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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1640-1645, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572709

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To analyze the virus spread among Sassari Hospital staff in the first Covid-19 wave and the impact of the Swab Team, a multidisciplinary task force entitled of nasopharyngeal swab collection and testing. METHODOLOGY: Nasopharyngeal swabs from HCWs between March 6 and May 28 2020 are evaluated. RESULTS: 4919 SARS-CoV-2 tests were performed on 3521 operators. Nurses and doctors are the categories at highest risk. After the Swab Team institution, the average number of swabs raised from 47/day to 86/day (p = 0.007). Positive samples decreased from 18.6% to 1.7% (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The Swab Team is effective in increasing the cases tested and in reducing the reporting time. Procedure standardization reduces the risk for all the subjects involved (no transmission among swab team members, nor during the sample collection).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Staff, Hospital , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Care Team , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
2.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534114

ABSTRACT

The best noninvasive respiratory strategy in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is still discussed. We aimed at assessing the rate of endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) if CPAP failed. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and in-hospital length of stay (LOS). A retrospective, observational, multicenter study was conducted in intermediate-high dependency respiratory units of two Italian university hospitals. Consecutive patients with COVID-19 treated with CPAP were enrolled. Thoraco-abdominal asynchrony or hemodynamic instability led to ETI. Patients showing SpO2 ≤ 94%, respiratory rate ≥ 30 bpm or accessory muscle activation on CPAP received NIV. Respiratory distress and desaturation despite NIV eventually led to ETI. 156 patients were included. The overall rate of ETI was 30%, mortality 18% and median LOS 24 (17-32) days. Among patients that failed CPAP (n = 63), 28% were intubated, while the remaining 72% received NIV, of which 65% were intubated. Patients intubated after CPAP showed lower baseline PaO2/FiO2, lower lymphocyte counts and higher D-dimer values compared with patients intubated after CPAP + NIV. Mortality was 22% with CPAP + ETI, and 20% with CPAP + NIV + ETI. In the case of CPAP failure, a NIV trial appears feasible, does not deteriorate respiratory status and may reduce the need for ETI in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518590

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) does not respect borders, and migration confounds global TB control and elimination. Systematic screening of immigrants from TB high burden settings and-to a lesser degree TB infection (TBI)-is recommended in most countries with a low incidence of TB. The aim of the study was to evaluate the views of a diverse group of international health professionals on TB management among migrants. Participants expressed their level of agreement using a six-point Likert scale with different statements in an online survey available in English, French, Mandarin, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian. The survey consisted of eight sections, covering TB and TBI screening and treatment in migrants. A total of 1055 respondents from 80 countries and territories participated between November 2019 and April 2020. The largest professional groups were pulmonologists (16.8%), other clinicians (30.4%), and nurses (11.8%). Participants generally supported infection control and TB surveillance established practices (administrative interventions, personal protection, etc.), while they disagreed on how to diagnose and manage both TB and TBI, particularly on which TBI regimens to use and when patients should be hospitalised. The results of this first knowledge, attitude and practice study on TB screening and treatment in migrants will inform public health policy and educational resources.

7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(4): e20210076, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1319975

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: High prevalences of muscle weakness and impaired physical performance in hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19-associated pneumonia have been reported. Our objective was to determine whether the level of exercise capacity after discharge would affect long-term functional outcomes in these patients. Methods: From three to five weeks after discharge from acute care hospitals (T0), patients underwent a six-minute walk test (6MWT) and were divided into two groups according to the distance walked in percentage of predicted values: <75% group and ≥75% group. At T0 and three months later (T1), patients completed the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, and pulmonary function and respiratory muscle function were assessed. In addition, a repeat 6MWT was also performed at T1. Results: At T0, 6MWD values and Short Physical Performance Battery scores were lower in the <75% group than in the ≥75% group. No differences were found in the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale scores, pulmonary function variables, respiratory muscle function variables, length of hospital stay, or previous treatment. At T1, both groups improved their exercise capacity, but only the subjects in the <75% group showed significant improvements in dyspnea and lower extremity function. Exercise capacity and functional status values returned to predicted values in all of the patients in both groups. Conclusions: Four weeks after discharge, COVID-19 survivors with exercise limitation showed no significant differences in physiological or clinical characteristics or in perceived health status when compared with patients without exercise limitation. Three months later, those patients recovered their exercise capacity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Há relatos de altas prevalências de fraqueza muscular e de comprometimento do desempenho físico em pacientes hospitalizados em recuperação de pneumonia associada à COVID-19. Nosso objetivo foi determinar se o nível de capacidade de exercício após a alta altera os desfechos funcionais em longo prazo nesses pacientes. Métodos: Três a cinco semanas após a alta dos cuidados agudos (T0), os pacientes foram submetidos ao teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) e divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a distância percorrida no TC6 (DTC6) em percentual do previsto: grupo <75% e grupo ≥75%. Em T0 e três meses depois (T1), os pacientes responderam à Short Physical Performance Battery e à Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, e foram avaliadas a função pulmonar e a função muscular respiratória. Além disso, o TC6 foi repetido em T1. Resultados: Em T0, a DTC6 e as pontuações na Short Physical Performance Battery foram menores no grupo <75% do que no grupo ≥75%. Não foram encontradas diferenças nas pontuações na Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, nas variáveis de função pulmonar e função muscular respiratória, no tempo de internação hospitalar ou no tratamento anterior. Em T1, ambos os grupos melhoraram a capacidade de exercício, mas apenas os indivíduos do grupo <75% apresentaram melhoras significativas na dispneia e na função dos membros inferiores. Os valores de capacidade de exercício e estado funcional retornaram aos valores previstos em todos os pacientes de ambos os grupos. Conclusões: Quatro semanas após a alta, os sobreviventes da COVID-19 com limitação ao exercício não apresentaram diferenças significativas nas características fisiológicas e clínicas ou na percepção do estado de saúde em comparação aos pacientes sem limitação ao exercício. Três meses depois, esses pacientes recuperaram sua capacidade de exercício.

8.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280576

ABSTRACT

An interventional pulmonary programme can be carried out safely for both cancer patients and HCWs during the #COVID19 pandemic. However, a worrisome reduction of new cancer patient referral occurs during periods of high community spread of the virus. https://bit.ly/2PRWNXo.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 320-321, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180131

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Respir Med ; 180: 106355, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118652

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmacological interventions and tracing-testing strategy proved insufficient to reduce SARS-CoV-2 spreading worldwide. Several vaccines with different mechanisms of action are currently under development. This review describes the potential target antigens evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the context of both conventional and next-generation platforms. We reported experimental data from phase-3 trials with a focus on different definitions of efficacy as well as factors affecting real-life effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, including logistical issues associated to vaccine availability, delivery, and immunization strategies. On this background, new variants of SARS-CoV-2 are discussed. We also provided a critical view on vaccination in special populations at higher risk of infection or severe disease as elderly people, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. A final paragraph addresses safety on the light of the unprecedented reduction of length of the vaccine development process and faster authorization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Pandemics
14.
Panminerva Med ; 63(1): 51-61, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Findings from February 2020, indicate that the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 can be heterogeneous, probably due to the infectious dose and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 within the first weeks of the outbreak. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of overall 28-day mortality at the peak of the Italian outbreak. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of all COVID-19 patients admitted to the main hospital of Bergamo, from February 23 to March 14, 2020. RESULTS: Five hundred and eight patients were hospitalized, predominantly male (72.4%), mean age of 66±15 years; 49.2% were older than 70 years. Most of patients presented with severe respiratory failure (median value [IQR] of PaO2/FiO2: 233 [149-281]). Mortality rate at 28 days resulted of 33.7% (N.=171). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), 9.5% with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and 13.6% with endotracheal intubation. 9.5% were admitted to Semi-Intensive Respiratory Care Unit, and 18.9% to Intensive Care Unit. Risk factors independently associated with 28-day mortality were advanced age (≥78 years: odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.91 [10.67-141.93], P<0.001; 70-77 years: 17.30 [5.40-55.38], P<0.001; 60-69 years: 3.20 [1.00-10.20], P=0.049), PaO2/FiO2<200 at presentation (3.50 [1.70-7.20], P=0.001), need for CPAP/NIV in the first 24 hours (8.38 [3.63-19.35], P<0.001), and blood urea value at admission (1.01 [1.00-1.02], P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: At the peak of the outbreak, with a probable high infectious dose and viral load, older age, the severity of respiratory failure and renal impairment at presentation, but not comorbidities, are predictors of 28-day mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
16.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061527

