above effects are not significant during the post-pandemic period. Thus, spending behavior in public health emergencies can be motived by reducing risk perception and increasing materialism. These findings can provide a valuable inspiration for public health, crisis management, and economic recovery during public health emergencies.

19.
Cities ; 110: 103010, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064937

ABSTRACT

Understanding the processes and mechanisms of the spatial spread of epidemics is essential for making reasonable judgments on the development trends of epidemics and for adopting effective containment measures. Using multi-agent network technology and big data on population migration, this paper constructed a city-based epidemic and mobility model (CEMM) to stimulate the spatiotemporal of COVID-19. Compared with traditional models, this model is characterized by an urban network perspective and emphasizes the important role of intercity population mobility and high-speed transportation networks. The results show that the model could simulate the inter-city spread of COVID-19 at the early stage in China with high precision. Through scenario simulation, the paper quantitatively evaluated the effect of control measures "city lockdown" and "decreasing population mobility" on containing the spatial spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. According to the simulation, the total number of infectious cases in China would have climbed to 138,824 on February 2020, or 4.46 times the real number, if neither of the measures had been implemented. Overall, the containment effect of the lockdown of cities in Hubei was greater than that of decreasing intercity population mobility, and the effect of city lockdowns was more sensitive to timing relative to decreasing population mobility.

20.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4360

ABSTRACT

A review. To improve the rationality and safety of anti-novel coronavirus drugs in patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially those with underlying diseases. Based on antiviral drugs mentioned in "COVID-19 Treatment Plan (Trial Version 7)", the clin. pharmacokinetic characteristics, drug interaction and adverse reaction information of these antiviral drugs were summarized by consulting the literature, collecting the information from the antiviral drugs instructions and the information from MCDEX rational drug use system. And the reasonable suggestions for drug monitoring were summarized and put forward. From the perspective of pharmacokinetics and drug interaction, the monitoring of antiviral drugs and combined drugs in patients with COVID-19 should be strengthened, which will be helpful for safe and rational use of these drugs.

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