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1.
Molecular Medicine Reports ; 26(1):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1918655

ABSTRACT

Immature granulocytes (IGs) include metamyelocytes, myelocytes and promyelocytes, and are the precursors of neutrophils. Increased IG counts found in peripheral blood indicate an enhanced bone marrow activity. In addition, IGs have been evaluated in numerous clinical conditions, such as severe acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infectious complications following open-heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Neutrophils are considered to play a crucial role in the host defense during bacterial and fungal infections, and are involved in the antiviral immune response. Numerous studies have reported the role of neutrophils in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, concluding that the percentage of neutrophils may be a predictor of the severity of COVID-19 infection. There has been limited research regarding the role of neutrophil precursors in viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The present thus aimed to evaluate the role of the IG count in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection. The patients were predominantly infected with the alpha variant and were all unvaccinated. The IG count was measured and was found to be associated with disease severity, with patient outcomes, with the duration of hospitalization and with the development of complications. The IG count was a significantly associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection, with greater IG count values being detected in severe and critical cases. In addition, greater IG count values were associated with a longer duration of hospitalization. Furthermore, the IG count was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker of intubation and mortality in patients with COVID-19, according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, the male sex and the presence of comorbidities as confounders. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Molecular Medicine Reports is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Exp Ther Med ; 24(1): 482, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911785

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus has negatively affected patients and healthcare systems globally. Individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience a wide range of respiratory symptoms, from mild flu-like symptoms to severe and potentially fatal pneumonia. Some patients report gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain in addition to the respiratory symptoms or as a separate presentation. Even though abdominal pain syndrome indicates acute appendicitis, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection should be considered as a possible diagnosis during this pandemic. However, there have been reports of a few cases of acute abdominal pain revealing acute appendicitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Appendectomy is challenging in COVID-19-infected patients with acute appendicitis as it includes high surgical risks for the patients, as well as hazards for healthcare professionals who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The present study reports five cases of adult patients with COVID-19 with simultaneous acute appendicitis. In addition, the present study aims to provide the framework for the diagnosis and management of adult patients with COVID-19 with acute appendicitis.

3.
Exp Ther Med ; 24(1): 453, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884470

ABSTRACT

Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a type of diffuse interstitial lung disease, which may be induced in the context of several clinical conditions, such as drug reactions, infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated OP has been reported as a late-stage consequence of the infection or a histological form of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Autopsies and postmortem lung biopsies have demonstrated that the majority of patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia develop secondary OP, and COVID-19-associated pneumonia and OP have common radiological features. The diagnosis of COVID-19-associated OP should be suspected in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who exhibit clinical deterioration despite optimal care, or who have aggravating symptoms following an initial recovery. The use of corticosteroids is a typical treatment for OP. However, to date, at least to the best of our knowledge, there are a few reports regarding the role of corticosteroids in COVID-19-associated pneumonia; thus, the optimal time for administration, the dose and treatment duration have not yet been determined. The present study presents two cases of patients with COVID-19, who exhibited clinical deterioration following the initial phase of infection and with radiological characteristics of OP who received corticosteroids and had a favorable outcome. The early diagnosis of COVID-19-associated OP may lead to targeted treatment, decreased requirements for ventilatory support and an improved survival rate.

4.
Mol Med Rep ; 26(1)2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847421

ABSTRACT

Immature granulocytes (IGs) include metamyelocytes, myelocytes and promyelocytes, and are the precursors of neutrophils. Increased IG counts found in peripheral blood indicate an enhanced bone marrow activity. In addition, IGs have been evaluated in numerous clinical conditions, such as severe acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infectious complications following open­heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Neutrophils are considered to play a crucial role in the host defense during bacterial and fungal infections, and are involved in the antiviral immune response. Numerous studies have reported the role of neutrophils in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) infection, concluding that the percentage of neutrophils may be a predictor of the severity of COVID­19 infection. There has been limited research regarding the role of neutrophil precursors in viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The present thus aimed to evaluate the role of the IG count in patients hospitalized due to COVID­19 infection. The patients were predominantly infected with the alpha variant and were all unvaccinated. The IG count was measured and was found to be associated with disease severity, with patient outcomes, with the duration of hospitalization and with the development of complications. The IG count was a significantly associated with the severity of COVID­19 infection, with greater IG count values being detected in severe and critical cases. In addition, greater IG count values were associated with a longer duration of hospitalization. Furthermore, the IG count was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker of intubation and mortality in patients with COVID­19, according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, the male sex and the presence of comorbidities as confounders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Biomarkers , Granulocytes , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(5): 346, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786140

