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1.
6th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety, ICTIS 2021 ; : 423-428, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948784

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of 2020, with the rapid spread of COVID-19 around the world, the passenger flow of subway has suffered from a serious impact. Based on the subway passenger flow data in Chicago, this article analyzes the impact of COVID-19 on rail transit passenger flow. ArcGIS is used to visualize the spatial-temporal distribution of the passenger flow of different stations during different time periods. Based on the fluctuation characteristics of passenger flow before and after the outbreak of COVID-19, one of the deep learning methods, the LSTM (Long-Short Term Memory) neural network model, is constructed to predict the passenger flow of each station in the scenario of no virus. The decline of passenger flow is calculated for each station. Stepwise regression model is constructed to determine factors that explain the decline in passenger flow, and significant factors are obtained: the original passenger flow, number of houses and jobs within 800m buffer zone, number of bus stops within 800m buffer zone, whether the station is a transfer station, distance from the station to the city center, and the number of low-income people. The results of the study show that after the outbreak of COVID-19, the passenger flow of the subway in Chicago experience a 'cliff-like' decline in the short term. The passenger flow in most areas dropped by more than 80%, and the passenger flow of some severely impacted stations dropped by more than 90%. Characteristics of the station and built environment factors of different stations influence the decline of passenger flow. © 2021 IEEE.

2.
6th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety, ICTIS 2021 ; : 362-367, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948782

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly impacted all industries of many countries in the world. As an important part of people's daily life, transportation is one of the most severely impacted industries. Taking New York City as an example, this paper explores the decline of taxi ridership due to the COVID-19. The decreased ratio of the actual taxi ridership to the taxi ridership predicted for the no COVID-19 scenario based on historical data is calculated as the dependent variable. The fractional response model is used to study the effect of built environment factors including demographic and socioeconomic, land use, and road-related on the decline of ridership. One model is constructed for each of the four periods, to explore the influence of influencing factors on the dependent variables in different periods. The model results show that the percentage of taxi trips decline is associated with the proportion of high-income people living in the area. The reason could be that these people have more flexible working hours and working places. They can choose to telecommute or travel by private cars to avoid contacting other people during transportation. The analysis of the other factors shows that industrial jobs are related to the low percentage of decline. The model results reveal to us the problem of equity exposed in New York City during the pandemic: limited by jobs(race/income), a portion of citizens are not fully free to choose their travel mode during the pandemic. According to the findings, this paper gives traffic management some policy suggestions. As a result, this study could provide an important reference for policymakers to develop appropriate measures to control the epidemic. © 2021 IEEE.

3.
Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 52(2):303-309, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928906

ABSTRACT

FCoV viruses exhibit great genetic diversity, leading to the presence of FIPV-causing variants. Current molecular evolution analysis and genetic variation studies of FCoV in China are predominately focused on gene encoding the spike protein or other structural proteins, while few studies have evaluated genetic variations in nonstructural FCoV genes, which can play an important role in disease pathogenesis. In this study, the gene encoding the open reading frame (ORF) 7b nonstructural FCoV protein of the Chinese Fujian strain FJLY20201 was amplified from the ascitic fluid of a Chinese domestic cat infected with FIPV and compared with ORF 7b from previously published FCoV strains. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that FJLY20201 exhibited high identity with other Chinese FCoV strains. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Chinese strains did not differentiate between type I and type II serotypes of FCoV based on S proteins. In addition, they formed clades and differed genetically from strains originating outside China. This study provides the molecular epidemiology data about the ORF 7b genes of FCoV strains in China. Our results show that the identity of ORF 7b genes was closer between the Chinese isolates, and suggest that variation in ORF 7b is more dependent on geographical origin.

4.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(4):245-250, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928717

