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2.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 2911-2914, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756616

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still challenging public health systems worldwide, particularly with the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations that increase their transmissibility and immune escape. This is the case of the variant of concern Omicron that rapidly spread globally. Here, using epidemiological and genomic data we compared the situations in South Africa as the epicenter of emergence, United Kingdom, and with particular interest New York City. This rapid global dispersal from the place of first report reemphasizes the high transmissibility of Omicron, which needed only two weeks to become dominant in the United Kingdom and New York City. Our analyses suggest that as SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve, global authorities must prioritize equity in vaccine access and continued genomic surveillance. Future studies are still needed to fully unveil the biological properties of Omicron, but what is certain is that vaccination, large-scale testing, and infection prevention efforts are the greatest arsenal against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718383

ABSTRACT

Numerous reports of neuropsychiatric symptoms highlighted the pathologic potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its relationship the onset and/or exacerbation of mental disease. However, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatments, themselves, must be considered as potential catalysts for new-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms in COVID-19 patients. To date, immediate and long-term neuropsychiatric complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently unknown. Here we report on five patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with possible associated neuropsychiatric involvement, following them clinically until resolution of their symptoms. We will also discuss the contributory roles of chloroquine and dexamethasone in these neuropsychiatric presentations.

4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526811

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid proliferation of Coronavirus Disease-2019, throughout the past year, has put an unprecedented strain on the global schema of health infrastructure and health economy. The time-sensitive agenda of identifying the virus in humans and delivering a vaccine to the public constituted an effort to flatten the statistical curve of viral spread as it grew exponentially. At the forefront of this effort was an exigency of developing rapid and accurate diagnostic strategies. These have emerged in various forms over the past year-each with strengths and weaknesses. To date, they fall into three categories: (1) those isolating and replicating viral RNA in patient samples from the respiratory tract (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests; NAATs), (2) those detecting the presence of viral proteins (Rapid Antigen Tests; RATs) and serology-based exams identifying antibodies to the virus in whole blood and serum. The latter vary in their detection of immunoglobulins of known prevalence in early-stage and late-stage infection. With this review, we delineate the categories of testing measures developed to date, analyze the efficacy of collecting patient specimens from diverse regions of the respiratory tract, and present the up and coming technologies which have made pathogen identification easier and more accessible to the public.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 223(11): 1842-1854, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients manifest with pulmonary symptoms reflected by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), excessive inflammation, and thromboembolism. The mechanisms mediating these processes remain unclear. METHODS: We performed multicolor staining for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins and lineage markers to define viral tropism and lung pathobiology in 5 autopsy cases. RESULTS: Lung parenchyma showed severe DAD with thromboemboli. Viral infection was found in an extensive range of cells including pneumocyte type II, ciliated, goblet, club-like, and endothelial cells. More than 90% of infiltrating immune cells were positive for viral proteins including macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells, B cells, and T cells. Most but not all infected cells were angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) positive. The numbers of infected and ACE2-positive cells are associated with extensive tissue damage. Infected tissues exhibited high levels of inflammatory cells including macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, and NK cells, and low levels of B cells but abundant T cells consisting of mainly T helper cells, few cytotoxic T cells, and no regulatory T cells. Robust interleukin-6 expression was present in most cells, with or without infection. CONCLUSIONS: In fatal COVID-19 lungs, there are broad SARS-CoV-2 cell tropisms, extensive infiltrated innate immune cells, and activation and depletion of adaptive immune cells, contributing to severe tissue damage, thromboemboli, excess inflammation, and compromised immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/cytology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Alveoli/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Viral Tropism/immunology
8.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(2): 106037, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648960

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin (IVM) is a robust antiparasitic drug with an excellent tolerance and safety profile. Historically it has been the drug of choice for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis global elimination programs. IVM is an oral insecticide and is a standard treatment against intestinal helminths and ectoparasites. The current humanitarian crisis in Venezuela is a regional public health threat that requires immediate action. The public health system in Venezuela has crumbled because of a 70% shortage of medicines in public hospitals, low vaccination campaigns, and the mass exodus of medical personnel. Herein we discuss the repurposing of IVM to attenuate the burden imposed by the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Venezuela, including soil-transmitted helminths, ectoparasites and, possibly, vector-borne diseases, such as malaria. In addition, novel experimental evidence has shown that IVM is active and efficacious in vitro against Chagas disease, Leishmaniases, arboviruses, and SARS-CoV-2. In crisis-hit Venezuela, all these infectious diseases are public health emergencies that have long been ignored and require immediate attention. The versatility of IVM could serve as a powerful tool to tackle the multiple overlapping endemic and emergent diseases that currently affect Venezuela. The repurposing of this multipurpose drug would be a timely therapeutic approach to help mitigate the tremendous burden of NTDs nationwide.


Subject(s)
Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Parasitic Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Venezuela
9.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1695-1698, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209968

ABSTRACT

The urgent need to implement and rapidly expand testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has led to the development of multiple assays. How these tests perform relative to one another is poorly understood. We evaluated the concordance between the Roche Diagnostics cobas 6800 SARS-CoV-2 test and a laboratory-developed test (LDT) real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction based on a modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention protocol, for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in samples submitted to the Clinical Laboratories of the Mount Sinai Health System. A total of 1006 nasopharyngeal swabs in universal transport medium from persons under investigation were tested for SARS-CoV-2 as part of routine clinical care using the cobas SARS-CoV-2 test with subsequent evaluation by the LDT. Cycle threshold values were analyzed and interpreted as either positive ("detected" or "presumptive positive"), negative (not detected), inconclusive, or invalid. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 8. The cobas SARS-CoV-2 test reported 706 positive and 300 negative results. The LDT reported 640 positive, 323 negative, 34 inconclusive, and 9 invalid results. When excluding inconclusive and invalid results, the overall percent agreement between the two platforms was 95.8%. Cohen's κ coefficient was 0.904 (95% confidence interval, 0.875-0.933), suggesting almost perfect agreement between both platforms. An overall discordance rate of 4.2% between the two systems may reflect differences in primer sequences, assay limit of detection, or other factors, highlighting the importance of comparing the performance of different testing platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
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