ABSTRACT

Low levels of serum calcium, elevated levels of serum phosphorus and absent or abnormally low levels of serum parathyroid hormone characterize hypoparathyroidism, a rare endocrine deficiency illness. Hypoparathyroidism is caused by injury to the parathyroid gland as a result of surgery or autoimmune disease. In addition, hypoparathyroidism may develop due to genetic causes or infiltrative diseases. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by multi-organ involvement, including the dysfunction of endocrine glands. Previous studies have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces endocrine tissue damage via various mechanisms, including direct cell damage from viral entry to the glands by binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors and replication, vasculitis, arterial and venous thrombosis, hypoxic cell damage, immune response and the cytokine storm. The effects of the new coronavirus, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the parathyroid glands have received limited attention. Hypoparathyroidism has been observed in a small number of individuals as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The present study describes the case of a patient with primary hypoparathyroidism induced by COVID-19. Clinicians should also keep in mind that, despite the fact that SARS-CoV-2 has no known tropism for the parathyroid glands, it can result in primary hypoparathyroidism and decompensation of old primary hypoparathyroidism.

6.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(5): 338, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786139

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most frequent and severe monogenic disorders, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. SCD represents a fatal hematological illness, characterized by veno-occlusive events and hemolytic anemia. Hemolytic anemia is caused by abnormal sickle-shaped erythrocytes, which induce parenchymal destruction and persistent organ damage, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with SCD were characterized as a 'high-risk' group due to their compromised immune system, caused by functional hyposplenism, as well as systemic vasculopathy. COVID-19 is characterized by endothelial damage and a procoagulant condition. The present study describes the clinical features, management and outcomes of 3 patients with SCD who were hospitalized due to COVID-19, who all had favorable outcomes despite the complications.

7.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(5): 363, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780105

ABSTRACT

There is accumulating evidence in the literature indicating that a number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms, persisting or even presenting following the resolution of acute COVID-19. Among the neuropsychiatric manifestations more frequently associated with 'long COVID' are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep disturbances, fatigue and cognitive deficits, that can potentially be debilitating and negatively affect patients' wellbeing, albeit in the majority of cases symptoms tend to improve over time. Despite variations in results obtained from studies using different methodological approaches to define 'long COVID' syndrome, the most widely accepted factors associated with a higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric manifestations include the severity of foregoing COVID-19, the female sex, the presence of comorbidities, a history of mental health disease and an elevation in the levels of inflammatory markers, albeit further research is required to establish causal associations. To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in neuropsychiatric manifestations of 'long COVID' remain only partially elucidated, while the role of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as social isolation and uncertainty concerning social, financial and health recovery post-COVID, have also been highlighted. Given the alarming effects of 'long-COVID', interdisciplinary cooperation for the early identification of patients who are at a high risk of persistent neuropsychiatric presentations, beyond COVID-19 recovery, is crucial to ensure that appropriate integrated physical and mental health support is provided, with the aim of mitigating the risks of long-term disability at a societal and individual level.

8.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715860

ABSTRACT

In addition to the angiotensin­converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a number of host cell entry mediators have been identified for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus­2 (SARS­CoV­2), including transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4). The authors have recently demonstrated the upregulation of TMPRSS4 in 11 different cancers, as well as its specific expression within the central nervous system using in silico tools. The present study aimed to expand the initial observations and, using immunohistochemistry, TMPRSS4 protein expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and lungs was further mapped. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue arrays and lung tissues of patients with non­small cell lung cancer with concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) infection using TMPRSS4 antibody. The results revealed that TMPRSS4 was abundantly expressed in the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver and pancreas. Moreover, the extensive TMPRSS4 protein expression in the lungs of a deceased patient with COVID­19 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial carcinoma, as well in the adjacent normal tissue, was demonstrated for the first time, at least to the best of our knowledge. On the whole, the immunohistochemistry data of the present study suggest that TMPRSS4 may be implicated in the broader (pulmonary and extra­pulmonary) COVID­19 symptomatology; thus, it may be responsible for the tropism of this coronavirus both in the GI tract and lungs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung/pathology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/virology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Male , Membrane Proteins/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Virus Internalization
9.
Int J Mol Med ; 49(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594678

