Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e061917, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902021

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) generally requires lifelong treatment; however, its medication complexity might affect non-adherence. Pharmacist-led telehealth services were as effective as face-to-face services and reduced potential side effects in outpatients with chronic diseases. This study aims to analyse the effect of a telepharmacy service with a customised mobile device in comparison with the usual pharmacist service on the humanistic and clinical outcomes in patients with RA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is designed as a prospective, randomised, open-label, and controlled trial to compare the humanistic and clinical outcomes of the pharmaceutical care service with monthly telecommunications and a customised mobile application (telepharmacy care group) against the usual service by community pharmacists (usual care group) in 256 patients with RA and prescribed at least one of the disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Participants will be recruited from a tertiary hospital in Republic of Korea with written informed consent. The primary outcome will be the changes in health-related quality of life as measured by the Korean version of the EuroQoL's five-dimensional questionnaire at 6 months compared with baseline. The secondary outcomes will be the changes in the following: scores of the Korean version of the Compliance Questionnaire-Rheumatology and medication knowledge at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline; scores of the Korean version of the Pharmacy Service Questionnaire at 6 months compared with baseline; clinical parameters such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein level, and pain score at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline; frequency of acute care utilisation over 6 months. Analysis will be carried out with intent-to-treat and per-protocol principles. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Daegu Catholic University Medical Center (IRB no. CR-21-082-L, 14 July 2021). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: KCT0006508.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Pharmaceutical Services , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Computers, Handheld , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869581

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health of populations and highlighted the limitations of mental health care systems. As the trajectory of the pandemic and the economic recovery are still uncertain, decision tools are needed to help evaluate the best interventions to improve mental health outcomes. We developed a system dynamics model that captures causal relationships among population, demographics, post-secondary education, health services, COVID-19 impact, and mental health outcomes. The study was conducted in the Australian state of Victoria. The model was calibrated using historical data and was stratified by age group and by geographic remoteness. Findings demonstrate that the most effective intervention combination includes economic, social, and health sector initiatives. Assertive post-suicide attempt care is the most impactful health sector intervention, but delaying implementation reduces the potency of its impact. Some evidence-based interventions, such as population-wide community awareness campaigns, are projected to worsen mental health outcomes when implemented on their own. Systems modelling offers a powerful decision-support tool to test alternative strategies for improving mental health outcomes in the Victorian context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Victoria/epidemiology
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 725505, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633352

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to analyze the early mental health (MH) and quality of life (QoL) of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can provide a scientific basis for the further development of intervention programs. Methods: In total, 108 subjects participated in this study, including an experimental group (90 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from March to April 2020 and hospitalized in Wuhan China Resources & WISCO General Hospital, Wuhan, China, 83.3%) and a control group (18 healthy participants, 16.7%). Their MH and QoL were measured through the 12-item Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2), the Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), the Self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The results of questionnaires were compared between these two groups. Results: (1) Comparison of anxiety status: among 90 discharged patients with COVID-19, 30 patients (33.3%) had a state of anxiety. Compared with healthy participants and the general population, patients with COVID-19 in the early stages of discharge had a higher incidence of anxiety and more severe anxiety symptoms (P < 0.05). (2) Comparison of depression status: among 90 discharged patients with COVID-19, 29 patients (32.2%) had a state of depression. Compared with healthy participants and the general population, patients with COVID-19 in the early stages of discharge had a higher incidence of depression and more severe depression symptoms (P < 0.05). (3) Comparison of QoL: 78 patients (86.7%) presented a decrease in physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and 73 patients (81.1%) presented a decrease in psychology-related QoL. The SF-12v2 physical component summary (PCS) and the SF-12v2 mental component summary (MCS) of patients were significantly lower than those of healthy people, especially in physical function (PF), vitality (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) (all P < 0.05). (4) Gender differences in mental health and the QoL among patients with COVID-19: women had more severe anxiety/depression symptoms than men (P < 0.05). The scores of women in all dimensions of SF-12V2 were lower than those of men, and there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in PCS, PF, general health (GH), VT, and role-emotional (RE) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: During the early phase after being discharged, patients with COVID-19 might experience negative emotions, such as anxiety or depression, and also problems with reduced QoL, especially among female patients. Therefore, an intervention plan should focus on strengthening psychological condition and improving physical function, and gender-specific rehabilitation programmes should be adapted to improve psychological status and QoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies ; : 1-14, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1585215
5.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 759343, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497167

