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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7334, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500696

ABSTRACT

To identify the risk factors of mortality for the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) through a retrospective analysis. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and chest imaging data of patients admitted to the ICU of Huoshenshan Hospital from February 10 to April 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used to compare the continuous and categorical variables, respectively. The logistic regression model was employed to ascertain the risk factors of mortality. This retrospective study involved 123 patients, including 64 dead and 59 survivors. Among them, 57 people were tested for interleukin-6 (IL-6) (20 died and 37 survived). In all included patients, the oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was identified as an independent risk factor (odd ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.928-0.994, p = 0.021). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.895 (95% CI: 0.826-0.943, p < 0.0001). Among the patients tested for IL-6, the PaO2/FiO2 (OR = 0.955, 95%CI: 0.915-0.996, p = 0.032) and IL-6 (OR = 1.013, 95%CI: 1.001-1.025, p = 0.028) were identified as independent risk factors. The AUC was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.791-0.964, p < 0.0001) for IL-6 and 0.865 (95% CI: 0.748-0.941, p < 0.0001) for PaO2/FiO2. PaO2/FiO2 and IL-6 could potentially serve as independent risk factors for predicting death in COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/analysis , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Financ Res Lett ; 42: 102091, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275318

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe disruption worldwide. We analyze the aggregate U.S. stock market during this period, including implications for both short and long-horizon investors. We identify bull and bear market regimes including their bull correction and bear rally components, demonstrate our model's performance in capturing periods of significant regime change, and provide weekly forecasts that improve risk management and investment decisions. An investment strategy that uses out-of-sample forecasts for market states outperforms a buy and hold strategy during the pandemic by a wide margin, both in terms of annualized returns and Sharpe ratios.

3.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(2): 253-260, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Transplant recipients are vulnerable to life-threatening community-acquired respiratory viruses (CA-RVs) infection (CA-RVI). Even if non-transplant critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) have serious CA-RVI, comparison between these groups remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics and mortality of CA-RVI except seasonal influenza A/B in transplant recipients and non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU. METHODS: We collected 37,777 CA-RVs multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test results of individuals aged ≥18 years from November 2012 to November 2017. The CA-RVs tests included adenovirus, coronavirus 229E/NL63/OC43, human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 1/2/3, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus A/B. RESULTS: We found 286 CA-RVI cases, including 85 solid organ transplantation recipients (G1), 61 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients (G2), and 140 non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU (G3), excluding those with repeated isolation within 30 days. Adenovirus positive rate and infection cases were most prominent in G2 (p < 0.001). The median time interval between transplantation and CA-RVI was 30 and 20 months in G1 and G2, respectively. All-cause in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in G3 than in G1 or G2 (51.4% vs. 28.2% or 39.3%, p = 0.002, respectively). The mechanical ventilation (MV) was the independent risk factor associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality in all three groups (hazard ratio, 3.37, 95% confidence interval, 2.04-5.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of CA-RVs diagnosis in transplant recipients even in long-term posttransplant period, and in non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU with MV.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(2): 1928-1949, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic of global public health concern. We aimed to summarize the characteristics of COVID-19 patients in the early stage of the pandemic and explore the risk factors of disease progression. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis, searching three databases for studies published between January 1, 2020, and March 18, 2020. We used random-effects models to calculate the 95% confidence intervals of pooled estimated prevalence and the odds ratio between the severe and nonsevere cases. RESULTS: Ninety studies involving 16,526 COVID-19 patients were included. Hypertension (19.1%) and diabetes (9.5%) were the most common comorbidities. The most prevalent clinical symptoms were fever (78.4%), cough (58.5%), and fatigue (26.4%). Increased serum ferritin (74.2%), high C-reactive protein (73.3%), and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (72.2%) were the most frequently reported laboratory abnormalities. Most patients had bilateral lung involvement (82.2%) and showed peripheral (66.9%) and subpleural (62.1%) distribution, with multifocal involvement (73.1%). And the most common CT features were vascular enlargement (64.3%), ground-glass opacity (GGO) (60.7%), and thickened interlobular septa (55.1%). Respiratory failure was the most common complication (30.7%) and the overall case-fatality rate (CFR) was 4.2%. Moreover, male, history of smoking, and comorbidities might influence the prognosis. Most clinical symptoms such as fever, high fever, cough, sputum production, fatigue, shortness of breath, dyspnoea, and abdominal pain were linked to the severity of disease. Some specific laboratory indicators implied the deterioration of disease, such as leucocytosis, lymphopenia, platelet, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT), and D-dimer. Besides, the risk of bilateral pneumonia, consolidation, pleural effusion, and enlarged mediastinal nodes was higher in severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 patients have fever and cough with lymphopenia and increased inflammatory indices, and the main CT feature is GGO involved bilateral lung. Patients with comorbidities and worse clinical symptoms, laboratory characteristics, and CT findings tend to have poor disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Cough , Fever , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Religions ; 11(7):344, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-650832

ABSTRACT

This essay utilizes Reinhold Niebuhr"s theology of the universality of sin to analyze institutional racism, using the 1992 Los Angeles riots as a case study. Contrary to the conventional interpretation of the riots as a conflict between African Americans and Korean Americans, the pervasive institutional racism of the mainstream media of that era spread the riots into multiracial conflicts, which explains Niebuhr"s thinking regarding the universality of sin. Furthermore, the sensationalism of the media that fueled the massive violence deprived African Americans of the moral dynamic for social transformation and victimized Korean Americans as scapegoats. As a result, the institutional processes promoted the status quo that benefited the white privileged class at the expense of the racial minorities. Implications found in this essay may be applicable to current issues, such as anti-Asian racism that has surfaced during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.

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