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is mainly dependent on the underlying mechanisms that mediate the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) into the host cells of the various human tissues/organs. Recent studies have indicated a higher order of complexity of the mechanisms of infectivity, given that there is a wide­repertoire of possible cell entry mediators that appear to co­localise in a cell­ and tissue­specific manner. The present study provides an overview of the 'canonical' SARS­CoV­2 mediators, namely angiotensin converting enzyme 2, transmembrane protease serine 2 and 4, and neuropilin­1, expanding on the involvement of novel candidates, including glucose­regulated protein 78, basigin, kidney injury molecule­1, metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2, ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (also termed tumour necrosis factor­α convertase) and Toll­like receptor 4. Furthermore, emerging data indicate that changes in microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression levels in patients with COVID­19 are suggestive of further complexity in the regulation of these viral mediators. An in silico analysis revealed 160 candidate miRNAs with potential strong binding capacity in the aforementioned genes. Future studies should concentrate on elucidating the association between the cellular tropism of the SARS­CoV­2 cell entry mediators and the mechanisms through which they might affect the clinical outcome. Finally, the clinical utility as a biomarker or therapeutic target of miRNAs in the context of COVID­19 warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , /metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Viral Tropism
10.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 107, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580300

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been widespread concern that social isolation, financial stress, depression, limited or variable access to health care services and other pandemic-related stressors may contribute to an increase in suicidal behaviors. In patients who have recovered from COVID-19, an increased risk of developing suicidal behaviors may be noted, while post-COVID syndrome comprises another potential risk factor contributing to increased suicidal behaviors. Despite the initial alarming predictions for an increase in suicide rates due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of published studies to date suggest that experienced difficulties and distress do not inevitably translate into an increased number of suicide-related deaths, at least not in the short-term. Nevertheless, the long-term mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have yet to be unfolded and are likely to remain for a long period of time. Suicide prevention and measures aiming at promoting well-being and mitigating the effects of COVID-19 on mental health, particularly among vulnerable groups, should thus be a priority for healthcare professionals and policymakers amidst the evolving COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine ; 22(6):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1527247

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus infection presents with greater severity in individuals with comorbid chronic lung diseases. Bronchiectasis is an illness characterized by permanent enlargement of the airways, presenting with chronic cough and sputum production and vulnerability to lung infections. Bronchiectasis is not a common comorbid disease in patients with COVID-19 disease and bronchiectasis exacerbation rates were decreased during the pandemic. However, COVID-19 disease is associated with worse outcomes in patients with bronchiectasis and patients with bronchiectasis are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection development. Pseudomonas putida is an opportunistic pathogen, causing infections mostly in immunocompromised hosts and is not a frequent bacterial colonizer in patients with bronchiectasis. This present study reports a rare case of exacerbation of bronchiectasis by Pseudomonas putida complicating COVID-19 disease in an immunocompetent 70-year-old woman. Clinicians should be aware that SARS-CoV-2 infection is probably a precipitating factor of bronchiectasis exacerbation while bronchiectasis is a risk factor for greater severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
Oncol Rep ; 47(1)2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518658

ABSTRACT

The devastating complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) result from the dysfunctional immune response of an individual following the initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) infection. Multiple toxic stressors and behaviors contribute to underlying immune system dysfunction. SARS­CoV­2 exploits the dysfunctional immune system to trigger a chain of events, ultimately leading to COVID­19. The authors have previously identified a number of contributing factors (CFs) common to myriad chronic diseases. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that there may be a significant overlap between CFs associated with COVID­19 and gastrointestinal cancer (GIC). Thus, in the present study, a streamlined dot­product approach was used initially to identify potential CFs that affect COVID­19 and GIC directly (i.e., the simultaneous occurrence of CFs and disease in the same article). The nascent character of the COVID­19 core literature (~1­year­old) did not allow sufficient time for the direct effects of numerous CFs on COVID­19 to emerge from laboratory experiments and epidemiological studies. Therefore, a literature­related discovery approach was used to augment the COVID­19 core literature­based 'direct impact' CFs with discovery­based 'indirect impact' CFs [CFs were identified in the non­COVID­19 biomedical literature that had the same biomarker impact pattern (e.g., hyperinflammation, hypercoagulation, hypoxia, etc.) as was shown in the COVID­19 literature]. Approximately 2,250 candidate direct impact CFs in common between GIC and COVID­19 were identified, albeit some being variants of the same concept. As commonality proof of concept, 75 potential CFs that appeared promising were selected, and 63 overlapping COVID­19/GIC potential/candidate CFs were validated with biological plausibility. In total, 42 of the 63 were overlapping direct impact COVID­19/GIC CFs, and the remaining 21 were candidate GIC CFs that overlapped with indirect impact COVID­19 CFs. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that COVID­19 and GIC share a number of common risk/CFs, including behaviors and toxic exposures, that impair immune function. A key component of immune system health is the removal of those factors that contribute to immune system dysfunction in the first place. This requires a paradigm shift from traditional Western medicine, which often focuses on treatment, rather than prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/etiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Biomed Rep ; 15(6): 107, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515559

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infection caused by the newly detected coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The majority of individuals will exhibit mild to moderate illness. Older individuals, and those suffering from co-existing diseases have a greater probability of experiencing a serious illness. Moreover, elderly patients have higher mortality rates than younger patients, especially those who are unvaccinated. Asymptomatic infection is mostly observed in individuals who are younger, as younger patients are more likely to exhibit a stronger immune response to the infection; aging is characterized by the decline immune function. In this article, a rare case of an unvaccinated 97-year-old woman is described who was admitted to Laiko General Hospital due to altered levels of consciousness, hypotension and a hematoma of the thoracic region, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in a nasopharyngeal specimen and positive for IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein without a history of consistent manifestations, indicating a past asymptomatic infection.

14.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(6): 1452, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478161

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus infection presents with greater severity in individuals with comorbid chronic lung diseases. Bronchiectasis is an illness characterized by permanent enlargement of the airways, presenting with chronic cough and sputum production and vulnerability to lung infections. Bronchiectasis is not a common comorbid disease in patients with COVID-19 disease and bronchiectasis exacerbation rates were decreased during the pandemic. However, COVID-19 disease is associated with worse outcomes in patients with bronchiectasis and patients with bronchiectasis are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection development. Pseudomonas putida is an opportunistic pathogen, causing infections mostly in immunocompromised hosts and is not a frequent bacterial colonizer in patients with bronchiectasis. This present study reports a rare case of exacerbation of bronchiectasis by Pseudomonas putida complicating COVID-19 disease in an immunocompetent 70-year-old woman. Clinicians should be aware that SARS-CoV-2 infection is probably a precipitating factor of bronchiectasis exacerbation while bronchiectasis is a risk factor for greater severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
Int J Mol Med ; 48(5)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405477

ABSTRACT

Soon after the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) pandemic in December, 2019, numerous research teams, assisted by vast capital investments, achieved vaccine development in a fraction of time. However, almost 8 months following the initiation of the European vaccination programme, the need for prospective monitoring of the vaccine­induced immune response, its determinants and related side­effects remains a priority. The present study aimed to quantify the immune response following full vaccination with the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) mRNA vaccine by measuring the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers in healthcare professionals. Moreover, common side­effects and factors associated with IgG titers were identified. For this purpose, blood samples from 517 individuals were obtained and analysed. Blood sampling was performed at a mean period of 69.0±23.5 days following the second dose of the vaccine. SARS­CoV­2 IgG titers had an overall mean value of 4.23±2.76. Females had higher titers than males (4.44±2.70 and 3.89 ±2.84, respectively; P=0.007), while non­smokers had higher titers than smokers (4.48±2.79 and 3.80±2.64, respectively; P=0.003). An older age was also associated with lower antibody titers (P<0.001). Moreover, the six most prevalent adverse effects were pain at the injection site (72.1%), generalized fatigue (40.5%), malaise (36.3%), myalgia (31,0%), headache (25.8%) and dizziness/weakness (21.6%). The present study demonstrated that the immune response after receiving the BNT162b2 COVID­19 mRNA vaccine is dependent on various modifiable and non­modifiable factors. Overall, the findings of the present study highlight two key aspects of the vaccination programs: First, the need for prospective immunosurveillance studies in order to estimate the duration of immunity, and second, the need to identify those individuals who are at a greater risk of developing low IgG titers in order to evaluate the need for a third dose of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
16.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(4): 1162, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377025

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak, in December, 2019, in the Chinese city of Wuhan, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an ongoing global pandemic. Due to the novel antigenic properties of this virus, the world population could not develop immunity effectively and this led to the subsequent spread of COVID-19. This caused an unprecedented emergency situation with significant negative effects on health and well-being both on an individual and societal level. Apart from health, economic and social consequences, the impact of this pandemic on mental health is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. The present review aimed to provide a comprehensive discussion of the possible neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, together with the related underlying molecular pathways. In addition, the present review focused on populations which are at a higher risk of developing psychiatric disturbances due to the COVID-19 pandemic and discussed possible routes of clinical management and therapeutics to minimize the burden associated with psychiatric disorders. Moreover, research findings exploring the prevalence of COVID-19-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across vulnerable groups, including children, adolescents and COVID-19 survivors are presented, with particular emphasis on those with severe disease who required hospitalization and/or intensive care unit admission. Based on the available literature, the identification of potential determinants associated with PTSD across the different populations is underlined. Lessons learnt from the pandemics across the globe together with the ongoing research on COVID-19 and its impact on mental health, highlight the utmost importance for evidence-based, proactive and targeted interventions in high-risk groups aiming to mitigate the risks and manage vulnerabilities.

