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1.
Vaccine X ; 14: 100311, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309990

ABSTRACT

Background: The inactivated virus vaccine, BBIBP-CorV, was principally distributed across low- and middle-income countries as primary vaccination strategy to prevent poor COVID-19 outcomes. Limited information is available regarding its effect on heterologous boosting. We aim to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a third booster dose of BNT162b2 following a double BBIBP-CorV regime. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among healthcare providers from several healthcare facilities of the Seguro Social de Salud del Perú - ESSALUD. We included participants two-dose BBIBP-CorV vaccinated who presented a three-dose vaccination card at least 21 days passed since the vaccinees received their third dose and were willing to provide written informed consent. Antibodies were determined using LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG (DiaSorin Inc., Stillwater, USA). Factors potentially associated with immunogenicity, and adverse events, were considered. We used a multivariable fractional polynomial modeling approach to estimate the association between anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies' geometric mean (GM) ratios and related predictors. Results: We included 595 subjects receiving a third dose with a median (IQR) age of 46 [37], [54], from which 40% reported previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The overall geometric mean (IQR) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 8,410 (5,115 - 13,000) BAU/mL. Prior SARS-CoV-2 history and full/part-time in-person working modality were significantly associated with greater GM. Conversely, time from boosting to IgG measure was associated with lower GM levels. We found 81% of reactogenicity in the study population; younger age and being a nurse were associated with a lower incidence of adverse events. Conclusions: Among healthcare providers, a booster dose of BNT162b2 following a full BBIBP-CorV regime provided high humoral immune protection. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 previous exposure and working in person displayed as determinants that increase anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies.

2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102565, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During 2021, Peru started the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 using the BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus vaccine for health care workers (HCW). We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and deaths among HCWs. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, from February 9 to June 30, 2021, using national registries of health care workers, laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 and deaths. We calculated the vaccine effectiveness for preventing laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19-mortality, and all-cause mortality among partially immunized and fully immunized HCWs. An extension of Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the mortality results, and Poisson regression was used to model SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The study included 606,772 eligible HCWs, the mean age was 40 (IQR: 33.0, 51.0). In fully immunized HCW, the effectiveness for preventing all-cause mortality was 83.6 (95% CI: 80.2 to 86.4), 88.7 (95% CI: 85.1 to 91.4) for preventing COVID-19 mortality, and 40.3 (95% CI 38.9 to 41.6) for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: The BBIBP-CorV vaccine showed high levels of effectiveness for preventing all-cause and COVID-19 deaths among fully immunized HCW. These results were consistent within different subgroups and sensitivity analyses. However, the effectiveness for preventing infection was suboptimal in this particular setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Adult , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel
3.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 2023 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285587

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the burden of mental disorders worldwide. Peru has been one of the countries most affected by COVID-19, however, studies evaluating the medium and long-term consequences of the pandemic on Peruvians' mental health are recent and represent a new field of study in proliferation. We aimed to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence and treatment of depressive symptoms using nationally representative surveys in Peru. METHODS: Our study is an analysis of secondary data. We carried out a time series cross-sectional analysis based on the National Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, collected using a complex sampling design. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to measure mild (5-9 points), moderate (10-14 points), and severe (15 points or more) depressive symptoms. The participants were men and women aged 15 years and older, living in urban and rural areas of all regions of Peru. The main statistical analysis used segmented regression with Newey-West standard errors, taking into account that each year of the evaluation was divided into four measures (quarter measure). RESULTS: We included 259,516 participants. An average quarterly increase of 0.17% (95% CI 0.03-0.32%) in the prevalence of moderate depressive symptoms was identified after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (approximately an increase of 1583 new cases of moderate depressive symptoms by each quarter). The percentage of cases treated for mild depressive symptoms increased quarterly by an average of 0.46% (95% CI 0.20-0.71%) after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (approximately an increase of 1242 new cases treated for mild depressive symptoms by each quarter). CONCLUSION: In Peru, increases in the prevalence of moderate depressive symptoms and the proportion of cases treated with mild depressive symptoms were found after the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study is a precedent for future research assessing the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the proportion of cases receiving treatment during the pandemic and post-pandemic years.

4.
Travel medicine and infectious disease ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2281477

ABSTRACT

Background During 2021, Peru started the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 using the BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus vaccine for health care workers (HCW). We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and deaths among HCWs. Methods Retrospective cohort study, from February 9 to June 30, 2021, using national registries of health care workers, laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 and deaths. We calculated the vaccine effectiveness for preventing laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19-mortality, and all-cause mortality among partially immunized and fully immunized HCWs. An extension of Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the mortality results, and Poisson regression was used to model SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results The study included 606,772 eligible HCWs, the mean age was 40 (IQR: 33.0, 51.0). In fully immunized HCW, the effectiveness for preventing all-cause mortality was 83.6 (95% CI: 80.2 to 86.4), 88.7 (95% CI: 85.1 to 91.4) for preventing COVID-19 mortality, and 40.3 (95% CI 38.9 to 41.6) for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion The BBIBP-CorV vaccine showed high levels of effectiveness for preventing all-cause and COVID-19 deaths among fully immunized HCW. These results were consistent within different subgroups and sensitivity analyses. However, the effectiveness for preventing infection was suboptimal in this particular setting.

5.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 102514, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of post-vaccination seropositivity against SARS-CoV-2 and identify its predictors in Peruvian Social Health Insurance (EsSalud) personnel in 2021. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative simple stratified sample of EsSalud workers. We evaluated IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies response (seropositivity) by passive (previous infection) and active immunization (vaccination), and epidemiological and occupational variables obtained by direct interview and a data collection form. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used with correction of sample weights adjusted for non-response rate, and crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and geometric mean ratio (GMR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. RESULTS: We enrolled 1077 subjects. Seropositivity was 67.4% (95%CI: 63.4-71.1). Predictors of seropositivity were age (negative relation; p < 0.001), previous infection (aOR = 11.7; 95%CI: 7.81-17.5), working in COVID-19 area (aOR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.02-2.11) and time since the second dose. In relation to antibody levels measured by geometric means, there was an association between male sex (aGMR = 0.77; 95%CI: 0.74-0.80), age (negative relation; p < 0.001), previous infection (aGMR = 13.1; 95%CI:4.99-34.40), non-face-to-face/licensed work modality (aGMR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.73-0.84), being a nursing technician (aGMR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.20-1.41), working in administrative areas (aGMR = 1.17; 95%CI: 1.10-1.25), diagnostic support (aGMR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), critical care (aGMR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.79-0.93), and in a COVID-19 area (aGMR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.24-1.36) and time since receiving the second dose (negative relation; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Seropositivity and antibody levels decrease as the time since receiving the second dose increases. Older age and no history of previous infection were associated with lower seropositivity and antibody values. These findings may be useful for sentinel antibody surveillance and the design of booster dose strategies.

6.
Vaccine ; 40(45): 6512-6519, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported evidence about the effectiveness of a third dose with BNT162b2 for preventing hospitalization and death by COVID-19. However, there is little evidence regarding other primary vaccine schedules such as BBIBP-CorV and ChAdOx1-S. We estimated the relative vaccine effectiveness (RVE) of the booster dose versus the primary regimens of COVID-19 vaccines based on BBIBP-CorV, ChAdOx1-S, or BNT162b2 for preventing death during the Omicron wave in Peruvian adult people. METHODS: We carried out a nested case-control study with a risk set sampling of controls using data from Peru between December 20, 2021, and February 20, 2022 (during the Omicron wave). Data on vaccination, COVID-19 tests and deaths were collected from national surveillance databases. We performed conditional logistic regression models to estimate the RVE on the adult population. In addition, we executed sub-group analysis per age group (18 to 59 years, and 60 years or more) and per primary regime (based on BNT162b2, BBIBP-CorV, or ChAdOx1-S). RESULTS: Of the 11,188,332 people eligible to enter the study 1,974 met the case definition (death from COVID-19) and were matched to 9,183 controls. The overall RVE of a third dose to prevent death was 87.2% (84.2%-89.7%), which varied according to the primary regime (87.3% for BNT162b2, 82.0% for BBIPB-CorV-2, and 79.5% for ChAdOx-S). In older adults, the RVE was 87.1%, without significant variations according to the primary regime (86.1% for BNT162b2, 86.1 for BBIBP-CorV, and 82% for ChAdOx-S). CONCLUSIONS: The booster) dose of vaccine against COVID-19 had a high RVE for preventing death by COVID-19 in the Peruvian population in all primary regimes of vaccines during the Omicron wave. This effect was consistent in people over 60 years of age, the group most vulnerable to die from this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Peru/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
7.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0268419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The administration of a third (booster) dose of COVID-19 vaccines in Peru initially employed the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) mRNA vaccine. The national vaccination program started with healthcare workers (HCW) who received BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) vaccine as primary regimen and elderly people previously immunized with BNT162b2. This study evaluated the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the "booster" dose in these two groups in Lima, Peru. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study, recruiting participants from November to December of 2021 in Lima, Peru. We evaluated immunogenicity and reactogenicity in HCW and elderly patients previously vaccinated with either two doses of BBIBP-CorV (heterologous regimen) or BTN162b2 (homologous regimen). Immunogenicity was measured by anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels immediately before boosting dose and 14 days later. IgG geometric means (GM) and medians were obtained, and modeled using ANCOVA and quantile regressions. RESULTS: The GM of IgG levels increased significantly after boosting: from 28.5±5.0 AU/mL up to 486.6±1.2 AU/mL (p<0.001) which corresponds to a 17-fold increase. The heterologous vaccine regimen produced higher GM of post-booster anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, eliciting a 13% increase in the geometric mean ratio (95%CI: 1.02-1.27) and a median difference of 92.3 AU/ml (95%CI: 24.9-159.7). Both vaccine regimens were safe and well tolerated. Previous COVID-19 infection was also associated with higher pre and post-booster IgG GM levels. CONCLUSION: Although both boosting regimens were highly immunogenic, two doses of BBIBP-CorV boosted with BTN162b2 produced a stronger IgG antibody response than the homologous BNT162b2 regimen in the Peruvian population. Additionally, both regimens were mildly reactogenic and well-tolerated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Peru , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 123: 212-220, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify differences in the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic at the EsSalud Lambayeque health care network, Peru. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study of 53,912 patients enrolled during the first and second waves of COVID-19 was conducted. Cluster analysis based on clustering large applications (CLARA) was applied to clinical-epidemiologic data presented at the time of care. The two pandemic waves were compared using clinical-epidemiologic data from epidemiologic surveillance. RESULTS: Cluster analysis identified four COVID-19 groups with a characteristic pattern. Cluster 1 included the largest number of participants in both waves, and the participants were predominantly female. Cluster 2 included patients with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and systemic symptoms. Cluster 3 was the "severe" cluster, characterized by older adults and patients with dyspnea or comorbidities (cardiovascular, diabetes, obesity). Cluster 4 included asymptomatic, pregnant, and less severe patients. We found differences in all clinical-epidemiologic characteristics according to the cluster to which they belonged. CONCLUSION: Using cluster analysis, we identified characteristic patterns in each group. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, dyspnea, anosmia, and ageusia symptoms were higher in the second COVID-19 wave than the first COVID-19 wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Pregnancy
9.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 2497202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973953

ABSTRACT

Background: The prognostic value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with COVID-19 is rarely described in older adults. We aimed to estimate the prognostic value of NLR and PLR, determining the mortality of adults over 60 years of age hospitalized for COVID-19 in three hospitals in Peru from March to May 2020. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of data from a retrospective cohort carried out in Lambayeque, Peru, from March 18 to May 13, 2020. Older adults hospitalized for COVID-19 were included. The outcome variable was in-hospital mortality by all causes, while the exposure variable was the NLR and PLR (categorized in tertiles and numerically, performing a logarithmic transformation). We included sociodemographic variables, comorbidities, vital functions, laboratory markers, and treatment received during hospital stay. We evaluated the association between NLR and PLR using the hazard ratio (HR) in a Cox regression model. We estimated HR with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We estimated cumulative/dynamic time-dependent ROC curves and reported area under the curve ROC (AUC-ROC) for 15-, 30-, and 60-day mortality with their respective simultaneous confidence intervals (confidence bands (CB)). Also, we estimated an optimal cut-off point based on the maximally selected rank statistics. Results: A total of 262 hospitalized older adults were analyzed, 71.8% (n = 188) of whom were male with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range: 65-78). The mean NLR and PLR were 16.8 (95% CI: 14.9-18.7; SD: 15.5) and 50.3 (95% CI: 44.6-55.9; SD: 46.3), respectively. The mortality rate was 68.7% (95% CI: 62.7-74.3). The adjusted Cox regression analysis showed that the high NLR (adjusted HR (aHR) = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.43-3.14) and PLR (aHR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.30-2.79) tertiles were associated with a higher risk of mortality. The maximum AUC-ROC values at 60 days of follow-up for NLR and PLR were 0.713 (95%CB: 0.627-0.800) and 0.697 (95%CB: 0.583-0.754), respectively. Conclusions: The NLR and PLR are predictors of higher risk of mortality, and these results suggest that both could be reliable and practical markers for the identification of older adults at high risk of mortality by COVID-19. NLR and PLR have prognostic value, with an AUC greater than 0.5; however, by themselves, they are weak prognostic markers. It is important to carry out future studies incorporating these two markers into preexisting models or designing new ones considering them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Aged , Biomarkers , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Peru , Retrospective Studies
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 128, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the disease caused by the novel coronavirus has spread globally, there has been significant economic instability in the healthcare systems. This reality was especially accentuated in Ecuador where, the shortage of healthcare workers combined with cultural and macroeconomic factors has led Ecuador to face the most aggressive outbreak in Latin America. In this context, the participation of final-year medical students on the front line is indispensable. Appropriate training on COVID-19 is an urgent requirement that universities and health systems must guarantee. We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Ecuadorian final-year medical students that could potentially guide the design of better medical education curricula regarding COVID-19. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional 33-item online survey conducted between April 6 to April 2020 assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis toward COVID-19 in Ecuadorian final-year medical students. It was sent by email, Facebook, and WhatsApp. RESULTS: A total of 309 students responded to the survey. Out of which 88% of students scored high (≥ 70% correct) for knowledge of the disease. The majority of students were pessimistic about possible government actions, which is reflected in the negative attitude towards the control of COVID-19 and volunteering during the outbreak in Ecuador (77%, and 58% of the students, respectively). Moreover, 91% of students said they did not have adequate protective equipment. The latter finding was significantly associated with negative attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Although a large number of students displayed negative attitudes, the non-depreciable percentage of students who were willing to volunteer and the coexisting high level of knowledge displayed by students, suggests that Ecuador has a capable upcoming workforce that could benefit from an opportunity to strengthen, improve and advance their training in preparation for COVID-19. Not having personal protective equipment was significantly associated to negative attitudes. Providing the necessary tools and creating a national curriculum may be one of the most effective ways to ensure all students are trained, whilst simultaneously focusing on the students' most pressing concerns. With this additional training, negative attitudes will improve and students will be better qualified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Volunteers/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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