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1.
Sustainability ; 14(18):11281, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2010290

ABSTRACT

Plastic barriers physically separate queuing passengers in airport security check areas as a measure against aerosol transmission. However, this may create 'canyons';that interfere with the existing ventilation design: potentially inhibiting airflow, concentrating exhaled viruses, and exacerbating aerosol transmission risk. Accordingly, this study investigated the transmission implications of installing plastic barriers in a security check area with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two air distribution schemes were modeled: one with linear air supply diffusers aligned vertically to (Case 1) and another with diffusers parallel with (Case 2) the orientation of partitions. The drift-flux model was used to calculate the spread of viral bioaerosols with 5 µm in diameter;then the Wells–Riley equation was applied to assess aerosol transmission risk for SARS-CoV-2. According to simulation results, in Case 1, installing plastic barriers resulted in relatively small changes in volume with a high infection risk of 1% or greater in the breathing zone within the first 25 min. However, in Case 2, using plastic barriers resulted in the continuous increase in this volume within the first 25 min while this volume was near zero if without plastic barriers. In conclusion, installing plastic barriers needs careful consideration because they do not reduce the risk of airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission and might even exacerbate it without localized ventilation and air cleaning.

2.
Build Environ ; 219: 109186, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850738

ABSTRACT

Airport transportation vehicles, such as buses, aerotrains, and shuttles, provide important passenger transfer services in airports. This study quantitatively investigated COVID-19 aerosol infection risk and identified acceptable operational conditions, such as passenger occupancy rates and duration of rides, given the performance of vehicle ventilation. The greatest risk to the largest number of passengers is from an index case whose exhaled breath would take the longest time to exit the vehicle. The study identified such a case based on ventilation patterns, and it tracked the spread of viral aerosols (5 µm) by using the Wells-Riley equation to predict aerosol infection risk distribution. These distributions allowed a definition of an imperfect mixing degree (δ) as the ratio of actual risk and the calculated risk under a perfect mixing condition, and further derived regression equations to predict δ in the far-field (FF) and near-field (NF) of each passenger. These results revealed an order of magnitude higher aerosol infection risk in NF than in FF. For example, with a ventilation rate of 58 ACH (air changes per hour) and a 45% occupancy rate, unmasked passengers should stay up to 15 min in the bus and 35 min in the shuttle to limit infection risk in NF within 10%. These also indicate that masking is an important and effective risk reduction measure in transportation vehicles, especially important in NF. Overall, the analysis of imperfect air mixing allows direct comparison of risks in different transportation vehicles and a structured approach to development of policy recommendations.

3.
Sustainability ; 13(7):3924, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1362518

ABSTRACT

The Culture of Health framework includes four pillars of societal health and well-being influenced by business, namely: consumers;employees and workers in the supply chain;the community, and the environment. The Auto industry was an ideal crucible in which to explore the interface of public health with business given the confluence of the different domains in this sector. The substantial benefits of mobility, especially for the under-resourced, sit alongside negative impacts from emissions, accidents, products and services. Through interviews with 65 senior executives from seven major automakers, corporate actions reflecting health as a strategic agenda were mapped to the Culture of Health model. While most of the companies did not use the language of health explicitly in their strategy, key examples were present across all four pillars. Given the future of mobility relies on the interface of human experience with technology, it is a population-level challenge demanding system-level changes. Ostensibly, a framework for sustainability, the Culture of Health model could help the Auto industry navigate the disruption caused by the global megatrends and changing societal expectations of business in society and transition successfully to a new mobility economy.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069812

ABSTRACT

Lockdown aiming at slowing COVID-19 transmission has altered nature accessibility patterns, creating quasi-experimental conditions to assess if retracted nature contact and perceived nature deprivation influence physical and emotional wellbeing. We measure through on-line survey methods (n = 529) how pandemic mandates limiting personal movement and outdoor nature access within the United States affect self-assessed nature exposure, perceived nature deprivation, and subsequent flourishing as measured by the Harvard Flourishing Index. Results indicate that perceived nature deprivation strongly associates with local nature contact, time in nature, and access to municipal nature during the pandemic, after controlling for lockdown mandates, job status, household composition, and sociodemographic variables. Our hypothesis is that individuals with strong perceived nature deprivation under COVID-19 leads to diminished wellbeing proved true. Interaction models of flourishing showed positive modification of nature affinity with age and qualitative modification of nature deprivation with race. Our results demonstrate the potential of local nature contact to support individual wellbeing in a background context of emotional distress and social isolation, important in guiding public health policies beyond pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Nature , Pandemics , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Psychological Distress , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
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