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genome characteristics and variations in nucleotides and amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 causing an outbreak in Henan Province in November 2021 and perform the traceability analysis.Methods In this study, throat swab specimens from cases in the acute phase were collected and tested for the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR.SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive samples were subjected to high-throughput genome sequencing and whole-genome alignment analysis.Results The median Ct values of ORF1ab gene and N gene in 70 positive specimens was 26.41 (15.58 to 39.27) and 24.43 (12.04 to 39.74), respectively.Compared with the sequence of Wuhan-Hu(NC_045512) reference strain, 47 to 49 nucleotide mutations sharing 47 nucleotide mutation and 41 amino acid mutations were found in 63 strains of successfully sequenced SARS-CoV-2.Nine nucleotide mutations and 12 amino acid mutations were found in the spike protein.The index case shared 47 mutations with the Russian imported cases in Henan Province on October 14 and the local cases in Jiangxi Province in October.Moreover, their genomes were highly homologous and they all belonged to the Delta variant (AY.122 evolutionary branch).Conclusions Continuous monitoring of imported COVID-19 cases and prolonging the period of quarantine were needed to reduce the risk of local outbreak and epidemic caused by imported COVID-19 cases.Analysis of the genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and the variations in nucleotides and amino acids was conducive to trace the origin of COVID-19 outbreak quickly and provide reference for precise control.

5.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(1):11-15, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928713

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze and summarize the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, a variant of concern (VOC), in Henan Province in 2021 in order to provide a basis for epidemic prevention and control. Methods According to the feedback of sequencing results from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 111 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC were selected from the Henan imported and local cases in 2021. Basic patient information was obtained from the pandemic website. The differences in age, gender, vaccination history, the number of vaccine doses and different clinical types were analyzed. Moreover, the differences in RT-qPCR results of ORF1ab gene and N gene Ct values between cases of different genders and symptoms were analyzed statistically. Sequencing results of the nucleotide and S protein mutation sites were analyzed. Results There was no significant difference in the gender distribution of 111 cases between different age groups (χ2 = 2. 217, P = 0. 529). There was also no significant difference in clinical types between patients with different vaccination history (χ2 = 12. 074, P = 0. 209). The Ct values of most SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive specimens were distributed in the lower range and the viral loads were higher. The difference in the Ct value of ORF1ab gene between different gender groups was not statistically significant (χ2 = 1. 646, P = 0. 439), but were significantly different among asymptomatic, mild, normal, and severe cases (χ2 = 13. 257, P = 0. 039). There was no significant difference in N gene Ct value among cases of different genders or different symptoms (all P>0. 05). The 111 patients in this study were mainly found through close-contact screening and full-staff nucleic acid screening and accounted for 62. 2% (69 cases) of the total. The sequencing length coverage was basically greater than 99% (accounting for 90. 1%, 100 / 111);the total number of nucleotide mutation sites was mostly in the range of 46-50 (86. 4%, 89 / 103);the total number of S protein mutation sites was mostly 12 (82. 5%, 85 / 103). The 103 Delta mutants all contained nine mutation sites, which were T19R, R158G, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N, E156del and F157del, with a mutation rate of 100%. Conclusions People were highly susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 Delta in Henan Province in 2021. High viral load and increase in the ORF1ab gene load would aggravate the clinical symptoms.

6.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927851

ABSTRACT

Rationale Patients receiving what has been termed “prolonged acute mechanical ventilation” (PAMV, i.e. mechanical ventilation [MV] >96 hours) consume a disproportionate share of hospital and post-acute resources, and a third progress to prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV>14-21 days). Prior estimates (based on 2000-2008 annual growth rates) projected that the incidence of PAMV in 2020 could overwhelm healthcare systems. However, actual trends in incidence and outcomes of PAMV in the last decade, especially just preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, are unclear. Methods Using Medicare Provider Analysis and Review and Master Beneficiary Summary Files from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries >65 years hospitalized between January 1, 2011- December 31, 2019 with admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) who received PAMV (MV>96 hours [ICD-9 96.72 or ICD-10 5A1955Z procedure codes]). We determined annual rates of PAMV out of total MV (ICD-9 96.7, 96.71, 96.72;ICD10 5A1935Z, 5A1945Z, 5A1955Z) and used US Census Bureau population estimates of adults >65 years to derive annual populationstandardized rates of PAMV. Among patients receiving PAMV, we determined annual rates of tracheostomies, median hospital and ICU length of stay, discharge destination, and 90-day and 1-year mortality. We tested for significant trends with Cochrane- Armitage (binary), Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (categorical) and Jonckheere-Terpstra (continuous outcomes) tests. Results From 2011-2019, a total of 646,677 patients met inclusion criteria. Population-standardized incidence of PAMV decreased from 189 per 100,000 adults >65 years to 112 per 100,000 adults (78,504 to 60,625 individuals, p<0.001), concurrent with a decrease in the total MV population (210,791 to 189,414) and decrease in proportion of PAMV/MV (37% to 32%) (Figure 1). Tracheostomy rates among patients receiving PAMV declined from 21% to 17.5% (p<0.001). Median ICU and hospital length of stay declined from 13 to 12 days (p<0.001) and 16 to 15 days (p<0.001), respectively. Discharge to long-term acute care hospitals was stable at ∼17%;discharge to skilled nursing facilities decreased from 22% to 20% and discharge to hospice increased from 7% to 10% (p<0.001). 90-day mortality increased slightly (61.2% to 62.3% [p=0.01]);1-year mortality remained stable (∼72% [p=0.19]). Conclusions Contrary to prior estimates, the incidence of PAMV declined from 2011-2019. Furthermore, tracheostomy placement and skilled nursing facility use declined with a concurrent increase in hospice use, trends that may reflect improved alignment with patient goals of care. The impact of COVID-19 on incidence of PAMV is unclear. (Figure Presented).

