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1.
World Neurosurg ; 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare their outcome with case matched controls from the pre-pandemic phase. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study in which all TBI patients admitted during COVID-19 pandemic phase (Arm-A) from 24th March, 2020 till 30th November, 2020 were matched with age and Glasgow Coma Scale score matched controls from the patients admitted prior to March 2020 (Arm-B). RESULTS: The total number of patients matched in each arm was 118. The length of hospital stay (8 days versus 5 days, p<0.001), transit time from emergency room to operation room (150 minutes versus 97 minutes, p=0.271), anesthesia induction time (75 minutes versus 45 minutes, p=0.002) and operative duration (275 minutes versus 180 minutes, p=0.002) were longer in Arm-A. Although the incidence of fever and pneumonia were significantly higher in Arm-A than Arm-B (50% versus 26.3%, p<0.001 and 27.1% versus 1.7%, p<0.001, respectively), outcome (GOS-E) and mortality rates (18.6% versus 14.4% respectively, p=0.42) were similar in both the groups. CONCLUSION: The outcome of the patients managed for TBI during the COVID-19 pandemic was similar to matched patients with TBI managed at our center before the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. This suggests that the guidelines followed during the COVID-19 pandemic were effective in dealing with TBI patients. This model can serve as a guide for any future pandemic waves for effective management of TBI patients without compromising their outcome.

2.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 10(1): e28, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847969

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Alveolar arterial (A-a) oxygen gradient and respiratory index can be of immense help for the critical care physician in clinical decision making. This study aimed to evaluate the potential application of A-a oxygen gradient and respiratory index in predicting the survival of COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit (ICU). Method: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 215 adult patients with COVID-19 disease, admitted to the ICU between 1st April 2020 and 30 June 2021. Details regarding demographic variables, comorbidities, laboratory and arterial blood gas (ABG) findings were recorded. Alveolar-arterial gradient and respiratory index were calculated and tested as predictors of survival. Result: The mean age of the patients was 51.92 years (65.6 % male). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity and oxygen via non-rebreathing mask was the most common modality used at the time of ICU admission. Mortality was 28.37% and average length of stay was 12.84 days. Patients who died were older (p=0.02), mostly male (p=0.017), had at least one comorbidity (p<0.001), and higher heart rate and respiratory rate (<0.001 and p=0.03, respectively), lower pH on arterial blood gas (ABG) (p=0.002), higher FiO2 requirement (p<0.001), and increased A-a oxygen gradient on admission compared to survivors. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, A-a oxygen gradient and respiratory index were not sensitive or specific in predicting mortality in the studied patient subset. Conclusion: A-a oxygen gradient and respiratory index calculated at time of admission to ICU in patients with COVID-19 were poor predictors of survival.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321185

ABSTRACT

Background: and Aim There is a paucity of data on the clinical presentations and outcomes of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in patients with underlying liver disease. We aimed to summarize the presentations and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients and compare with historical controls. Methods: Patients with known chronic liver disease who presented with superimposed COVID- 19(n=28) between 22nd April and 22nd June 2020 were studied. Seventy-eight cirrhotic patients from historical controls were taken as comparison group. Results: A total of 28 COVID patients- two without cirrhosis, one with compensated cirrhosis, sixteen with acute decompensation (AD), and nine with acute-on-chronic liver failure(ACLF) were included. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcohol(n=9), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(n=2), viral(n=5), autoimmune hepatitis(n=4), and cryptogenic cirrhosis(n=6). The clinical presentations included complications of cirrhosis in 12(46.2%), respiratory symptoms in 3(11.5%) and combined complications of cirrhosis and respiratory symptoms in 11(42.3%) patients. The median hospital stay was 8(7-12) days. The mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was 42.3%(11/26), as compared to 23.1%(18/78) in the historical controls(p=0.077). All COVID-19 patients with ACLF(9/9) died compared to 53.3%(16/30) in ACLF of historical controls(p=0.015). Mortality rate was higher in COVID patients with compensated cirrhosis and AD as compared to historical controls 2/17(11.8%) vs 2/48(4.2%), though not statistically significant (p=0.278). Requirement of mechanical ventilation independently predicted mortality (hazard ratio, 13.68). Both non-cirrhotic patients presented with respiratory symptoms and recovered uneventfully. Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, with worst survival rates in ACLF. Mechanical ventilation is associated with a poor outcome.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318805

