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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321923

ABSTRACT

Objectives: It is unlikely that by fall and winter of 2020, standard vaccine or treatment is available for COVID-19 infection. In this period, differentiation between COVID-19 and Influenza induced pneumonia will be critical for patient management. To develop an automated platform to perform this task, artificial intelligence models were developed by using the transfer learning techniques on chest CT. Methods: : Chest CT images from known cases of COVID-19, H1N1 Influenza induced pneumonia (before December 2019), and normal chest CTs were collected. Different pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) models, including VGG 16, VGG 19, ResNet-50, Wide ResNet, InceptionV3, and SqueezNet were fine-tuned on this data set. 60% of the dataset was used for training, 20% for validation, and 20% for test the final models. Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F1 score of each model were calculated. Results: : For differentiation of COVID-19 pneumonia versus H1N1 Influenza pneumonia versus normal CTs, the ResNet-50 (accuracy above 92%) outperformed other models followed by InceptionV3 and wide ResNet. Conclusions: : The pre-trained image classification AI models are feasible to be fine-tuned and used for differentiation COVID-19 versus H1N1 Influenza pneumonia. In this context, ResNet-50 and then InceptionV3 architectures appear more promising and are suitable start points for further development. We share the source code and trained models in the supplement of this manuscript to be used by other researchers for further development.

2.
Iran J Med Sci ; 46(6): 420-427, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest computed tomography (CT) plays an essential role in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, CT findings are often nonspecific among different viral pneumonia conditions. The differentiation between COVID-19 and influenza can be challenging when seasonal influenza concurs with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to test the ability of radiomics-artificial intelligence (AI) to perform this task. METHODS: In this retrospective study, chest CT images from 47 patients with COVID-19 (after February 2020) and 19 patients with H1N1 influenza (before September 2019) pneumonia were collected from three hospitals affiliated with Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. All pulmonary lesions were segmented on CT images. Multiple radiomics features were extracted from the lesions and used to develop support-vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), decision tree, neural network, adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), and random forest. RESULTS: The patients with COVID-19 and H1N1 influenza were not significantly different in age and sex (P=0.13 and 0.99, respectively). Nonetheless, the average time between initial symptoms/hospitalization and chest CT was shorter in the patients with COVID-19 (P=0.001 and 0.01, respectively). After the implementation of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 453 pulmonary lesions were included in this study. On the harmonized features, random forest yielded the highest performance (area under the curve=0.97, sensitivity=89%, precision=90%, F1 score=89%, and classification accuracy=89%). CONCLUSION: In our preliminary study, radiomics feature extraction, conjoined with AI, especially random forest and neural network, appeared to yield very promising results in the differentiation between COVID-19 and H1N1 influenza on chest CT.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18768, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486797

ABSTRACT

Aim This study aimed to develop a predictive model to predict patients' mortality with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from the basic medical data on the first day of admission. Methods The medical data including the demographic, clinical, and laboratory features on the first day of admission of clinically diagnosed COVID-19 patients were documented. The outcome of patients was also recorded as discharge or death. Feature selection models were then implemented and different machine learning models were developed on top of the selected features to predict discharge or death. The trained models were then tested on the test dataset. Results A total of 520 patients were included in the training dataset. The feature selection demonstrated 22 features as the most powerful predictive features. Among different machine learning models, the naive Bayes demonstrated the best performance with an area under the curve of 0.85. The ensemble model of the naive Bayes and neural network combination had slightly better performance with an area under the curve of 0.86. The models had relatively the same performance on the test dataset. Conclusion Developing a predictive machine learning model based on the basic medical features on the first day of admission in COVID-19 infection is feasible with acceptable performance.

4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 413-434, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222727

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic launched in the third decade of the twenty-first century and continued to present time to cause the worst challenges the modern medicine has ever encountered. Medical imaging is an essential part of the universal fight against this pandemic. In the absence of documented treatment and vaccination, early accurate diagnosis of infected patients is the backbone of this pandemic management. This chapter reviews different aspects of medical imaging in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Acta Inform Med ; 28(3): 190-195, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the current pandemic, differentiation between pneumonia induced by COVID-19 or influenza viruses is of utmost clinical significance in the patients' management. For this purpose, this study was conducted to develop sensitive artificial intelligence (AI) models to assist radiologists to decisively differentiate pneumonia due to COVID-19 versus influenza viruses. METHODS: Cross sectional chest CT images (N=12744) from well-evaluated cases of pneumonias induced by COVID-19 or H1N1 Influenza viruses, and normal individuals were collected. We examined the computer tomographic (CT) chest images from 137 individuals. Various pre-trained convolutional neural network models, such as ResNet-50, InceptionV3, Wide ResNet, SqueezNet, VGG 16 and VGG 19 were fine-tuned on our datasets. The datasets were used for training (60%), validation (20%), and testing (20%) of the final models. Also, the predictive power and means of precision and recall were determined for each model. RESULTS: Fine-tuned ResNet-50 model differentiated the pneumonia due to COVID-19 or H1N1 influenza virus with accuracies of 96.7% and 92%, respectively This model outperformed all others, i.e., InceptionV3, Wide ResNet, SqueezNet, VGG 16 and VGG 19. CONCLUSION: Fine-tuned and pre-trained image classifying models of AI enable radiologists to reliably differentiate the pneumonia induced by COVID-19 versus H1N1 influenza virus. For this purpose, ResNet-50 followed by InceptionV3 models proved more promising than other AI models. Also in the supplements, we share the source codes and our fine-tuned models for use by researchers and clinicians globally toward the critical task of image differentiation of patients infected with COVID-19 versus H1N1 Influenza viruses.

7.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109994, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597471

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is less common in children (with higher fetal hemoglobin levels). In our preliminary study, we also observed a low prevalence and fatality of COVID-19 in countries with high rate of hemoglobinopathy carries. Given these two facts, the hemoglobin structure can play a role in the physiopathology of COVID-19 disease. Several drugs are known to increase fetal hemoglobin in adults. Adding these drugs to COVID-19 clinical trials may improve the patients' outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fetal Hemoglobin/physiology , Adult , Aging/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Fetal Hemoglobin/biosynthesis , Fetal Hemoglobin/genetics , Hemoglobinopathies/blood , Hemoglobinopathies/drug therapy , Hemoglobinopathies/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation/drug effects
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