7.
9th International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, LCT 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13329 LNCS:81-96, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919643

ABSTRACT

This research is considered as the transformation of cognitive immersion based on the theory by Liu et al. (2021), to describe the possibilities of immersive learning by distance teaching tools. It provides insights among the importance of distance learning for design education, especially under specific situations such as COVID-19 pandemic. The tools to support distance learning are categorized and discussed, degrees of immersion are compared among formal learning, informal learning and social learning courseware. The methods rely on an extensive secondary research and literature review, aims to transform the theoretical framework of cognitive immersive learning by online-based tools, also provide new thoughts for innovatively teaching design in the future. As the output, we establish a theoretical model based on online tools, also a design framework to help with course design or idea visualization for instructors. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

8.
Medical Physics ; 49(6):E460-E460, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1913277
9.
LANDSCAPE JOURNAL ; 41(1):15-29, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1911013

ABSTRACT

Parks play a critical role in the health and well-being of people in urban environments. Recent events such as the COVID-19 pandemic have underscored the importance of public parks, particularly in cities. To maximize the benefits of these spaces, it is important to understand the social dimension of site user experiences within successful urban parks. Social media data provide a means to assess public places through the lens of large quantities of site users over time. Recent landscape research studies provide assessments of urban and nature-based locations using social media data and are predominantly quantitative in their methodologies (Havinga et al., 2021;Donahue et al., 2018;Wood et al., 2013). However, incorporating mixed methods into existing approaches can create a better understanding of site user experiences. This study uses 11,419 Tripadvisor reviews from the years 2010 to 2018 in a multi-step process, where qualitative content analysis builds upon Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) modeling topics to assess the semantic content of Bryant Park, NY. The new framework emerging from this process separates site user perceptions and sentiment positivity into categories. Site design elements are revealed as a major positive focus of site users, along with the position of the park within the urban fabric, site activity consisting of passive pastimes, and the essence of the space related to emotions. The study's findings can provide guidance for designers and park managers for the creation of successful urban parks and provide another baseline for research on New York City's parks.

11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102: 1-6, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893003

ABSTRACT

Objective: The gold immunochromatographic assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen was evaluated by international multi-center clinical trial. Methods: A total of 1 855 clinical parallel samples with valid test results (for nucleic acid and antigen tests, respectively) were collected from nine countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, France, India, Thailand, Malaysia, the United States of America and Brazil, with sampling period from January 3, 2021 to September 22, 2021. These samples were detected by SARS-CoV-2 antigen test kit (colloidal gold immunochromatography assay) and nucleic acid detection kit (real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). Positive coincidence rates [(number of antigen-positive cases/nucleic acid-positive cases)×100%], negative coincidence rates [(number of antigen-negative cases/nucleic acid-negative cases)×100%], total coincidence rates [(number of cases with consistent results for both antigen and nucleic acid detection/number of total cases) ×100%], as well as Kappa values were calculated. The differences of the above indictors among different countries were evaluated by the coefficient of variation. The detection rates of the antigen test for samples with different cycle threshold values (Ct values) for the nucleic acid detection, different characteristics and different mutant strains were analyzed. Results: For all samples, the positive, negative, and total coincidence rate between the antigen test and nucleic acid assay was 90.8% (569/627), 99.7% (1 224/1 228) and 96.7% (1 793/1 855), respectively, and the consistency coefficient Kappa value was 0.924. Among these countries, the coefficient of variation for positive coincidence rates (except for Malaysia with a lot of samples with Ct value>30), negative coincidence rates (except for France without negative samples) and total coincidence rates (except for France) was 6%,<1%, and 6%, respectively. When Ct values were less than 25, the detection rates of antigen test were 83.3%-100% for each countries (the coefficient of variation was 6%); The total detection rate and the coefficient of variation was 93.4% (428/458) and 5%, respectively, for asymptomatic infected persons and cases within 7 days post onset of symptoms; the total detection rate for various SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains was 97.5% (119/122); and it showed negative results for samples from cases infected with other viruses, including influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B, coxsackievirus 16, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1 and 4, Epstein-Barr virus and adenovirus. Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2 antigen test kit showed excellent authenticity, and there were few differences for its indictors among nine countries, therefore it can meet the needs of large-scale early screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
Clinica Chimica Acta ; 530:S20, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885649