17.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(1): 790, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359309

ABSTRACT

Curcumin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione], the main component of turmeric (Curcuma longa, a flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae), is known to possess different pharmacological activities, particularly anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Since an underlying inflammatory process exists in several ocular conditions, such as anterior uveitis, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), the aim of the present review was to summarize the pleiotropic effects exerted by this molecule, focusing in particular on its beneficial role in retinal diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin has also been described in numerous systemic inflammatory pathologies and tumors. Specifically, the biological, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties of curcumin are associated with its ability to downregulate the expression of the following genes: IκBα, cyclooxygenase 2, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α. According to this finding, curcumin may be useful in the treatment of some retinal disorders. In DR, proliferative vitreoretinopathy and AMD, beneficial effects have been observed following treatment with curcumin, including slowing down of the inflammatory process. Despite the aforementioned evidence, the main disadvantage of this substance is that it possesses a low solubility, as well as poor oral bioavailability due to its reduced absorption, rapid metabolism and rapid elimination. Therefore, several curcumin analogues have been synthesized and tested over the years, in order to improve the possible obtainable therapeutic effects. The purpose of the present review was to identify new aspects that could guide future research on this important traditional medicine, which is a well-tolerated natural product, and is widely considered safe and economical.

18.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(3): 1039, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328155

ABSTRACT

The worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led the World Health Organization to characterize the pandemic as a public health emergency of international concern. National health care systems in countries during the initial surge of the pandemic were unable to handle the sanitarian crisis that had emerged. Thus, the prevention and control of future global health emergencies must be a priority. The present scoping review aimed to retrieve articles that summarize the current experience on issues related to historical knowledge, and epidemiology, clinical features and overall burden of SARS-CoV-2 on health care services. In summary, a comprehensive overview of the information that has been learnt during this period is presented in the current review. Furthermore, taking into account the global experience, the need for planning cohesive and functional health services before similar pandemic events occur in the future is highlighted. The next public health issue should be prevented rather than treated. In spite of the vaccination benefits, a number of sporadic cases of SARS-CoV-2infections will persist. Information collected remains relevant for appraising how similar threats can be faced in the future. Overall, collaborative health care plans need to be rethought to increase preparedness.

19.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181666

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID­19) pandemic has forced the scientific community to rapidly develop highly reliable diagnostic methods in order to effectively and accurately diagnose this pathology, thus limiting the spread of infection. Although the structural and molecular characteristics of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) were initially unknown, various diagnostic strategies useful for making a correct diagnosis of COVID­19 have been rapidly developed by private research laboratories and biomedical companies. At present, rapid antigen or antibody tests, immunoenzymatic serological tests and molecular tests based on RT­PCR are the most widely used and validated techniques worldwide. Apart from these conventional methods, other techniques, including isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas (CRISPR/Cas)­based approaches or digital PCR methods are currently used in research contexts or are awaiting approval for diagnostic use by competent authorities. In order to provide guidance for the correct use of COVID­19 diagnostic tests, the present review describes the diagnostic strategies available which may be used for the diagnosis of COVID­19 infection in both clinical and research settings. In particular, the technical and instrumental characteristics of the diagnostic methods used are described herein. In addition, updated and detailed information about the type of sample, the modality and the timing of use of specific tests are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , Inventions , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Cultivation/methods
20.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(10): 4523-4533, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140231

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gathered 1 year of scientific/clinical information. This informational asset should be thoroughly and wisely used in the coming year colliding in a global task force to control this infection. Epidemiology of this infection shows that the available estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence largely depended on the availability of molecular testing and the extent of tested population. Within molecular diagnosis, the viability and infectiousness of the virus in the tested samples should be further investigated. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 has a genetic normal evolution that is a dynamic process. The immune system participates to the counterattack of the viral infection by pathogen elimination, cellular homoeostasis, tissue repair and generation of memory cells that would be reactivated upon a second encounter with the same virus. In all these stages, we still have knowledge to be gathered regarding antibody persistence, protective effects and immunological memory. Moreover, information regarding the intense pro-inflammatory action in severe cases still lacks and this is important in stratifying patients for difficult to treat cases. Without being exhaustive, the review will cover these important issues to be acknowledged to further advance in the battle against the current pandemia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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