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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):357-358, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880895

ABSTRACT

Background: After COVID-19 shelter-in-place (SIP) orders on 3/16/2020, viral suppression (VS) rates initially decreased within a safety-net HIV clinic in San Francisco, with greater decreases among homeless people living with HIV (PLWH). We sought to understand if (1) proactive outreach to provide social services, (2) scaling up of in-person visits for most patients and drop-in visits at the clinic, and (3) expansion of housing programs could reverse this decline. Methods: We assessed VS 24 months before and 13 months after SIP using mixed-effects logistic regression and propensity score methods, followed by interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to examine changes in the rate of viral suppression per month. Loss to follow-up was assessed via active clinic outreach and tracing using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results: The cohort contained 1816 patients with a median age of 51;12% female, 14% unstably housed, and 15% with CD4+-cell counts <200 cells/mm3. The adjusted odds of VS increased 1.34-fold following the intervention (95% CI: 1.21-1.46), with similar results using inverse probability weighting (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.31;95% CI: 1.17-1.46). Results from the ITS analysis show that the odds of VS continuously increased by 1.05-fold per month over the post-intervention period (95% CI: 1.01-1.08, Figure). Proactive phone outreach successfully reached 90.0% of the clinic to offer services. The one-year cumulative loss to follow-up rate was 3.2% (95% CI: 2.5-3.9%). The proportion of total attended visits that were telephone visits decreased from a maximum of 64.9% to a minimum of 10.1% at the end of the analysis period. The rate of viral load monitoring decreased by 15% after the institution of SIP (95% CI: 0.83-0.88). Among homeless PLWH, the AOR for VS was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.24-2.34) and there was a 5.9% increase in VS per month using ITS methods (95% CI: 1.0-12.3%). Conclusion: After an initial destabilization in VS in a large safety-net clinic following SIP orders, the VS rate increased following scale-up of in-person visits, clinic outreach to patients, intensification of social services during this time, and access to COVID-related housing programs. The loss to follow-up rate was similar or lower compared to prior years. Maintaining in-person care for underserved patients, with flexible telemedicine options, along with provision of social services and permanent expansion of housing assistance programs, will be needed to support VS among underserved populations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S805, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746280

ABSTRACT

Background. Limited data are available on whether there are differences in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination by HIV status or by mRNA vaccine type. Methods. We saved residual outpatient laboratory samples of all previously mRNA-vaccinated individuals in the adult medicine clinics of a public hospital with a large outpatient HIV clinic during May 2021, and then excluded individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. We next 1:1 matched 100 PLWH to 100 outpatient HIVnegative adult medicine patients receiving care for chronic medical conditions on days since completion of second vaccination (minimum 10), sex, age +/-5 years, and the type of mRNA vaccine received. We defined a non-response as reciprocal pseudovirus neutralizing titer< 10 and anti-RBD IgG< 10 relative fluorescent units, and compared non-response by HIV status using mixed models. Results. In each matched group there were 13 women;25 received the mRNA-1273 vaccine and 75 received the BNT162b2 vaccine;the median age was 59. The median time from second vaccination was 35 days (IQR: 20-63). Among PLWH, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 511 (IQR: 351-796) and 5 individuals had HIV RNA > 200. We found 2.4-fold greater odds of pseudovirus neutralizing antibody non-response among PLWH compared to people without HIV (95% CI=1.1-5.4). Although few individuals in each group did not mount an IgG response (12 among PLWH vs. 5;p=0.08), continuous anti-RBD IgG concentrations were 43% lower among PLWH (95% CI=0.36-0.88). Among PLWH, when adjusting for age, sex, and days post-vaccination, each 100-cell increase in CD4+T-cell count was associated with 22% higher neutralizing antibody titers (GMR 1.22;95% CI=1.09-1.37). Unsuppressed HIV RNA >200 was associated with 89% lower neutralizing antibody titers (GMR 0.11;95% CI=0.01-0.84). Receipt of the BNT162b2 vs. mRNA-1273 vaccine was associated with 77% lower neutralizing titers (GMR 0.23;95% CI=0.08-0.65) among PLWH. Post-mRNA Vaccination SARS-CoV-2 IgG Concentrations and Pseudovirus Neutralizing Titers by HIV Status and Vaccine Conclusion. PLWH had lower than expected response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, with the highest non-response among those with low CD4+ counts, unsuppressed HIV RNA, and those who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Immunization strategies to improve immune responses among PLWH should be studied, and may include booster vaccination or preference of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in this group.

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