ABSTRACT

Background-aim: With recent emergences in new infectious diseases and their variants, there is a need to develop a faster and more specific analytical tool to detect different respiratory infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2 or influenza viruses. Not only their symptoms are similar at early stages, but also, they are both enveloped viruses with several common biological properties, often leading to challenges in disease identification. Among different viral components, nucleocapsid protein or nucleoprotein (NP) is highly conserved, less post-translational modifications possessed, and mostly specific for each infectious disease virus types. Therefore, targeting NP could be more advantageous to the method development, achieving much simpler and robust method with minimal subsequent modifications. This study describes a targeted approach for simultaneous detection of NPs from different respiratory infectious diseases using immunoprecipitation (IP) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Multiple viruses, SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus A and B types, respiratory syncytial virus, and human coronavirus (HCoV-229E), were selected to show that this method can distinguish different disease viruses. Methods: Sample collected via nasopharyngeal swabs in viral transport media was directly subjected to IP using Thermo Scientific™ Pierce™ MS-Compatible IP Kit (Streptavidin). The IP purified samples were then digested using SMART Digest™ Trypsin Kits and analyzed by Thermo Scientific™ Vanquish™ MD HPLC system hyphenated to Thermo Scientific™ TSQ Altis MD mass spectrometer. Data processing was performed using TraceFinder™ LDT software 1.0. Results: Combining IP and LC-MS/MS resulted in a highly targeted approach with the high sensitivity and specificity. The method detected sub tens to hundreds amol of peptides on LC column. Also, it simplified the overall sample preparation process eliminating prior protein precipitation and post sample clean-up. Since the NPs mostly remain unchanged or less modified regardless of variants, the method doesn’t need tremendous alterations once established. Conclusions: This targeted approach can be applied to other enveloped viruses’ detection. Automated IP method is available with KingFisher system so it could lead to a faster turn-around time and higher throughput of the method.

13.
International Journal of Educational Research ; 114, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1859781

ABSTRACT

This article reports on a study focusing on understanding how primary students conducted collaborative inquiry-based learning (CIBL) supported by a mobile app during the COVID-19 pandemic when all lessons were conducted online. Learning analytics (LA) were used to map students’ behaviours in CIBL activities. One class with 35 students in Grade 4 participated in this study. Log data was collected and analysed using learning analytics with process mining techniques to understand groups’ CIBL behaviours in a mobile learning environment. The findings revealed high- and low-performance groups’ common and different features of CIBL behaviours. The research findings can help inform both teachers of making pedagogical refinement in the CIBL activity design, and researchers of developing scaffolding tools at different phases of CIBL on the mobile learning app to enhance students’ collaborative problem-solving skills. © 2022

14.
View ; : 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1850257

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, caused by SARS-Cov-2) is a big challenge for global health systems and the economy. Rapid and accurate tests are crucial at early stages of this pandemic. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is the current gold standard method for detection of SARS-Cov-2. It is impractical and costly to test individuals in large-scale population screens, especially in low- and middle-income countries due to their shortage of nucleic acid testing reagents and skilled staff. Accordingly, sample pooling, such as for blood screening for syphilis, is now widely applied to COVID-19. In this paper, we survey and review several different pooled-sample testing strategies, based on their group size, prevalence, testing number, and sensitivity, and we discuss their efficiency in terms of reducing cost and saving time while ensuring sensitivity.