ABSTRACT

Background: Calcium has been shown to have a vital role in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV diseases but less is known about hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients and its association with the disease severity and the final outcome. Therefore, this study was conducted with an aim to assess the clinical features in the COVID-19 patients having hypocalcemia and to observe its impact on COVID-19 disease severity and final outcome. Method: In this retrospective study, consecutive COVID-19 patients of all age groups were enrolled. Demographical, clinical and laboratory details were collected and analysed. On the basis of albumin-corrected calcium level patients were classified into normocalcemic (n=51) and hypocalcemic (n=110). Death was the primary outcome. Results: : The mean age of hypocalcemic were significantly lower (p<0.05). A significantly higher number of normocalcemic patients had severe COVID-19 disease(92.73%, p<0.01), had comorbidities (82.73%, p<0.05) and required ventilator support(39.09%, p<0.01)compared to the hypocalcemic patients. The mortality rate was significantly higher (33.63%, p<0.05) in the hypocalcemic patients when compared with the normocalcemic patients (15.69%). Haemoglobin (p<0.01), hematocrit (p<0.01) and red cell count (p<0.01) were significantly lower with higher levels of absolute neutrophil count (<0.05) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (p<0.01) in the hypocalcemic patients. Albumin-corrected calcium level had a significant positive correlation with haemoglobin level, haematocrit, red cell count, total protein, albumin and albumin to globulin ratio and a significant negative correlation with absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. Conclusion: The disease severity, ventilator requirement and mortality were considerably higher in hypocalcemic COVID-19 patients.

5.
Indian J Pediatr ; 89(4): 404-406, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653777

ABSTRACT

Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) constitute a high-risk group for COVID-19 with underlying chronic lung disease. COVID-19 severity varying from mild infection to need of intensive care has been described in children with CF. Two children with significant underlying pulmonary morbidity are described here, who developed severe disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Case 1 (a 9-y-old boy) had pneumonia with respiratory failure requiring noninvasive ventilation support. He had delayed clearance of SARS-CoV-2, with recurrence of symptomatic disease with short asymptomatic period in between. He was also diagnosed with CF-related diabetes and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis during the second episode. Case 2 (an 18-mo-old boy) had two episodes of SARS-CoV-2-related severe lower respiratory infection within a period of 2 mo, requiring high-flow nasal oxygen support. Both children had 3rd pulmonary exacerbation but SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in respiratory secretions. To conclude, children with CF with underlying pulmonary morbidity, can develop severe COVID-19 and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Humans , Lung , Male , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 37(3): 366-370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and 28 day outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 60 adult critically ill COVID-19 patients in this prospective observational study, admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after obtaining ethics committee approval and informed consent. Demographics, clinical data, and treatment outcome at 28 days were assessed. RESULTS: Demographic characteristics of the COVID-19 patients reveal that compared to the survivors, the non-survivors were significantly older [57.5 vs. 47.5 years], had more comorbid disease [Charlson's comorbidity index 4 vs. 2], higher Apache II scores [19 vs. 8.5], and had significantly higher percentage of smokers. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were the most common comorbidities. Dyspnea, fever, and cough were the most common presenting symptoms. Total leucocyte count as well as blood lactate level were significantly higher in non-survivors. Around 47% patients had severe ARDS, and 60% patients required invasive mechanical ventilation. 28 day ICU mortality was 50%, with a mortality of 75% in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. Mortality was higher in males than females (57% vs. 33%). Acute kidney injury and septic shock were the most common non-pulmonary complications during ICU stay. Incidence of liver dysfunction, septic shock, and vasopressor use was significantly higher in the non-survivors. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a high 28 day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. Further well designed prospective studies with larger sample size are needed to identify the risk factors associated with poor outcome in such patients.