ABSTRACT

Background: Current global challenges are generating extensive social disruption and uncertainty that have the potential to undermine the mental health, wellbeing, and futures of young people. The scale and complexity of challenges call for engagement with systems science-based decision analytic tools that can capture the dynamics and interrelationships between physical, social, economic, and health systems, and support effective national and regional responses. At the outset of the pandemic mental health-related systems models were developed for the Australian context, however, the extent to which findings are generalisable across diverse regions remains unknown. This study aims to explore the context dependency of systems modelling insights. Methods: This study will employ a comparative case study design, applying participatory system dynamics modelling across eight diverse regions of Australia to answer three primary research questions: (i) Will current regional differences in key youth mental health outcomes be exacerbated in forward projections due to the social and economic impacts of COVID-19?; (ii) What combination of social policies and health system strengthening initiatives will deliver the greatest impacts within each region?; (iii) To what extent are optimal strategic responses consistent across the diverse regions? We provide a detailed technical blueprint as a potential springboard for more timely construction and deployment of systems models in international contexts to facilitate a broader examination of the question of generalisability and inform investments in the mental health and wellbeing of young people in the post COVID-19 recovery. Discussion: Computer simulation is known as the third pillar of science (after theory and experiment). Simulation allows researchers and decision makers to move beyond what can be manipulated within the scale, time, and ethical limits of the experimental approach. Such learning when achieved collectively, has the potential to enhance regional self-determination, help move beyond incremental adjustments to the status quo, and catalyze transformational change. This research seeks to advance efforts to establish regional decision support infrastructure and empower communities to effectively respond. In addition, this research seeks to move towards an understanding of the extent to which systems modelling insights may be relevant to the global mental health response by encouraging researchers to use, challenge, and advance the existing work for scientific and societal progress.

7.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(612): eabh2624, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371845

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) have been found in some patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the prevalence of these antibodies, their longitudinal dynamics across the disease severity scale, and their functional effects on circulating leukocytes remain unknown. Here, in 284 patients with COVID-19, we found type I IFN­specific autoantibodies in peripheral blood samples from 19% of patients with critical disease and 6% of patients with severe disease. We found no type I IFN autoantibodies in individuals with moderate disease. Longitudinal profiling of over 600,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells using multiplexed single-cell epitope and transcriptome sequencing from 54 patients with COVID-19 and 26 non­COVID-19 controls revealed a lack of type I IFN­stimulated gene (ISG-I) responses in myeloid cells from patients with critical disease. This was especially evident in dendritic cell populations isolated from patients with critical disease producing type I IFN­specific autoantibodies. Moreover, we found elevated expression of the inhibitory receptor leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR1) on the surface of monocytes isolated from patients with critical disease early in the disease course. LAIR1 expression is inversely correlated with ISG-I expression response in patients with COVID-19 but is not expressed in healthy controls. The deficient ISG-I response observed in patients with critical COVID-19 with and without type I IFN­specific autoantibodies supports a unifying model for disease pathogenesis involving ISG-I suppression through convergent mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology
8.
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja ; : 1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1301251
9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 7107-7113, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296309