15.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):2124-2124, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848266
16.
2022 zh Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, zh EA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846570

ABSTRACT

Motivated by the outbreak of COVID-19, museums have increased interests in online museum and online museum education. This study presents a way to use AI image synthesis technology for online art education guided by a constructivist design approach. An experiment was conducted to empirically test the effectiveness of AI-based art education in the online museum context. A total of 83 participants visited one of 3 different web-based art museums (i.e., AI image synthesis not applied vs. AI image synthesis applied with given photos vs. AI image synthesis applied with self-uploaded photos). Those who experienced the online museum with synthesized images using self-uploaded photos reported a higher level of motivation and satisfaction and to experience in a more constructivist way compared to other conditions. © 2022 ACM.

17.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the fraction and contagiousness of undocumented novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections is critical for understanding the overall prevalence and pandemic potential of this disease. Many mild infections are typically not reported and, depending on their contagiousness, may support stealth transmission and the spread of documented infection. METHODS: Here we use observations of reported infection and spread within China in conjunction with mobility data, a networked dynamic metapopulation model and Bayesian inference, to infer critical epidemiological characteristics associated with the emerging coronavirus, including the fraction of undocumented infections and their contagiousness. RESULTS: We estimate 86% of all infections were undocumented (95% CI: [82%-90%]) prior to the Wuhan travel shutdown (January 23, 2020). Per person, these undocumented infections were 52% as contagious as documented infections ([44%-69%]) and were the source of infection for two-thirds of documented cases. Our estimate of the reproductive number (2.23;[1.77-3.00]) aligns with earlier findings;however, after travel restrictions and control measures were imposed this number falls considerably. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of COVID-19 infections were undocumented prior to implementation of control measures on January 23, and these undocumented infections substantially contributed to virus transmission. These findings explain the rapid geographic spread of COVID-19 and indicate containment of this virus will be particularly challenging. Our findings also indicate that heightened awareness of the outbreak, increased use of personal protective measures, and travel restriction have been associated with reductions of the overall force of infection;however, it is unclear whether this reduction will be sufficient to stem the virus spread.

18.
5th International Conference on Big Data Research, ICBDR 2021 ; : 15-22, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1784895

ABSTRACT

Many states in the US have carried out lotteries with tantalizing prizes to reduce the covid-19 vaccine hesitancy. However, there has yet been a consensus regarding the effectiveness of such incentives. This study conducts a synthetic control analysis for each treated state, to provide a better understanding of the influence that the lottery programs have made on the vaccination rates across different states. However, for all treated states, no evidence is found for the effects of the lotteries. Next, the article investigates the impact of people's policy ideology on the prediction of the vaccination rates under the synthetic control models. Within each treated state, counties are categorized into two regions according to their political affiliation. The comparison of the treatment effects between the two regions indicates that there is no relationship between people's policy ideology and the vaccination rates. © 2021 ACM.

19.
29th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE) ; : 129-135, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1777223

ABSTRACT

This article reported on a study of development and evaluation of the Virtual Go Mode feature embedded in a VocabGo app to enhance primary students' vocabulary learning engagement. A total of 15 primary students in Hong Kong participated in this evaluation study for one week. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analysed. The results showed that students' vocabulary learning engagement was high when using the Virtual Go Mode. It is suggested that future research focus on empirical studies in designing and implementing virtual location-based tasks supported by AR technologies in class to provide opportunities for students to practice and consolidate newly learned words and enhance their learning engagement in the post-COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-331088

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The betacoronvirus has a positive sense RNA genome which encodes for several RNA binding proteins. Here, we use enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation to investigate SARS-CoV-2 protein interactions with viral and host RNAs in authentic virus-infected cells. SARS-CoV-2 proteins, NSP8, NSP12, and nucleocapsid display distinct preferences to specific regions in the RNA viral genome, providing evidence for their shared and separate roles in replication, transcription, and viral packaging. SARS-CoV-2 proteins expressed in human lung epithelial cells bind to 4773 unique host coding RNAs. Nine SARS-CoV-2 proteins upregulate target gene expression, including NSP12 and ORF9c, whose RNA substrates are associated with pathways in protein N-linked glycosylation ER processing and mitochondrial processes. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of host genes targeted by viral proteins in human lung organoid cells identify potential antiviral host targets across different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Conversely, NSP9 inhibits host gene expression by blocking mRNA export and dampens cytokine productions, including interleukin-1α/β. Our viral protein-RNA interactome provides a catalog of potential therapeutic targets and offers insight into the etiology of COVID-19 as a safeguard against future pandemics.

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