8.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases continue to increase globally. Poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis have been reported; predictors of outcome are unclear. The existing data is from the early part of the pandemic when variants of concern (VOC) were not reported. AIMS: We aimed to assess the outcomes and predictors in patients with cirrhosis and COVID-19. We also compared the differences in outcomes between the first wave of pandemic and the second wave. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database, data on consecutive cirrhosis patients (n=221) admitted to the COVID-19 care facility of a tertiary care center in India were evaluated for presentation, the severity of liver disease, the severity of COVID-19, and outcomes. RESULTS: The clinical presentation included: 18 (8.1%) patients had compensated cirrhosis, 139 (62.9%) acute decompensation (AD), and 64 (29.0%) had an acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Patients with ACLF had more severe COVID-19 infection than those with compensated cirrhosis and AD (54.7% vs. 16.5% and 33.3%, P<0.001). The overall mortality was 90 (40.7%), highest among ACLF (72.0%). On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of mortality were high leukocyte count, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, child class, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and COVID-19 severity. The second wave had more cases of severe COVID-19 as compared to the first wave, with a similar MELD score and Child score. The overall mortality was similar between the two waves. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis have high mortality (40%), particularly those with ACLF (72%). A higher leukocyte count, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, Child class, and MELD score are predictors of mortality.

9.
Cureus ; 13(9), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1481730

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome, in which surfactants get deposited slowly in alveoli, blocking the airway exchange. PAP severity also varies from mild to severe, presenting with dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis with or without fever. The radiological findings are ground-glass opacities along with septal thickening (Crazy Paving), consolidations, and less commonly air bronchograms. COVID-19 is a viral infection caused by SARS COV2 primarily affecting the lungs and causing atypical viral pneumonia. The clinical picture of the disease varies from a milder form of fever, dry cough with or without expectoration, to severe disease-causing respiratory distress, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. Radiologically, the findings of COVID-19 are similar to PAP. So, PAP mimics the COVID-19, posing a differential challenge, though our patient was a known case of PAP. Therefore, for proper management of the disease, it is important to differentiate it from other pathologies. In this case report, we describe a patient who was a known case of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. She presented with acute exacerbation in the emergency department and tested positive for COVID-19. We followed a systematic approach consisting of clinical, laboratory, radiologic parameters to differentiate the cause of this exacerbation.

11.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16553, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372140

ABSTRACT

Introduction There is a dearth of literature describing the clinical profile of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with malignancy. Patients with associated malignancy can have a more severe course of the disease. The aim was to study clinical course and outcome of critically ill patients admitted in ICU with associated malignancy. Methods The study was a single-center, retrospective, study conducted at a tertiary care hospital. Patients with active or recent malignancy on follow-up and with confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Intensive care unit of COVID-19 dedicated hospital between November 1, 2020 to January 15, 2021 were included. Demographic data, clinical features, clinical course and outcome were retrieved from the hospital electronic medical records. Results A total of 24 patients with malignancy and COVID-19 were admitted to the ICU of COVID-19 center. There were 20 patients with solid organ malignancy and four patients with hematological malignancy. The most common malignancy was breast carcinoma in six (25 %) patients. Fifty percent of the patients were diagnosed with malignancy within the previous six months. Among the presenting symptoms, 13 (54.1%) patients presented with symptoms of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), eight (33.3%) patients presented with altered sensorium, and three (12.5%) with pain abdomen. Regarding the severity of COVID-19, six (25%) patients had moderate COVID-19 and 18 (75%) had severe COVID-19. Out of 24 patients, six survived and 18 died, the mortality being 75%. The most common cause of death was sepsis with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in 10 (42.6 %) patients followed by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and neurological cause in four (16.6 %) patients each. When survivors were compared with non-survivors, advanced age and presence of altered sensorium were more in non-survivors. Conclusion Severe COVID-19 and advanced malignancy is a sinister combination that has high mortality. These patients require close monitoring and aggressive care. Presence of altered sensorium and advanced age predicts poorer outcome.

