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Neurosurgery ; 90(6): 725-733, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724730


BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. METHODS: We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 with concomitant acute LVO across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a mechanical thrombectomy between January 2018 and December 2020. RESULTS: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO; 194 patients had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs 71.2; P < .001) and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs 54, 14.2%; P = .001). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs 252, 67.2%; P < .001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as modified Ranklin Scale 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs 132, 66.7%; P = .004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7; P < .001) and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; P = .002). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. Patients with COVID-19 with LVO were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates.

Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
World Neurosurg ; 154: e473-e480, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376112


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing public health emergency. While most cases end in asymptomatic or minor illness, there is growing evidence that some COVID-19 infections result in nonconventional dire consequences. We sought to describe the characteristics of patients with intracranial hemorrhage who were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Also, with the existing literature, we raise the idea of a possible association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and intracranial hemorrhage and propose possible pathophysiological mechanisms connecting the two. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed intracranial hemorrhage cases who were also positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 4 tertiary-care cerebrovascular centers. RESULTS: We identified a total of 19 patients consisting of 11 males (58%) and 8 females (42%). Mean age was 52.2, with 95% younger than 75 years of age. With respect to COVID-19 illness, 50% had mild-to-moderate disease, 21% had severe disease, and 20% had critical disease requiring intubation. Of the 19 cases, 12 patients had intraparenchymal hemorrhage (63%), 6 had subarachnoid hemorrhage (32%), and 1 patient had a subdural hematoma (5%). A total of 43% had an intracerebral hemorrhage score of 0-2 and 57% a score of 3-6. Modified Rankin Scale cores at discharge were 0-2 in 23% and 3-6 in 77%. The mortality rate was 59%. CONCLUSIONS: Our series sheds light on a distinct pattern of intracerebral hemorrhage in COVID-19-positive cases compared with typical non-COVID-19 cases, namely the severity of hemorrhage, high mortality rate, and the young age of patients. Further research is warranted to delineate a potential association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and intracranial hemorrhage.

COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hematoma, Subdural/epidemiology , Hematoma, Subdural/etiology , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Stroke ; 52(1): 31-39, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939945


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion can be concurrent with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion in patients with COVID-19 are substantially unknown. Our aim was to study early outcomes after MT in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, European, cohort study involving 34 stroke centers in France, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Data were collected between March 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020. Consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases with large vessel occlusion, who were treated with MT, were included. Primary investigated outcome: 30-day mortality. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: early neurological improvement (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improvement ≥8 points or 24 hours National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 0-1), successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade ≥2b), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: We evaluated 93 patients with COVID-19 with large vessel occlusion who underwent MT (median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 59-79]; 63 men [67.7%]). Median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were 17 (interquartile range, 11-21) and 8 (interquartile range, 7-9), respectively. Anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke represented 93.5% of cases. The rate modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 was 79.6% (74 patients [95% CI, 71.3-87.8]). Thirty-day mortality was 29% (27 patients [95% CI, 20-39.4]). Early neurological improvement was 19.5% (17 patients [95% CI, 11.8-29.5]), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 5.4% (5 patients [95% CI, 1.7-12.1]). Patients who died at 30 days exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count, higher levels of aspartate, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). After adjustment for age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, and successful reperfusion, these biological markers remained associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 [95% CI, 1.21-5.98] per SD-log decrease in lymphocyte count, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.22-5.77] per SD-log increase in aspartate, and 4.30 [95% CI, 1.43-12.91] per SD-log increase in LDH). CONCLUSIONS: The 29% rate of 30-day mortality after MT among patients with COVID-19 is not negligible. Abnormalities of lymphocyte count, LDH and aspartate may depict a patient's profiles with poorer outcomes after MT. Registration: URL: Unique identifier: NCT04406090.

COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Europe , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/mortality , Treatment Outcome