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1.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(5): 587-592, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794548

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described in a wide range of species, including domestic animals such as dogs and cats. Illness in dogs is usually self-limiting, and further diagnostics may not be pursued if clinical signs resolve or they respond to empirical treatment. As new variants emerge, the clinical presentation and role in transmission may vary in animals. This report highlights different clinical presentations and immunological responses in two SARS-CoV-2 Delta-variant-positive dogs with similar exposure to the same fully vaccinated human with a SARS-CoV-2 infection and emphasizes the need for active surveillance and additional One Health research on SARS-CoV-2 variant infections in companion animals and other species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , Animals, Domestic , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Georgia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411082

ABSTRACT

Approximately 67% of U.S. households have pets. Limited data are available on SARS-CoV-2 in pets. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets during a COVID-19 household transmission investigation. Pets from households with ≥1 person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion from April-May 2020. We enrolled 37 dogs and 19 cats from 34 households. All oropharyngeal, nasal, and rectal swabs tested negative by rRT-PCR; one dog's fur swabs (2%) tested positive by rRT-PCR at the first sampling. Among 47 pets with serological results, eight (17%) pets (four dogs, four cats) from 6/30 (20%) households had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. In households with a seropositive pet, the proportion of people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was greater (median 79%; range: 40-100%) compared to households with no seropositive pet (median 37%; range: 13-100%) (p = 0.01). Thirty-three pets with serologic results had frequent daily contact (≥1 h) with the index patient before the person's COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these 33 pets, 14 (42%) had decreased contact with the index patient after diagnosis and none were seropositive; of the 19 (58%) pets with continued contact, four (21%) were seropositive. Seropositive pets likely acquired infection after contact with people with COVID-19. People with COVID-19 should restrict contact with pets and other animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Dogs , Family Characteristics , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pets/history , Phylogeny , Population Surveillance , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Utah/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
3.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234836

ABSTRACT

Understanding the ecological and epidemiological roles of pets in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for animal and human health, identifying household reservoirs, and predicting the potential enzootic maintenance of the virus. We conducted a longitudinal household transmission study of 76 dogs and cats living with at least one SARS-CoV-2-infected human in Texas and found that 17 pets from 25.6% of 39 households met the national case definition for SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals. This includes three out of seventeen (17.6%) cats and one out of fifty-nine (1.7%) dogs that were positive by RT-PCR and sequencing, with the virus successfully isolated from the respiratory swabs of one cat and one dog. Whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from all four PCR-positive animals were unique variants grouping with genomes circulating among people with COVID-19 in Texas. Re-sampling showed persistence of viral RNA for at least 25 d-post initial test. Additionally, seven out of sixteen (43.8%) cats and seven out of fifty-nine (11.9%) dogs harbored SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies upon initial sampling, with relatively stable or increasing titers over the 2-3 months of follow-up and no evidence of seroreversion. The majority (82.4%) of infected pets were asymptomatic. 'Reverse zoonotic' transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected people to animals may occur more frequently than recognized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats/virology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Texas/epidemiology
4.
J Infect Dis ; 221(Supplement_4): S480-S492, 2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827906

ABSTRACT

Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. There is currently no approved therapeutic for human use against NiV infection. Griffithsin (GRFT) is high-mannose oligosaccharide binding lectin that has shown in vivo broad-spectrum activity against viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis C virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antiviral activities of GRFT and its synthetic trimeric tandemer (3mG) against NiV and other viruses from 4 virus families. The 3mG had comparatively greater potency than GRFT against NiV due to its enhanced ability to block NiV glycoprotein-induced syncytia formation. Our initial in vivo prophylactic evaluation of an oxidation-resistant GRFT (Q-GRFT) showed significant protection against lethal NiV challenge in Syrian golden hamsters. Our results warrant further development of Q-GRFT and 3mG as potential NiV therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Henipavirus Infections/drug therapy , Nipah Virus/drug effects , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Henipavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Mesocricetus , Nipah Virus/isolation & purification , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , Vero Cells
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