12.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(10): 1367-1375, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the histopathology of patients dying of COVID-19 using post-mortem minimally invasive sampling techniques. METHODS: This was a single-center observational study conducted at JPNATC, AIIMS. Thirty-seven patients who died of COVID-19 were enrolled. Post-mortem percutaneous biopsies were taken from lung, heart, liver, kidney and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemistry was performed using CD61 and CD163. SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected using IHC with primary antibodies. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.7 years and 59.5% were males. Lung histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 78% patients. Associated bronchopneumonia was seen in 37.5% and scattered microthrombi in 21% patients. Immunopositivity for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in Type II pneumocytes. Acute tubular injury with epithelial vacuolization was seen in 46% of renal biopsies. Seventy-one percent of liver biopsies showed Kupffer cell hyperplasia and 27.5% showed submassive hepatic necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Predominant finding was diffuse alveolar damage with demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 protein in the acute phase. Microvascular thrombi were rarely identified in any organ. Substantial hepatocyte necrosis, Kupffer cell hypertrophy, microvesicular, and macrovesicular steatosis unrelated to microvascular thrombi suggested that liver might be a primary target of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16152, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains a health concern with new challenges emerging as the pandemic progresses. The recent rise of opportunistic infections especially mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients is further complicating their outcomes. Mucormycosis is well known to infect patients with diabetes mellitus, malignancy, chemotherapy, and other immunocompromised conditions. The treatment of COVID-19 largely remains systemic steroids and other immunomodulators that add to the risk of invasive fungal infection. METHODOLOGY: Here, we present a retrospective case series of 13 patients with individual clinical characteristics along with the demography and treatment details. The data were collected retrospectively in a single center that caters to a large population of COVID-19 patients with varying severity. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were presented with COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM). The median age was higher in non-survivors (49.5 years), with a higher odds of death (23.8) in those with severe COVID, having overall mortality of 64.3%. Moreover, diabetes mellitus was present in 61.5% of patients with a mortality of 75%. About 11 (84.6%) patients had received prior steroids for COVID-19. The incidence of hyperglycemia at admission was equal among both survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of mucormycosis seems to be increasing among COVID-19 patients which may be associated with increased use of steroids, the possible immunocompromised state imposed by SARS-CoV-2, or co-existing conditions such as diabetes mellitus. The mortality of CAM is remarkably high and apart from preventive practices and rational use of immunomodulators, a high index of suspicion with early diagnosis would be key to survival.

14.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 50(6): 842-855, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294548

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease has rapidly spread around the world after initial identification in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Most common presentation is mild or asymptomatic disease, followed by pneumonia, and rarely- multiorgan failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Knowledge about the pathophysiology, imaging and treatment of this novel virus is rapidly evolving due to ongoing worldwide research. Most common imaging modalities utilized during this pandemic are chest radiography and HRCT with findings of bilateral peripheral, mid and lower zone GGO and/or consolidation, vascular enlargement and crazy paving. HRCT is also useful for prognostication and follow-up of severely ill COVID-19 patients. Portable radiography allows follow-up of ICU patients & obviates the need of shifting critically ill patients and disinfection of CT room. As the pandemic has progressed, numerous neurologic manifestations have been described in COVID-19 including stroke, white matter hyperintensities and demyelination on MRI. Varying abdominal presentations have been described, which on imaging either show evidence of COVID-19 pneumonia in lung bases or show abdominal findings including bowel thickening and vascular thrombosis. Numerous thrombo-embolic and cardiovascular complications have also been described in COVID-19 including arterial and venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and myocarditis. It is imperative for radiologists to be aware of all the varied faces of this disease on imaging, as they may well be the first physician to suspect the disease. This article aims to review the multimodality imaging manifestations of COVID-19 disease in various organ systems from head to toe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Radiologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Toes , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1157744

ABSTRACT

Purpose A videolaryngoscope has been recommended for intubation in the COVID-19 scenario but the videolaryngoscope providing optimal intubation conditions is not ascertained. We compared KingVision channelled blade with a non-Channelled videolaryngoscope for intubation times in a simulated COVID-19 intubation scenario by both anaesthesiologists and non-anaesthesiologists. Methods This prospective randomised cross over mannequin study was conducted in a skill training lab. 25 anaesthesiologists and 25 non-anaesthesiologists donned in standard personal protective equipment performed 100 intubations with KingVision and Tuoren videolaryngoscopes in a mannequin covered with a transparent plastic sheet. The total intubation time, percentage of glottic opening scores, first attempt success rates were assessed. Results The mean difference in intubation times in anaesthesiologists and non-anaesthesiologist less with KingVision videolaryngoscope (21.1s;95% CI 9.6 to 32.6s vs. 35.9s;95% CI 24.4 to 47.4 s;P=0.001). Percentage of glottic opening score was significantly better with KingVision by non-anaesthesiologists (60;IQR 42.5 to 75 vs. 70;IQR 50 to 100;P=0.019). KingVision provided superior first attempt success rate in non-anaesthesiologists (84% vs. 61.9%;P=0.02) and anaesthesiologists (96% vs. 76%;P=0.12). Conclusion KingVision channelled videolaryngoscope provided faster intubation times, glottic views and first attempt success rates in a simulated COVID-19 scenario in manikins and might be preferred over videolaryngoscopes with non-channelled blade. The findings need to be further verified in humans.

