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1.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-28, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096216

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho from March 2020 through January 2021. METHODS: Time-varying reproduction numbers, R t , of a 7-day-sliding-window and of non-overlapping-windows between policy changes were estimated utilizing the instantaneous reproduction number method. Linear regression was performed to evaluate if per-capita cumulative case-count varied across counties with different population size or density. RESULTS: The median 7-day-sliding-window R t estimates across the studied region varied between 1 and 1.25 during September through November 2020. Between November 13 and 18, R t was reduced by 14.71% (95% credible interval, CrI, [14.41%, 14.99%]) in North Dakota following a mask mandate; Idaho saw a 1.93% (95% CrI [1.87%, 1.99%]) reduction and Montana saw a 9.63% (95% CrI [9.26%, 9.98%]) reduction following the tightening of restrictions. High-population and high-density counties had higher per-capita cumulative case-count in North Dakota on June 30, August 31, October 31, and December 31, 2020. In Idaho, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming, there were positive correlations between population size and per-capita weekly incident case-count, adjusted for calendar time and social vulnerability index variables. CONCLUSIONS: R t decreased after mask mandate during the region's case-count spike suggested reduction in SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2123201, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068494

ABSTRACT

Adult immunization coverage remains low in the US, particularly for people who use drugs (PWUD), a population that experiences a disproportionate burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. The extent of and characteristics associated with vaccine confidence (VC) held by PWUD is poorly understood. As VC strongly correlates with vaccine uptake, this cross-sectional study identifies mutable factors associated with VC and quantifies its relationship to immunization status within a highly vulnerable, underimmunized population of PWUD. Using a community-engaged research strategy with select partner organizations hosting syringe exchange programs in Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Las Vegas, USA, we surveyed participants ages 18-69 years served by these organizations from 2019 to 2020. Survey measures included sociodemographics, health behavior including immunization receipt, and vaccine confidence in adult vaccinations using a modified Emory Vaccine Confidence Index (EVCI). The findings reflect relatively low VC among the 1,127 recruited participants, with 56% expressing low VC (EVCI 0-12), 35% medium (EVCI 13-20) and 10% high (EVCI 21-24). EVCI varied by city, with lowest confidence in Atlanta and highest in Las Vegas. VC was associated with past receipt of specific vaccines, including hepatitis A, MMR, Tdap, and influenza. VC varied by specific sociodemographic correlates such as housing insecurity (reduced confidence) and receipt of public benefits or disability (increased confidence). This study identified correlates associated with VC based on site and sociodemographic characteristics for this priority population, highlighting the need for specific interventions to raise VC among PWUD, especially among those experiencing housing insecurity and without public benefits.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e846-e848, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006981
4.
Ann Epidemiol ; 68: 37-44, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682900

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the time-varying reproduction number, Rt, for COVID-19 in Arkansas and Kentucky and investigate the impact of policies and preventative measures on the variability in Rt. METHODS: Arkansas and Kentucky county-level COVID-19 cumulative case count data (March 6-November 7, 2020) were obtained. Rt was estimated using the R package 'EpiEstim', by county, region (Delta, non-Delta, Appalachian, non-Appalachian), and policy measures. RESULTS: The Rt was initially high, falling below 1 in May or June depending on the region, before stabilizing around 1 in the later months. The median Rt for Arkansas and Kentucky at the end of the study were 1.15 (95% credible interval [CrI], 1.13, 1.18) and 1.10 (95% CrI, 1.08, 1.12), respectively, and remained above 1 for the non-Appalachian region. Rt decreased when facial coverings were mandated, changing by -10.64% (95% CrI, -10.60%, -10.70%) in Arkansas and -5.93% (95% CrI, -4.31%, -7.65%) in Kentucky. The trends in Rt estimates were mostly associated with the implementation and relaxation of social distancing measures. CONCLUSIONS: Arkansas and Kentucky maintained a median Rt above 1 during the entire study period. Changes in Rt estimates allow quantitative estimates of potential impact of policies such as facemask mandate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Arkansas/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy , Humans , Kentucky/epidemiology , Population Density , Reproduction
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab547, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Washington, District of Columbia lowered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission in its large jail while community incidence was still high. METHODS: Coordinated clinical and operational interventions brought new cases to near zero. RESULTS: Aggressive infection control and underlying jail architecture can promote correctional coronavirus disease 2019 management. CONCLUSIONS: More intensive monitoring could help confirm that in-house transmission is truly zero.

6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(9): e25575, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2018, 2 million Americans met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria for an opioid use disorder, and 9.9 million Americans had misused prescription pain relievers the previous year. Despite a rapid increase in opioid misuse, opioid use disorders, and overdoses, data are limited on the behavioral and contextual risks as well as the protective factors fueling the opioid epidemic in some hard hit US cities-Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Las Vegas. Opioid use also contributes to the risk of other health problems such as HIV and hepatitis C virus infections or mental health disorders and is linked to behavioral and environmental risks (eg, homelessness, experiences of violence, involvement in the justice system). Knowledge of the relationships between these linked vulnerabilities and how they influence service utilization is critical to effective policy and interventions. OBJECTIVE: This survey explores the relationships between demographic and economic characteristics, behavioral and environmental risk factors, and service utilization of people who use opioids to inform public health practice, policy, and future efforts to mitigate the risks faced by this population experiencing multiple health, social, and economic vulnerabilities. The results of this survey will be used to identify needs and intervention points for people who use drugs currently served by public health organizations. METHODS: We implemented a community-engaged strategy that involved development and execution of a two-stage purposive sampling plan involving selection of partner organizations (syringe exchange programs in urban settings) and recruitment and enrollment of participants aged 18-69 years served by these organizations in Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Las Vegas from 2019 to 2020. The recruited participants completed a survey, including a variety of measures to assess health (physical and mental) and health behaviors such as sexual behavior, vaccine receipt, and HIV/ hepatitis C virus infection testing. Additional items assessed drug use and misuse, syringe exchange and health service utilization, sex exchange, histories of interpersonal violence, and vaccine confidence. RESULTS: This protocol was successfully implemented despite challenges such as real-time technology issues and rapidly finding and surveying a difficult-to-reach population. We sampled 1127 unique participants (248 in Atlanta, 465 in Los Angeles, and 414 in Las Vegas). CONCLUSIONS: The establishment and utilization of strong community partnerships enabled the rapid collection of data from a typically difficult-to-reach population. Local efforts such as these are needed to develop policies and practices that promote harm reduction among people who use opioids. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR1-10.2196/25575.

8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1139-1143, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724591

ABSTRACT

Preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in correctional and detention facilities* can be challenging because of population-dense housing, varied access to hygiene facilities and supplies, and limited space for isolation and quarantine (1). Incarcerated and detained populations have a high prevalence of chronic diseases, increasing their risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness and making early detection critical (2,3). Correctional and detention facilities are not closed systems; SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can be transmitted to and from the surrounding community through staff member and visitor movements as well as entry, transfer, and release of incarcerated and detained persons (1). To better understand SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in these settings, CDC requested data from 15 jurisdictions describing results of mass testing events among incarcerated and detained persons and cases identified through earlier symptom-based testing. Six jurisdictions reported SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of 0%-86.8% (median = 29.3%) from mass testing events in 16 adult facilities. Before mass testing, 15 of the 16 facilities had identified at least one COVID-19 case among incarcerated or detained persons using symptom-based testing, and mass testing increased the total number of known cases from 642 to 8,239. Case surveillance from symptom-based testing has likely underestimated SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in correctional and detention facilities. Broad-based testing can provide a more accurate assessment of prevalence and generate data to help control transmission (4).


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prisons , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
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