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute infectious disease, which is characterized by influenza, fever, cough and dyspnea. Up to now, the pathogenic mechanism and radical cure treatment for COVID-19 are still unknown. However, COVID-19 could lead to pneumonia, multiple organ failure and even death with disease development. During the period of February 10 and March 26, 2020, we admitted and treated three COVID-19 patients complicated with acute myocardial infarction. As we all know, acute myocardial infarction is a kind of disease that induces myocardial ischemia necrosis and leads to high mortality. Through the three COVID-19 patients complicated with acute myocardial infarction, we have strengthened our nursing experience. Thus, we wish to share our nursing experience with these cases by analyzing the etiology of three patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complicated with acute myocardial infarction in this paper. First, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, including patient complaints, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, of three patients with COVID-19 complicated with acute myocardial infarction admitted to Ward II, Department of Infectious Diseases III, Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, between February 10 and March 26, 2020. Then, we searched for relevant literature, analyzed etiology, and summarized the nursing measures taken. For COVID-19 patients with a high risk of acute myocardial infarction, nurses should stay vigilant, closely monitor any change in condition, and implement early measures to maintain vital signs and enable timely visits with specialists. Finally, we importantly found that these nursing measures are keys to managing the patient's condition, improving patient outcomes, and increasing the chance of treatment success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , China , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(6): e24697, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Australia's mental health care system has long been fragmented and under-resourced, with services falling well short of demand. In response, the World Economic Forum has recently called for the rapid deployment of smarter, digitally enhanced health services to facilitate effective care coordination and address issues of demand. The University of Sydney's Brain and Mind Centre (BMC) has developed an innovative digital health solution that incorporates 2 components: a highly personalized and measurement-based (data-driven) model of youth mental health care and a health information technology (HIT) registered on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods. Importantly, research into implementation of such solutions considers education and training of clinicians to be essential to adoption and optimization of use in standard clinical practice. The BMC's Youth Mental Health and Technology Program has subsequently developed a comprehensive education and training program to accompany implementation of the digital health solution. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the protocol for an evaluation study to assess the effectiveness of the education and training program on the adoption and optimization of use of the digital health solution in service delivery. It also describes the proposed tools to assess the impact of training on knowledge and skills of mental health clinicians. METHODS: The evaluation study will use the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model as a framework with 4 levels of analysis: Reaction (to education and training), Learning (knowledge acquired), Behavior (practice change), and Results (client outcomes). Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected using a variety of tools, including evaluation forms, pre- and postknowledge questionnaires, skill development and behavior change scales, as well as a real-time clinical practice audit. RESULTS: This project is funded by philanthropic funding from Future Generation Global. Ethics approval has been granted via Sydney Local Health District's Human Research Ethics Committee. At the time of this publication, clinicians and their services were being recruited to this study. The first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The education and training program teaches clinicians the necessary knowledge and skills to assess, monitor, and manage complex needs; mood and psychotic syndromes; and trajectories of youth mental ill-health using a HIT that facilitates a highly personalized and measurement-based model of care. The digital health solution may therefore guide clinicians to help young people recover low functioning associated with subthreshold diagnostic presentations and prevent progression to more serious mental ill-health. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/24697.

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044977, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288390

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Worsened cardiometabolic profiles in youth with mental ill health have been associated with a number of modifiable lifestyle risk factors. It is becoming increasingly evident that clinical interventions need to be multimodal in focus to improve mental health symptoms and the physical health symptoms in this already at-risk cohort. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This 12-week pilot clinical trial examines the efficacy, feasibility and acceptability of an adjunctive online psychoeducation programme for improving cardiometabolic risk parameters and affective symptoms in a transdiagnostic sample of at least 44 young people aged 16-25 years presenting for mental healthcare for mood and/or psychotic syndromes (including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis). Individuals will be invited to participate in a pilot clinical trial for a structured online psychoeducation programme incorporating nutritional, physical activity, sleep-wake and healthy lifestyle information, delivered fortnightly over six online modules. Participants will undergo a series of assessments including: (1) self-report and clinician administered assessments determining mental health symptomatology; (2) fasting blood tests to assess cardiometabolic markers (fasting insulin, fasting glucose and blood lipids); (3) anthropometric assessments (height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure); and (4) sleep-wake behaviours and circadian rhythm assessments. Changes in scores for all cardiometabolic and affective measures will be assessed via paired samples t-tests, and correlations between change scores will be assessed via Pearson's or Spearman's correlations. Feasibility will be assessed via completion rates, and the acceptability of the programme will be assessed via programme satisfaction measures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This pilot clinical trial has been approved by the Sydney Local Health District Research Ethics and Governance Office (X20-0228 & 2020/ETH01201). The results of this pilot clinical trial will be disseminated into the scientific and broader community through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social media and university websites. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) Number: ACTRN12620000772943, Date 28 August 2020.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Mental Health , Adolescent , Affective Symptoms , Australia , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans
12.
Surgery ; 170(2): 550-557, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak has spread worldwide and has resulted in hospital restrictions. The perceived impact of these practices on patients undergoing essential surgeries is less understood. METHODS: Adult (≥18 years) patients who underwent medically necessary surgical procedures spanning multiple surgical specialties from March 23, 2020, to April 24, 2020, during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic were identified as eligible for a phone survey. Survey responses were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach involving descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of coded and annotated survey results. RESULTS: Of the 212 patients who underwent medically necessary surgical procedures during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the majority of these patients were male (61.3%), White (83.5%), married or with a domestic partner (68.9%), and underwent oncologic procedures (69.3%). Of the 46 patients (21.7%) who completed the survey, the majority of these patients indicated that coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic restrictions had no impact on their inpatient hospital stay and were satisfied with their decision to proceed with surgery. Severity of patient condition (44.4%), the risk/benefit discussion with the surgeon (24.4%), and coronavirus disease 2019 education and testing (19.5%) were the most important factors in proceeding with surgery during the pandemic; 34.4% of patients said their inpatient postoperative course was negatively affected by the lack of visitors. CONCLUSION: Medically necessary, time-sensitive surgical procedures, as determined by the surgeon, can be performed during a pandemic with good patient satisfaction provided there is an appropriate discussion between the surgeon and patient about the risks and benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Surgical Procedures, Operative/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Cell ; 184(8): 2183-2200.e22, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086819