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination occurs through droplets and biological fluids released in the surroundings from patients or asymptomatic carriers. Surfaces and objects contaminated by saliva or nose secretions represent a risk for indirect transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assayed surfaces from hospital and living spaces to identify the presence of viral RNA and the spread of fomites in the environment. Anthropic contamination by droplets and biological fluids was monitored by detecting the microbiota signature using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on selected species and massive sequencing on 16S amplicons. A total of 92 samples (flocked swabs) were collected from critical areas during the pandemic, including indoor (three hospitals and three public buildings) and outdoor surfaces exposed to anthropic contamination (handles and handrails, playgrounds). Traces of biological fluids were frequently detected in spaces open to the public and on objects that are touched with the hands (>80%). However, viral RNA was not detected in hospital wards or other indoor and outdoor surfaces either in the air system of a COVID hospital but only in the surroundings of an infected patient, in consistent association with droplet traces and fomites. Handled objects accumulated the highest level of multiple contaminations by saliva, nose secretions, and fecal traces, further supporting the priority role of handwashing in prevention. In conclusion, anthropic contamination by droplets and biological fluids is widespread in spaces open to the public and can be traced by qPCR. Monitoring fomites can support evaluation of indirect transmission risks for coronavirus or other flu-like viruses in the environment.IMPORTANCE Several studies have evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment. Saliva and nasopharyngeal droplets can land on objects and surfaces, creating fomites. A suitable indicator would allow the detection of droplets or biofluids carrying the virus. Therefore, we searched for viral RNA and droplets and fomites on at risk surfaces. We monitored by qPCR or next generation sequencing (NGS) droplets through their microbiota. Although the study was performed during the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 was not significantly found on surfaces, with the only exception of environmental areas near infectious patients. Conversely, anthropic contamination was frequent, suggesting a role for biofluids as putative markers of indirect transmission and risk assessment. Moreover, all SARS-CoV-2-contaminated surfaces showed droplets' microbiota. Fomite monitoring by qPCR may have an impact on public health strategies, supporting prevention of indirect transmission similarly to what is done for other communicable diseases (e.g., influenza and influenza-like infections).


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure/analysis , Fomites/virology , Hospitals , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral , Saliva/virology , Surface Properties
17.
Pulmonology ; 27(3): 248-256, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051921

ABSTRACT

The scientific debate on the criteria guiding hospitalization of tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 patients is ongoing. The aim of this review is to present the available evidence on admission for TB and TB/COVID-19 patients and discuss the criteria guiding hospitalization. Furthermore, recommendations are made as derived from recently published World Health Organization documents, based on Global Tuberculosis Network (GTN) expert opinion. The core published documents and guidelines on the topic have been reviewed. The proportion of new TB cases admitted to hospital ranges between 50% and 100% while for multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB patients it ranges between 85 and 100% globally. For TB patients with COVID-19 the proportion of cases admitted is 58%, probably reflecting different scenarios related to the diagnosis of COVID-19 before, after or at the same time of the active TB episode. The hospital length of stay for drug-susceptible TB ranges from 20 to 60 days in most of countries, ranging from a mean of 10 days (USA) to around 90 days in the Russian Federation. Hospitalization is longer for MDR-TB (50-180 days). The most frequently stated reasons for recommending hospital admission include: severe TB, infection control concerns, co-morbidities and drug adverse events which cannot be managed at out-patient level. The review also provides suggestions on hospital requirements for safe admissions as well as patient discharge criteria, while underlining the relevance of patient-centred care through community/home-based care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/therapy , Consensus , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
18.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013023

