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Lancet ; 401(10376): 605-616, 2023 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184594


There has been a renewed focus on threats to the human-animal-environment interface as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and investments in One Health collaborations are expected to increase. Efforts to monitor the development of One Health Networks (OHNs) are essential to avoid duplication or misalignment of investments. This Series paper shows the global distribution of existing OHNs and assesses their collective characteristics to identify potential deficits in the ways OHNs have formed and to help increase the effectiveness of investments. We searched PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, and relevant conference websites for potential OHNs and identified 184 worldwide for further analysis. We developed four case studies to show important findings from our research and exemplify best practices in One Health operationalisation. Our findings show that, although more OHNs were formed in the past 10 years than in the preceding decade, investment in OHNs has not been equitably distributed; more OHNs are formed and headquartered in Europe than in any other region, and emerging infections and novel pathogens were the priority focus area for most OHNs, with fewer OHNs focusing on other important hazards and pressing threats to health security. We found substantial deficits in the OHNs collaboration model regarding the diversity of stakeholder and sector representation, which we argue impedes effective and equitable OHN formation and contributes to other imbalances in OHN distribution and priorities. These findings are supported by previous evidence that shows the skewed investment in One Health thus far. The increased attention to One Health after the COVID-19 pandemic is an opportunity to focus efforts and resources to areas that need them most. Analyses, such as this Series paper, should be used to establish databases and repositories of OHNs worldwide. Increased attention should then be given to understanding existing resource allocation and distribution patterns, establish more egalitarian networks that encompass the breadth of One Health issues, and serve communities most affected by emerging, re-emerging, or endemic threats at the human-animal-environment interface.

COVID-19 , One Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Europe , Cell Proliferation , Global Health
China CDC Wkly ; 3(7): 144-145, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084964
J Travel Med ; 27(3)2020 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688204


BACKGROUND: A key purpose of the International Health Regulations (IHR) is to prevent unwarranted interruptions to trade and travel during large and/or transnational infectious disease outbreaks. Nevertheless, such outbreaks continue to disrupt the travel industry. This aspect of the IHR has received little attention in the academic literature despite its considerable impact on affected States and commercial activity. This article outlines the challenges and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between outbreaks and the travel sector and discusses the opportunities for further research and policy work to overcome these challenges. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a literature review on the relationship between outbreaks and travel restrictions, with a particular focus on the 2014-16 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. This review was complemented by an expert roundtable at Chatham House and further supported by case studies and qualitative interviews. RESULTS: Numerous travel stakeholders are affected by, and affect, large-scale infectious disease outbreaks. These stakeholders react in different ways: peer pressure plays an important role for both governments and the travel sector, and the reactions of the media and public influence and are influenced by these stakeholders. While various data sources on travel are available, and World Health Organization is mandated to work with States, there is no recognized coordinating body to disseminate timely, consistent, reliable and authoritative information and best practices to all stakeholders. CONCLUSION: This article highlights the interdependent relationship between various travel stakeholders. The reasons for interruption of travel during the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak were complex, with decisions by States only partly contributing to the cessation. Decisions by non-state actors, particularly the travel industry itself, contributed significantly and were based on a variety of factors. Further research, analysis and policy development are required to mitigate the health and economic consequences of infectious disease outbreaks. Any further research will also need to take account of COVID-19 travel-related issues.

Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Travel , Africa, Western , Aircraft , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communication , Coronavirus Infections , Decision Making , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Industry , Mass Media , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
Health Secur ; 18(3): 241-249, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141511


The COVID-19 pandemic is a stark reminder of the heavy toll that emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) with epidemic and pandemic potential can inflict. Vaccine development, scale-up, and commercialization is a long, expensive, and risky enterprise that requires substantial upfront planning and offers no guarantee of success. EIDs are a particularly challenging target for global health preparedness, including for vaccine development. Insufficient attention has been given to challenges, lessons learned, and potential solutions to support and sustain vaccine industry engagement in vaccine development for EIDs. Drawing from lessons from the most recent Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the 2009 H1N1 influenza, 2014-2016 Ebola, and 2015-16 Zika outbreaks preceding it, we offer our perspective on challenges facing EID vaccine development and recommend additional solutions to prioritize in the near term. The 6 recommendations focus on reducing vaccine development timelines and increasing business certainty to reduce risks for companies. The global health security community has an opportunity to build on the current momentum to design a sustainable model for EID vaccines.

Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Global Health , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Technology, Pharmaceutical/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Approval , Drug Development , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Male , Needs Assessment , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Security Measures