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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337862

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) pandemic on people with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) is not fully established. It is unclear whether SARDs are an independent risk factor for infection and poor outcomes. Methods: Incidence and 30-day outcomes of COVID-19 infection were retrospectively evaluated in 40,490 SARD patients in the Lazio Italian Region and compared to the general population as incidence rate ratio adjusted for demographics and comorbidities (adjIRR). SARD diagnosis and comorbidities were derived from medical administrative records using the Chronic Related Group classification system. Data on COVID-19 infection were derived from a dedicated regional digital network. Results: The COVID-19 infection risk was increased in patients with Psoriatic Arthritis (adjIRR=1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.33) and Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (adjIRR=1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54). The hospitalization risk was higher in patients with Axial Spondylarthritis (adjIRR=2.16, 95% CI 1.45-3.22), and Systemic Vasculitis (adjIRR=1.81, 95% CI 1.07-3.06) while intensive care unit admission risk was higher in Systemic Erythematosus Lupus (adjIRR=3.67, 95% CI 1.52-8.83) and primary Sjögren Syndrome (adjIRR=4.13, 95% CI 1.71-9.96) patients. Increased mortality was reported in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (adjIRR=1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.17), Systemic Erythematosus Lupus (adjIRR=2.67, 95% CI 1.10-6.44), primary Sjögren Syndrome (adjIRR=2.51, 95% CI 1.12-5.62), and Scleroderma (adjIRR=4.60, 95% CI 2.06-10.29). Conclusions: Each SARDs presents a peculiar pattern in terms of increased risk of COVID-19 incidence, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and death, that is not linked to the immunosuppressive behaviour of the disease.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726062

ABSTRACT

Several studies reported socioeconomic inequalities during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed at investigating educational inequalities in COVID-19 vaccination on 22 December 2021. We used the cohort of all residents in the Lazio Region, Central Italy, established at the beginning of the pandemic to investigate the effects of COVID-19. The Lazio Region has 5.5 million residents, mostly distributed in the Metropolitan Area of Rome (4.3 million inhabitants). We selected those aged 35 years or more who were alive and still residents on 22 December 2021. The cohort included data on sociodemographic, health characteristics, COVID-19 vaccination (none, partial, or complete), and SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used adjusted logistic regression models to analyze the association between level of education and no vaccination. We investigated 3,186,728 subjects (54% women). By the end of 2021, 88.1% of the population was fully vaccinated, and 10.3% were not vaccinated. There were strong socioeconomic inequalities in not getting vaccinated: compared with those with a university degree, residents with a high school degree had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.29 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.27-1.30), and subjects with a junior high or primary school attainment had an OR = 1.41 (95% CI: 1.40-1.43). Since a comprehensive vaccination against COVID-19 could help reduce socioeconomic inequalities raised with the pandemic, further efforts in reaching the low socioeconomic strata of the population are crucial.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674685

ABSTRACT

Evidence on social determinants of health on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and adverse outcomes is still limited. Therefore, this work investigates educational disparities in the incidence of infection and mortality within 30 days of the onset of infection during 2020 in Rome, with particular attention to changes in socioeconomic inequalities over time. A cohort of 1,538,231 residents in Rome on 1 January 2020, aged 35+, followed from 1 March to 31 December 2020, were considered. Cumulative incidence and mortality rates by education were estimated. Multivariable log-binomial and Cox regression models were used to investigate educational disparities in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality during the entire study period and in three phases of the pandemic. During 2020, there were 47,736 incident cases and 2281 deaths. The association between education and the incidence of infection changed over time. Till May 2020, low- and medium-educated individuals had a lower risk of infection than that of the highly educated. However, there was no evidence of an association between education and the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the summer. Lastly, low-educated adults had a 25% higher risk of infection from September to December than that of the highly educated. Similarly, there was substantial evidence of educational inequalities in mortality within 30 days of the onset of infection in the last term of 2020. In Rome, social inequalities in COVID-19 appeared in the last term of 2020, and they strengthen the need for monitoring inequalities emerging from this pandemic.

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