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination occurs through droplets and biological fluids released in the surroundings from patients or asymptomatic carriers. Surfaces and objects contaminated by saliva or nose secretions represent a risk for indirect transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assayed surfaces from hospital and living spaces to identify the presence of viral RNA and the spread of fomites in the environment. Anthropic contamination by droplets and biological fluids was monitored by detecting the microbiota signature using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on selected species and massive sequencing on 16S amplicons. A total of 92 samples (flocked swabs) were collected from critical areas during the pandemic, including indoor (three hospitals and three public buildings) and outdoor surfaces exposed to anthropic contamination (handles and handrails, playgrounds). Traces of biological fluids were frequently detected in spaces open to the public and on objects that are touched with the hands (>80%). However, viral RNA was not detected in hospital wards or other indoor and outdoor surfaces either in the air system of a COVID hospital but only in the surroundings of an infected patient, in consistent association with droplet traces and fomites. Handled objects accumulated the highest level of multiple contaminations by saliva, nose secretions, and fecal traces, further supporting the priority role of handwashing in prevention. In conclusion, anthropic contamination by droplets and biological fluids is widespread in spaces open to the public and can be traced by qPCR. Monitoring fomites can support evaluation of indirect transmission risks for coronavirus or other flu-like viruses in the environment.IMPORTANCE Several studies have evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment. Saliva and nasopharyngeal droplets can land on objects and surfaces, creating fomites. A suitable indicator would allow the detection of droplets or biofluids carrying the virus. Therefore, we searched for viral RNA and droplets and fomites on at risk surfaces. We monitored by qPCR or next generation sequencing (NGS) droplets through their microbiota. Although the study was performed during the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 was not significantly found on surfaces, with the only exception of environmental areas near infectious patients. Conversely, anthropic contamination was frequent, suggesting a role for biofluids as putative markers of indirect transmission and risk assessment. Moreover, all SARS-CoV-2-contaminated surfaces showed droplets' microbiota. Fomite monitoring by qPCR may have an impact on public health strategies, supporting prevention of indirect transmission similarly to what is done for other communicable diseases (e.g., influenza and influenza-like infections).


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure/analysis , Fomites/virology , Hospitals , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral , Saliva/virology , Surface Properties
20.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 252: 543-558, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several reports highlighted the risk of infection and disease in pregnant women and neonates. To assess the risk of clinical complications in pregnant women and neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2 carrying out a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. DATA SOURCES: Search of the scientific evidence was performed using the engines PubMed and Scopus, including articles published from December 2019 to 15 April 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Only observational studies focused on the assessment of clinical outcomes associated with pregnancy in COVID-19 women were selected. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: The first screening was based on the assessment of titles and abstracts, followed by the evaluation of full-texts. Qualitative variables were summarized with frequencies, whereas quantitative variables with central and variability indicators depending on their parametric distribution. Forest plots were used to describe point estimates and in-between studies variability. Study quality assessment was performed. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were selected. All of them were carried out in China. The mean (SD) age and gestational age of pregnant women were 30.3 (1.5) years and 35.9 (2.9) weeks, respectively. The mean (SD) duration from the first symptoms to the hospital admission and to labour were 5.5 (2.0) and 9.5 (8.7) days, respectively. Patients mainly complained of fever and cough (pooled (95 % CI) proportions were 76.0 % (57.0 %-90.0 %) and 38.0 (28.0 %-47.0 %), respectively). Several antibiotics, antivirals, and corticosteroids were prescribed in different combinations. The pooled prevalence of maternal complications and of caesarean section were 45.0 % (95 % CI: 24.0 %-67.0 %) and 88.0 % (95 %CI: 82.0 %-94.0 %). A proportion of pregnant women less than 20 % were admitted to ICU. The pooled proportion of preterm infants was 23.0 % (95 %CI: 11.0 %-39.0 %). The most frequent neonatal complications were pneumonia and respiratory distress syndrome. The pooled percentage of infected neonates was 6.0 % (95 %CI: 2.0 %-12.0 %). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests a high rate of maternal and neonatal complications in infected individuals. However, the current scientific evidence highlights a low risk of neonatal infection. Multicentre, cohort studies are needed to better elucidate the role of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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