17.
Eur Radiol ; 31(8): 6039-6048, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study whether a trained convolutional neural network (CNN) can be of assistance to radiologists in differentiating Coronavirus disease (COVID)-positive from COVID-negative patients using chest X-ray (CXR) through an ambispective clinical study. To identify subgroups of patients where artificial intelligence (AI) can be of particular value and analyse what imaging features may have contributed to the performance of AI by means of visualisation techniques. METHODS: CXR of 487 patients were classified into [4] categories-normal, classical COVID, indeterminate, and non-COVID by consensus opinion of 2 radiologists. CXR which were classified as "normal" and "indeterminate" were then subjected to analysis by AI, and final categorisation provided as guided by prediction of the network. Precision and recall of the radiologist alone and radiologist assisted by AI were calculated in comparison to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as the gold standard. Attention maps of the CNN were analysed to understand regions in the CXR important to the AI algorithm in making a prediction. RESULTS: The precision of radiologists improved from 65.9 to 81.9% and recall improved from 17.5 to 71.75 when assistance with AI was provided. AI showed 92% accuracy in classifying "normal" CXR into COVID or non-COVID. Analysis of attention maps revealed attention on the cardiac shadow in these "normal" radiographs. CONCLUSION: This study shows how deployment of an AI algorithm can complement a human expert in the determination of COVID status. Analysis of the detected features suggests possible subtle cardiac changes, laying ground for further investigative studies into possible cardiac changes. KEY POINTS: • Through an ambispective clinical study, we show how assistance with an AI algorithm can improve recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of radiologists in assessing CXR for possible COVID in comparison to RT-PCR. • We show that AI achieves the best results in images classified as "normal" by radiologists. We conjecture that possible subtle cardiac in the CXR, imperceptible to the human eye, may have contributed to this prediction. • The reported results may pave the way for a human computer collaboration whereby the expert with some help from the AI algorithm achieves higher accuracy in predicting COVID status on CXR than previously thought possible when considering either alone.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Humans , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , X-Rays
18.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 126-131, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910272

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has so far affected over 41 million people globally. The limited supply of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) kits and reagents has made meeting the rising demand for increased testing incompetent, worldwide. A highly sensitive and specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is the need of the hour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a rapid chromatographic immunoassay-based test (index test) compared with a clinical reference standard (rRT-PCR). Methods: A cross-sectional, single-blinded study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India. Paired samples were taken for RDT and rRT-PCR (reference standard) from consecutive participants screened for COVID-19 to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT. Further subgroup analysis was done based on the duration of illness and cycle threshold values. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to measure the level of agreement between the two tests. Results: Of the 330 participants, 77 were rRT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. Sixty four of these patients also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RDT. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 81.8 and 99.6 per cent, respectively. The sensitivity of RDT was higher (85.9%) in participants with a duration of illness ≤5 days. Interpretation & conclusions: With an excellent specificity and moderate sensitivity, this RDT may be used to rule in COVID-19 in patients with a duration of illness ≤5 days. Large-scale testing based on this RDT across the country would result in quick detection, isolation and treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography , Immunoassay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 36(Suppl 1): S7-S14, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-820098

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 has affected more than 43 million people all over the world with about 280000 deaths worldwide at the time of writing this article The outcome of this pandemic is impossible to predict at the present time as the numbers of both, infected patients and those dying of the disease are increasing on a daily basis. China, Italy, France, Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, and USA are the worst affected countries. All these countries have robust health care systems but despite this there has been a huge shortage of health care facilities especially intensive care beds in these countries. A country like India has different challenges as far as medical care during this pandemic is concerned. The need of the hour is to improve the health care system as a whole. In the present pandemic this involves setting up of patients screening facilities for the disease, enhancing the number of hospital beds, setting up of dedicated high dependency units, intensive care units and operation theatres for COVID positive patients. The present article describes in brief the way this can be done in a short time.

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