ABSTRACT

Antibodies are crucial to immune protection against SARS-CoV-2, with some in emergency use as therapeutics. Here, we identify 377 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the virus spike and focus mainly on 80 that bind the receptor binding domain (RBD). We devise a competition data-driven method to map RBD binding sites. We find that although antibody binding sites are widely dispersed, neutralizing antibody binding is focused, with nearly all highly inhibitory mAbs (IC50 < 0.1 µg/mL) blocking receptor interaction, except for one that binds a unique epitope in the N-terminal domain. Many of these neutralizing mAbs use public V-genes and are close to germline. We dissect the structural basis of recognition for this large panel of antibodies through X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy of 19 Fab-antigen structures. We find novel binding modes for some potently inhibitory antibodies and demonstrate that strongly neutralizing mAbs protect, prophylactically or therapeutically, in animal models.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Binding Sites, Antibody , CHO Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Epitopes , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells
14.
World J Surg ; 45(4): 946-954, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in large-scale healthcare restrictions to control viral spread, reducing operating room censuses to include only medically necessary surgeries. The impact of restrictions on which patients undergo surgical procedures and their perioperative outcomes is less understood. METHODS: Adult patients who underwent medically necessary surgical procedures at our institution during a restricted operative period due to the COVID-19 pandemic (March 23-April 24, 2020) were compared to patients undergoing procedures during a similar time period in the pre-COVID-19 era (March 25-April 26, 2019). Cardinal matching and differences in means were utilized to analyze perioperative outcomes. RESULTS: 857 patients had surgery in 2019 (pre-COVID-19) and 212 patients had surgery in 2020 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 era cohort had a higher proportion of patients who were male (61.3% vs. 44.5%, P < 0.0001), were White (83.5% vs. 68.7%, P < 0.001), had private insurance (62.7% vs. 54.3%, p 0.05), were ASA classification 4 (10.9% vs. 3%, P < 0.0001), and underwent oncologic procedures (69.3% vs. 42.7%, P < 0.0001). Following 1:1 cardinal matching, COVID-19 era patients (N = 157) had a decreased likelihood of discharge to a nursing facility (risk difference-8.3, P < 0.0001) and shorter median length of stay (risk difference-0.6, p 0.04) compared to pre-COVID-19 era patients. There was no difference between the two patient cohorts in overall morbidity and 30-day readmission. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 restrictions on surgical operations were associated with a change in the racial and insurance demographics in patients undergoing medically necessary surgical procedures but were not associated with worse postoperative morbidity. Further study is necessary to better identify the causes for patient demographic differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Demography , Pandemics , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Medicare , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL