Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 12(2): e21, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847577

ABSTRACT

Background: The effects of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic obstructive airway diseases such as asthma, COPD, and ACO on COVID-19. Methods: In total, 5625 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were divided into asthma, COPD, ACO, and control groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting the COVID-19 mortality rate. To find out whether chronic obstructive airway diseases such as asthma, COPD, and ACO affect COVID-19 mortality, 1:4 matching was performed, except for the ACO group alone due to a small number of patients. Results: The mortality rates of asthma, COPD, and ACO groups were about 2.3, 4.8, and 5.5 times higher than that of the control group, respectively. Although not statistically significant, the survival probability tended to decrease (asthma, COPD, and combined groups of asthma and ACO, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.84, 1.31, and 1.89, respectively). The survival probability of the combined groups of COPD, ACO, and asthma and the combined groups of COPD and ACO was significantly lower than that of the matched control group (HR: 3.00 and 1.99, respectively). Conclusion: Compared to patients with COVID-19 without chronic obstructive airway disease, patients with these comorbidities are more likely to require oxygen and mechanical ventilators and have a higher mortality rate, which can be considered when classifying and monitoring patients in the era of COVID-19. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of chronic obstructive airway disease, especially ACO, on COVID-19 mortality.

2.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 12(2): e19, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847576

ABSTRACT

Long coronavirus disease (COVID) refers to an array of variable and fluctuating symptoms experienced after acute illness, with signs and symptoms that persist for 8-12 weeks and are not otherwise explicable. Cough is the most common symptom of acute COVID-19, but cough may persist in some individuals for weeks or months after recovery from acute phase. Long-COVID cough patients may get stigmatised because of the public fear of contagion and reinfection. However, clinical characteristics and longitudinal course of long-COVID cough have not been reported in detail, and evidence-based treatment is also lacking. In this paper, we describe a case of long-COVID severe refractory cough with features of laryngeal hypersensitivity and dysfunction. We characterized cough using patient-reported outcomes and engaged in continuous cough frequency monitoring. Through the case study, we discuss potential mechanisms, managements, and clinical implications of long-COVID refractory cough problems.

3.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 11(4): e38, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737252

ABSTRACT

Chronic cough is a common medical condition that has a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Although it was previously considered a symptom of other disorders, it is now regarded as a pathologic state that is characterized by a deviation from the intrinsic protective functions of the cough reflex, especially in adults. There are several factors that may underlie the cough reflex hypersensitivity and its persistence, such as age, sex, comorbidities, viral infection, exposure to irritants or environmental pollutants, and their interactions may determine the epidemiology of chronic cough in different countries. With a deeper understanding of disease pathophysiology and advanced research methodology, there are more attempts to investigate cough epidemiology using a large cohort of healthcare population data. This is a narrative overview of recent findings on the disease burden, risk factors, Asia-Pacific issues, and longitudinal outcomes in adults with chronic cough. This paper also discusses the approaches utilizing routinely collected data in cough research.

4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(8): e65, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2) are key proteins mediating viral entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although gene expressions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have been analyzed in various organs and diseases, their soluble forms have been less studied, particularly in asthma. Therefore, we aimed to measure circulating ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the serum of asthmatics and examine their relationship with clinical characteristics. METHODS: Clinical data and serum samples of 400 participants were obtained from an asthma cohort. The soluble ACE2 (sACE2) and soluble TMPRSS2 (sTMPRSS2) level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the values underwent a natural log transformation. Associations between sACE2 and TMPRSS2 levels and various clinical variables were analyzed. RESULTS: The patients younger than 70 years old, those with eosinophilic asthma (eosinophils ≥ 200 cells/µL), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) non-users were associated with higher levels of sACE2. Blood eosinophils and fractionated exhaled nitric oxide levels were positively correlated with serum ACE2. In contrast, lower levels of sTMPRSS2 were noted in patients below 70 years and those with eosinophilic asthma, while no association was noted between ICS use and sTMPRSS2. The level of sTMPRSS2 also differed according to sex, smoking history, coexisting hypertension, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio. The proportion of sputum neutrophils was positively correlated with sTMPRSS2, while the FEV1/FVC ratio reported a negative correlation with sTMPRSS2. CONCLUSION: The levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were differently expressed according to age, ICS use, and several inflammatory markers. These findings suggest variable susceptibility and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection among asthmatic patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asthma/blood , Asthma/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313993

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with severe asthma may have a greater risk of dying from COVID-19 disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the enzyme proteases, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and FURIN, are needed for viral attachment and invasion into host cells. Methods. We examined microarray mRNA expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN in sputum, bronchial brushing and bronchial biopsies of the European U-BIOPRED cohort. Clinical parameters and molecular phenotypes, including asthma severity, sputum inflammatory cells, lung functions, oral corticosteroid (OCS) use, and transcriptomic-associated clusters, were examined in relation to gene expression levels. Results. ACE2 levels were significantly increased in sputum of severe asthma compared to mild-moderate asthma. In multivariate analyses, sputum ACE2 levels were positively associated with OCS use and male gender. Sputum FURIN levels were significantly related to neutrophils (%) and the presence of severe asthma. In bronchial brushing samples, TMPRSS2 levels were positively associated with male gender and body mass index, whereas FURIN levels with male gender and blood neutrophils. In bronchial biopsies, TMPRSS2 levels were positively related to blood neutrophils. The neutrophilic molecular phenotype characterised by high inflammasome activation expressed significantly higher FURIN levels in sputum than the eosinophilic Type 2-high or the pauci-granulocytic oxidative phosphorylation phenotypes. Conclusion. Levels of ACE2 and FURIN may differ by clinical or molecular phenotypes of asthma. Sputum FURIN expression levels were strongly associated with neutrophilic inflammation and with inflammasome activation. This might indicate the potential for a greater morbidity and mortality outcome from SARS-CoV-2 infection in neutrophilic severe asthma.

7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537202

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
9.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 11(2): e22, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234893

ABSTRACT

Cough is an important physiological mechanism to protect the lower airways, but it is also one of the most common symptoms that lead patients to seek medical consultations. Chronic cough, usually defined by cough duration longer than 8 weeks in adults, is prevalent in the community and impairs quality of life in individual patients. There are several characteristics that may differentiate pathologic coughs from protective cough responses, including cough duration, frequency, hypersensitivity, impaired cough suppressibility, or treatment refractoriness. However, the impact of cough, or its perceived severity, is a sum of the patient's experience of coughing and is a factor that may finally define cough as a disease. Social isolation is a major impact of chronic cough, which is now worse due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and a widespread fear of cough as a source of contagion. Emotional impact and economic impact (medical cost, reduced work productivity, and job loss) are also important complications of chronic cough, and they interact in a vicious cycle, aggravated by social isolation and treatment failures. This paper is a narrative review that aims to address the impact and disease burden of chronic cough in adult patients. We review the literature, but also introduce the findings from recent qualitative interviews and the patients' experiences of the impact and burden of chronic cough and discuss unmet needs in these patients.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL