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Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S274, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746655


Background. According to the Institute of Global Health Science (IGHS), mortality for Covid-19 patients treated in public hospitals in Mexico ranges between 30-50%, decreasing to 20% in private health care facilities. Our objective was to describe the mortality rate in a teaching private hospital in Mexico City. Methods. We included all patients that were admitted to hospital Medica Sur, in the south part of Mexico City during year 2020. We analyzed the total mortality presented in all our patients with a follow up of two months, and relay that to age and gender. Results. During year 2020, we admitted in our hospital 1,075 patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 through nasopharyngeal molecular test;772 were male (71.8%) with more than 50% between 40 and 59 years, while females were more frequent between 40 and 69 years' age. Seventy-four patients (6.88%) died during hospitalization;59 (79.7%) males and 15 females. Mortality rate was clearly related to age (figure 1) with 30% mortality for males between 80-89 years and 19% for females. Mortality rate by gender and age Conclusion. Mortality in private hospitals was clearly lower than in public hospitals. In our hospital, mortality was lower than 10%, mostly related to their availability of unlimited intensive care without ECMO and despite the lack of some drugs like Remdesivir. As described, space limitations for intensive care as well as the lack of trained personal impacted significantly the mortality in public hospitals.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S296, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746606


Background. Patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are at high risk of complications due to the intensive care unit stay. Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are one of the most common complication and cause of death in this group of patients, it is important to know the epidemiology and microbiology of this hospital-acquired infections in order to begin to the patients a proper empirical treatment. We describe the epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of HAI in patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary level private hospital in Mexico City. Methods. From April to December 2020, data from all HAIs in patients with severe pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection with mechanical ventilation at ICU were obtained. The type of infection, microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined. Results. A total of 61 episodes of HAIs were obtained, the most common was ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in 52.4% (n=32) followed by urinary tract infection (UTI) 34.4%(n=21) and bloodstream infection (BSI) 9.84% (n=6). Only two episodes corresponded to C. difficile associated diarrhea. We identified 82 different microorganisms, the most frequent cause of VAP was P. aeruginosa 22% (10/45) followed by K. pneumoniae 20% (9/45);for UTI, E. coli 28.5% (6/21), and S. marcescens 19% (4/21);for BSI the most frequent microorganism was S. aureus 28.5 (2/7). Regarding the antimicrobial susceptibility patters the most common were Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Gram-negative rods followed by Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion. In patients with severe COVID-19 hospitalized in the ICU the most frequent HAIs were VAP and UTI caused by P. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. ESBL enterobacteriaceae was the most common resistant pattern identifed in the bacterial isolations in our series.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S348, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185928


Background: The use of corticosteroids, specifically dexamethasone has been associated to low mortality in COVID-19 patients. We present here the mortality related to the use of corticosteroids in the first two months of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in México City. Methods: We conducted a case series of patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 virus admitted to a tertiary care center in Mexico City, between March 14th and May 14th, 2020. Data collected included demographic information, comorbidities, treatment and outcomes including mortality. Results: We included 109 patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 associated pneumonia with computed tomography;76(69.7%) were male and 33(30.3%) female with a median age of 52 yo (24-85) and 51 yo (25-81), respectively. Most common comorbidities were overweight (48.6%), obesity (35.8%), hypertension (23.8%), and diabetes (18.3%). Thirty-eight patients received corticosteroids (Methylprednisolone 30, Hydrocortisone 6 and dexamethasone and prednisone in on case). Mortality in those that used corticosteroids was 21% (8/38) and 5.6% for those that did not received (4/71), p=0.014. Forty cases needed mechanical ventilation from the beginning, and 24 of those received corticosteroids with a mortality of 29% (7/24), while the mortality was 18.7% (3/16) in those with no steroid use, p=0.45. Conclusion: Mortality in our small cohort with predominantly use of methylprednisolone is not lower in those using steroids. In fact, mortality was significantly higher in those that received corticosteroids, while this significance was not maintained in those that needed immediate mechanical ventilation. Use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 patients with pneumonia, should be further investigated.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S287, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185802


Background: As of today, more than 8 million people have been infected and around 440,000 of them have lost their lives due to complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Mexico was on February 28, 2020, and currently, there are more than 150,300 confirmed cases and more than 17,500 deaths have been reported, this work presents the characteristics of the first cases on a tertiary care center with special focus on common comorbidities in Mexicans. Methods: We conducted a case series of patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 virus admitted to a tertiary care center in Mexico City, between March 14th and May 4th, 2020. Data collected included demographic information, comorbidities, clinical presentation, and outcomes. Regarding clinical outcomes, we measured the need of admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mortality during hospitalization, discharge, and patients that remained hospitalized. Results: 85 patients were included, median age 53.5 years;69.4% were male. Most common clinical manifestations at admission were fever (61, 71.8%), cough (29, 34.1%), headache (25, 29.4%) and dyspnea (22, 25.9%). Most common comorbidities were overweight (44/82, 53.6%), obesity (25/82, 30.5%), hypertension (18, 21.2%), and diabetes (17, 20%). 31 of 85 (36.5%) patients were diagnosed with critical disease, whereas 54 of 85 (63.5%) were classified as non-critical. In the 31 critically ill patients, the length of invasive mechanical ventilation was 13 days [range {2-45}];5 patients (16.1%) required tracheostomy. The mean of mechanical ventilation prior to tracheostomy was 19.8 days [range {14-25}]. In all patients, the total length of hospitalization was 12.1 days [range {2-52}], 14.8 days [range {3-52}] in ICU patients, and 6.7 days [range {2-30}] in floor unit patients. No readmissions were documented. Global mortality was 4.7% (9.6% in ICU, 1.8% in floor unit). Of the 4 deceased patients, 3 presented comorbidities (75%), while 1 was previously healthy, documenting massive pulmonary embolism as the cause of sudden death. Conclusion: This study shows that the clinical characteristics in this initial cohort are not different that described elsewhere. Mortality is low but it is mainly related to prevalent comorbidities in the Mexican population.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S268, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185764


Background: The clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 disease ranges from asymptomatic respiratory infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Risk factors upon hospital admission associated with the need for invasive mechanical ventilation are not well documented. Methods: 185 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, and they were classified as patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and patients who did not require it. Comorbidities such as diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, chronic lung disease and immunodeficiency were recorded. Laboratory studies were requested upon admission such as C-reactive protein, leukocyte and lymphocyte levels, D-dimer, troponin, serum ferritin and procalcitonin. Results: Of the patients who entered the study, 65 patients (35%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), while 120 (65%) did not require advanced airway management. Of the patients with invasive mechanical ventilation, age > 65 years, male sex, obesity (BMI > 30) and high blood pressure were the most frequent characteristics, presenting the latter two in 26% and 27% respectively. Regarding laboratory studies, the parameters most associated with the requirement for mechanical ventilation were a D-dimer (> 1000) and troponin (> 1), with 26% and 18%, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed the high proportion of obesity, hypertension and advanced age among patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation associated with SARS-CoV2 infection. The presence of elevated D-dimer and troponin on admission are associated with more severe presentations and a requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation.